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Full text of "Report"

Maryland Koort* 
^•ercity of Maryland Lii»rsr» 
CoUeec Part Md. 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 




DO ffOT mcmn 



i 

STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Sixty^Sixth Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1932 




LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF MARYUNft 



TWENTIETH CENTURY PRINTING COMPANY. 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



OF MAKY] 



STATE OF MAttYLAND 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

DR. HENRY M. FITZHUGH, President Westminster 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer. Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLENTZ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

TASKER G. LOWNDES Cumberland 

E. W. McMASTER Pocomoke City 

OFFICE OF THE STAJE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

2014 Lexington Building:, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK : State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

SAMUEL M. NORTH.... Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

W. K. KLINGAMAN (Hagerstown) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD...„ Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

J. D. BLACKWELL Director of Vocational Education 

ELISABETH AMERY '. Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL .'.Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON (3 E. 25th St.) 

Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

J. K. COSGROVE (3 E. 25th St.) Assistant Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

THOMAS L. GIBSON Supervisor of Music 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK (7 E. Mulberry St.) Director of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT, (517 N. Charles St.) Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS ,. Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

FRANCES BELL Stenographer 

ERNA OPITZ (3 E. 25th St.) Stenographer 

LOUISA STORATH SCHWING Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Senior Clerk 

MARGARET WOODWARD Junior Clerk 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

LIDA LEE TALL „ Maryland State Normal School Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Normal School - Frostburg 

WILLIAM J. HOLLOWAY Salisbury Normal School Salisbury 

LEONID AS S. JAMES Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students). ...Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

2004 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

JOHN M. DENNIS State Treasurer, Chairman and Treasurer 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MARGARET BARKLEY Secretary 

HELEN KIRKMAN _ Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1932-1933 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Winifred Greene, S. T. 
Anna B. Higgins, S. T. 
L. Grace Shatzer, S. T. 



ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 



BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony, H. T.i 
Emma H. Boettner, S. T.2 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.^ 
M. Annie Grace. S. T.^ 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T.^ 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor^ 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 



CAROLINE— Denton 

Edward M. Noble, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 



CARROLL — Westminster 
M. S. H. Unger, Supt. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 



CECIL— Elkton 

Howard T. Ruhl, Supt. 
Lula H. Crim, S. T. 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 



CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, S. T. 



DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, S. T. 



FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt. Supt. 
Hal Lee T. Ott, H. T. 
Angeline M. Sunday. S. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 
A. Drucilla Worthington, S. T, 



County Address 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne. S. T.* 
Gladys B. Hamill, S. T. 
Flossie R. Skidmore. S. T. 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright. Supt. 
Mary L. Grau S. T.^ 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
W. C. Phillips, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 



KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson. Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Hulda Brust, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson, S. T. 
Fern D.. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem. Supt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Catherine R. Green, H. T. 
Mary Kemp. S. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young, H. T. 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, H. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

T. G. Pullen, Jr., Supt. 
William R. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford, H. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy. S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 

W^ICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
M. Jewell Swain, S. T. 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy. S. T. 



^ Sparrows Point ^ 203 Burke Ave., Towson S. T. — Supervising Teacher 

2 200 W. Saratoga St., Baltimore « Grantsville H. T.— Helping Teacher 

' Havre de Grace 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budgets for 1933, 1934, and 1935 7 

The 1930 Federal Census of Maryland Families Having Radios, 
Owning Their Own Homes (Median Value of Owned Homes 

AND OF Rent Paid) , and Having 2 or More Children 13 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, With- 
drawals, Long Absence 19 

Grade Enrollment, Over-Ageness, Graduates, Non-Promotions 30 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City... 42 
Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Experience 47 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries, Men Teaching 57 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Consolidation... 65 

Supervision 83 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 86 

Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Failures, Withdrawals, 

Teachers „ 101 

Certification, Resignations, Turnover for Junior and Senior- Junior 
High Schools, and for Regular and Senior High Schools; Ex- 
perience, Sex of Teachers 115 

Number and Size of High Schools 127 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries 131 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, 

Health _ _ : 136 

Supervision ; : _ 147 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, With- 
drawals - 150 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 157 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore _ 163 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Experience, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 170 

Cost Per Pupil, Buildings, Rosenwald Fund, Value of School 

Property _ 182 

Size of School, Transportation, Libraries, P. T. A.'s, Physical 

Education _ 190 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds 195 

Bowie Normal School 198 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland _ 201 

Summer and Evening Schools, Vocational Rehabilitation 210 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil 215 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 226 

Transportation of Pupils 229 

Capital Outlay, Bond Issues, Value of School Property 234 

County Budgets, Assessments, and Tax Rates for 1932-33 240 

Parent- Teacher Associations — White Schools 247 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds — 

White Schools - - ► 249 

County School Administration 252 

Certification of Teachers and Changes in Rexjulations 255 

The Maryland State Normal Schools — Towson, Frostburg, 

Salisbury 258 

The State Teacher's Retirement S''stem 270 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables 274 

Index , 326 



May 15, 1933. 



Honorable Albert C. Ritchie, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

My dear Governor Ritchie: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws 
of Maryland, the sixty-sixth "annual report, covering all opera- 
tions of the State Department of Education and the support, 
condition, progress, and needs of education throughout the State" 
for the school year ending in June, 1932, and considerable data 
for the current school year 1932-33, is herewith presented to you. 

Much of the time of the administrative staff during 1932 and 
1933 has been spent in working out plans for reducing costs of 
the public schools without impairing the service rendered the 
children of the State. It has been necessary to call a halt on the 
development and expansion of the program which had gone for- 
ward steadily since the Equalization Fund was first available in 
the fall of 1922. Additional pupils, especially in the high schools, 
must be given instruction without increasing the teaching staff. 
Because there are few opportunities for work available, boys and 
girls in their teens, who under normal conditions would have been 
filling positions, have found w^ork at high school their most profit- 
able occupation. 

At the request of the county commissioners of the Eastern 
Shore, the Maryland Farm Bureau, and the Tax Survey Com- 
mission, various bases were set up to reduce county taxation for 
school current expenses by increasing the participation of the 
State in financing school programs. Plans for giving additional 
aid to every unit in the State were evolved, culminating in your 
provision of $1,500,000 in the budget for 1934 and again for 1935 
to be distributed to the counties on the basis of population ac- 
cording to the 1930 Federal census to be used solely to reduce 
county taxation for school current expense. With the reductions 
of teachers' salaries by from 10 to 15 per cent and the additional 
State aid, it will be possible beginning in the fall of 1933 to de- 
crease from 67 to 47 cents the minimum rate to be levied for 
school current expenses by a county sharing in the Equalization 
Fund. The school current expense tax rates in the non-equaliza- 
tion fund counties may be reduced from 15 to 25 cents. 

Reference to the Table of Contents on the preceding page will 
show the rather complete study w^hich is made of the measurable 
activities in our school program. At the beginning of the report 
is included a statement regarding the State Public School Budgets 
for 1933, 1934, and 1935. Some of the data from the 1930 Fed- 



5 



eral census on families show the per cent having radios, the per 
cent having large families, the per cent owning homes and the 
value of owned homes and the rental in those not owned. 

The percentage of trained and experienced teachers working 
under competent supervision continues to increase, making pos- 
sible more efficient instruction of the State's children ; in fact, we 
feel reasonably certain that in percentage of county teachers with 
standard training in all of our schools, rural and urban, white and 
colored, Maryland leads the country. This is accomplished 
through our program for teacher training in our normal schools, 
and by our State equalization program, which provides funds so 
that even our least wealthy communities may employ teachers 
with standard training as vacancies occur, without increasing 
local tax rates for school maintenance. 

Partly because of the greater holding power of the schools 
taught by well trained, well supervised teachers, partly due to 
additional provision for transportation to high school at public 
expense, and partly due to the economic depression and the lack 
of employment, more and more boys and girls are entering high 
school and successfully completing the high school course. Addi- 
tional provision for transportation of pupils to larger elementary 
schools continues to result in the abandonment of one-teacher 
schools, which are handicapped in many ways in giving children 
an adequate school training. 

The progress shown in this report was made possible by the 
enthusiastic cooperation received from all county teachers, 
clerks, attendance officers, supervisors, and superintendents, who 
have in most cases been given the whole-hearted moral and finan- 
cial support of their patrons, county boards of education, and 
county commissioners. The improvement would not have occurred 
without your splendid interest and that of the Legislature in 
the Maryland education program. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry M. Fitzhugh, President 
Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 
J. M. T. Finney 
Tasker G. Lowndes 
Edgar W. McMaster 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary Treasurer 
State Board of Education 



6 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGET 

The State public school budget appropriations, provided in 
Chapter 597 of the laws of 1933, total $4,142,609 for 1934 and 
$4,238,109 for 1935, compared with an appropriation of $5,722,- 
550 for 1933. These figures include the estimated receipts from 
normal school students' fees at $111,000 for 1934 and for 1935, 
which were $113,000 for 1933. The amounts required from 
the State are therefore $4,031,609 in 1934 and $4,127,109 in 1935, 
compared with $5,609,550 in 1933. 

TABLE 1 

The State Public School Budgets 1920-1935 



Year 

1920... 
1921... 
1922... 
1923... 
1924... 
1925... 
1926... 
1927... 
1928... 
1929... 
1930... 
1931... 
1932... 
1933... 
1934.._ 

1935... 



Taxable Basis for 

State Purposes 
Paying Full State 
Rate in Thousands 

$ 1,176,000 
1,365,000 
1,430,000 
1,452,169 
1,622,679 
1,741,322 
1,871,967 
1,993,278 
2,117,303 
2,386,468 
2,419,114 
2,406,213 
2,279,760 
t 2,200,000 
$ 2,200,000 

t 2,200,000 



state Public School 
Budget Excluding 
Normal School Fees 

and Deficits and 
Amounts Returned 
to Treasury 

$ 2,000,000 
2,776,755 
2,787,730 
* 3,477,000 
3,507,000 
3,629,745 
3,742,600 
3,826,681 
3,946,111 
4,027,219 
fa 4,665,484 
b 4,596^30 
c 5,288,969 
d 5,209,550 
(e 5,951,609 
]f 4,031,609 
e 6,007,109 
f 4,127,109 



Rate For 
Public Schools 
on Each $100 

X 

$ .170 
.203 
.195 
.239 
.216 
.208 
.200 
.192 
.185 
.169 
.193 
.191 
.223 
t .229 

($e .270 

Itf .183 

j$e .273 

Uf .188 



Average Number 
of Pupils 
Enrolled in 
Public SchooU 



234,914 
235,218 
239,392 
241,961 
246,113 
251,701 
254,196 
259;464 
267,409 
274,051 
t 281,779 
t 288,000 

t 296,000 



x Obtained by dividing budget by assessable basis taxable at the full rate for State 
purposes. 

° Figures not available. 

* Includes first appropriation for Equalization Fund. 

t Includes first full appropriation for Teachers' Retirement System. 

a Excludes $102,694 deficit in fund distributed on basis of census and attendance. 

b Excludes $271,317 deficit in fund distributed on basis of census and attendance. 

c Includes $102,694 to provide for 1930 deficit in fund distributed on basis of census and 
attendance, but excludes $75,379 returned to State Treasury. 

d Includes $150,000 to provide for 1931 deficit in fund distributed on basis of census and 
attendance, but excludes $400,000 estimated as amount vtrhich will be returned to State 
Treasury. 

e Includes $1,500,000 provided to reduce county tax rates for school current expense, and 
$420,000 from a bond issue in April, 1934, and $380,000 from a bond issue in April, 1935, to 
go to Maryland Teachers' Retirement System and Baltimore City Retirement System. 

f Excludes $1,500,000 provided to reduce county tax rates for school current expense and 
$420,000 from a bond issue in April, 1934, and $380,000 from a bond issue in April, 1935, to 
go to Maryland Teachers* Retirement System and Baltimore City Retirement System. 

I Estimated. 



7 



8 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



These totals include for 1934 and 1935 about $26,000 in salary 
contributions which will be returned to the State Treasury from 
part payment of salaries of school officials, the bureau of meas- 
urements, and vocational rehabilitation. 

The figures given, however, do not include $420,000 for 1934 
and $380,000 for 1935 which will be made available to the Mary- 
land Teachers' Retirement System and to the City of Baltimore 
from the proceeds of a bond issue, according to the provisions of 
Chapter 311 of the laws of 1933. (See Table 1.) 

The figures also do not include $1,500,000 shown for each of 
these years with the "Miscellaneous Appropriations, Item 31" 
for distribution "to county Boards of Education for the sole pur- 
pose of reducing the tax levies of the several counties for school 
purposes other than capital outlay and debt service on the basis 
of population in accordance with the 1930 Federal census." (See 
Chapter 597 of the laws of 1933.) Through this distribution of 
funds, together with the contributions of from 10 to 15 per cent 
of their salaries which teachers and school officials will make, as 
well as renunciation of all increases in salary due because of ad- 
ditional experience (see Chapter 224 of the laws of 1933), it will 
be possible for the counties to reduce from 67 cents to 47 cents 
the minimum tax rate which they must levy for school current 
expenses in order to share in the State Equalization Fund. (See 
Chapter 261 of the laws of 1933.) Through the additional funds 
distributed on a population basis, the Non-Equalization Fund 
counties will be able to reduce their school current expense levies 
by from 10 to 18 cents. (See Chapter 597 of the laws of 1933.) 
If a salary reduction of 10 per cent has been made or is to be 
made, the school current expense tax rate has been or may be 
lowered from 5 to 8 cents additional. The combined reduction 
possible through salary reduction and the use of funds dis- 
tributed on the population basis has reduced or will reduce the 
county school tax rate in Non-Equalization Fund counties by 
from 15 to 26 cents. (See ChaqHer 226 of the laws of 1933.) 

Baltimore City is also receiving $1,500,000 additional, but the 
major portion of this will be used to finance the State bond issue 
of $12,000,000 for unemployment relief. These funds for reduc- 
tion of county taxation for schools and the equal amount Balti- 
more City will use to finance the State bond issue for unemploy- 
ment relief are obtained by cutting the appropriations of all 
State departments and institutions and without imposing addi- 
tional taxes in the form of selected commodity taxes or a general 
sales tax. The only new tax is a one per cent tax on race track 
bets. The State tax rate is reduced from 25 to 22 cents. 



The State Public School Budgets for 1933, 1934, 1935 9 

Explanation of Reductions in Items of State School Budget 

The reductions in the items of the appropriations which make 
up the pubHc school budget are analyzed in Table 2. 

The reduction of $434,213 from 1933 to 1934 for the Retire- 
ment System will be financed by a bond issue of $420,000, to be 
made available in April, 1934. (See Chapter 311 of the laws of 
1933.) Amounts needed to pay current liabilities of the Retire- 
ment System will be provided from current expenses, while the 
amount which the State is setting aside to amortize accrued lia- 
bility will be financed from a bond issue. The State will carry 
the cost of the bonds and pay them as they mature each year 
under the serial annuity plan. (See Table 2.) 

The reduction of $53,929 in the amount for approved high 
schools in spite of the increasing high school enrollment is pos- 
sible only through the cooperation of the county superintendents 
in not filling vacancies which have occurred, thus caring for in- 
creased enrollment by having larger classes and more scheduled 
periods per teacher. (See Table 2.) 

The reduction of $2,250 for colored industrial schools is due 
to the fact that no allowance of $750 can be made toward the 
salary of a colored supervisor of colored schools, since the at- 
tendance officer in each of three counties, which formerly had 
colored supervisors, is also acting as supervisor of colored 
schools. 

The reduction of $7,000 in part payment of salaries is possible 
because a number of counties are not employing the full quota 
of supervisors to which they are entitled for the number of white 
elementary teachers employed. There will be a still further re- 
duction of $24,000, because of the 10 to 15 per cent reduction in 
the salary schedule for State school officials made for a two-year 
period by the 1933 legislature. Also if any county now employ- 
ing more than one supervisor should reduce the number, the 
State would save the two-thirds of the salary which it is at pres- 
ent contributing. (See Chapter' 224, laws of 1933, and Table 2.) 

The reduction of $16,000 for vocational education is made 
possible by withdrawing State vocational aid from the salaries 
of teachers of vocational education, by discontinuing appropria- 
tions for the survey of occupations in the State conducted in 
1931-32 by the State Employment Commissioner, and by reduc- 
ing the salaries of the State supervisors of agriculture, home 
economics, and industrial arts. (See Table 2.) 

The reduction of $212,393 in the appropriations to the four 
State normal schools will be partially offset by making charges 
for tuition and increasing the fee for dormitory students. The 



10 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 2 

The State Public School Budgets For 1933, 1934 and 1935 



Object of Expenditure 



Retirement System : 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers 

Expense Fund 

I From Public School Budget. 
( FVom Bond Issue 

From Budget and Bond Issue. 

Approved High Schools 

Colored Industrial Schools 

Part Payment Salaries 

Free Textbooks 

Materials of Instruction 

State Board of Education 

Vocational Education 

Physical Education 

Educational Measurements 

Publications and Printing 

Medical Examinations 

Extension Teaching 

State Department of Education.. 

Towson Normal School 

Frostburg Normal School 

Salisbury Normal School 

Bowie Normal School 

Consultant Architect 

Amount distributed on basis of 

Census and Attendance 

Equalization Fund 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

Physically Handicapped Children 
Deficit in fund on basis of 

Census and Attendance, 1931.. 
Miscellaneous Appropriations, 

Item 31, to reduce County 

School Taxes 

Total from Public School 

Budget 

Less Normal School Fees 

Public School Budget Required 

from State _ — 

From Bond Issue 

From Miscellaneous Appropri- 
ations, Item 31, to reduce 
County School Taxes 

Grand Total — Public School 
Budget, Miscellaneous Ap- 
propriations and Bond Issue 



Amount Appropriated 



$ 519,059 
497,303 
10,000 



$1,026,362 



$1,026,362 
581,512 
30,750 
190,000 
200,000 
50,000 
1,000 
25,000 
15,000 
12,000 
7,500 
3,500 
3,000 
76,650 
312,806 
89,065 
93,215 
54,680 
1,500 

1,800,000 
979,010 
10,000 
10,000 

150,000 



$5,722,550 
113,000 



$5,609,550 



1934 



Decrease of 
1934 Under 
1933 



1935 



^281,756 $ 
'300,393 j 
10,000 



*301,431 
*330,280 
10,000 



*592,149 i $ 
420,000 I 



^641,711 
380,000 



1,012,149 
527.583 
28,500 
tl83,000 
200,000 
50,000 
800 
9,000 
15,000 
10,000 
6,000 
2,000 

517668 
200,558 
46,008 
52,133 
38,674 
750 

1,800,000 
308,786 
10,000 
10,000 



1.500,000 



$*$t4.142,609 
111,000 



$*Jt4,031,609 
420,000 



1,500,000 



$5,609,550 



5,951,609 



1,021,711 
530,155 
28,500 
1185,000 
200,000 
50,000 
800 
9,000 
15,000 
10,000 
6,000 
2,000 

48^474 
200.558 
46,008 
52,133 
38,674 
750 

1,800,000 
353,346 
10,000 
10,000 



1,500,000 



$*it4.238.109 
111,000 



$*tt4.127,109 
380,000 



1,500,000 



5,007.109 



'237,303 
^196,910 



^434.2131 
=420,000j 



14.213 
53,929 
2,250 
7,000 



200 
16,000 

2,000 
1,500 
1,500 
3,000 
24,982 
112,248 
43,057 
41,082 
16.006 
750 



670.224 

150,000 
1,500,000 



S*ttl,579,941 
2,000 



$*ttl.577,941 
"420,000 



1,500.000 



'342.059 



" Increase. 

* Excludes receipts from bond issue for Retirement System. 

t Excludes $1,500,000 from new sources to reduce county taxes for school current expense, 
t Includes approximately $24,000 for following salary contributions of county school officials 
which will be retained in the State Treasury: 

Salaries from $1,200 to $1,799 — 11 per cent 

Salaries from $1,800 to $2,399 — 12 per cent 

Salaries from $2,400 to $2,999 — 13 per cent 

Salaries from $3,000 to $3,599 — 14 per cent 

Salaries of $3,600 and above — 16 per cent 



The State Public School Budgets for 1933, 1934, 1935 11 

1933 legislature has given the State Board of Education the 
authority to fix uniform tuition charges and fees at the normal 
schools for white students. (See Chapter 225 of the laws of 
1933.) Reductions in salary ranging between 10 and 15 per cent 
will be put into effect. It will be necessary to make staff reduc- 
tions and to reorganize and curtail many services rendered by 
the normal schools in order to keep expenditures within the ap- 
propriations available. (See Table 2.) 

The reduction in the Equalization Fund of $670,224 is possible 
partly because of the policies carried out by the county superin- 
tendents in not filling vacancies, in taking care of additional 
pupils through enlarging classes, in closing one- and two-teacher 
schools permitting a saving in expense, in lowering transporta- 
tion costs ; partly because of the 10 to 15 per cent reduction in 
salaries of school officials and teachers and the elimination of 
salary increases based on additional experience provided for by 
the legislature for the school years 1933-34 and 1934-35 ; partly 
because the State is considering only one-half the cost of high 
school transportation in determining the cost of the minimum 
program in which it participates ; and partly because of the ad- 
ditional $1,500,000 to be distributed to the counties on a popula- 
tion basis in accordance with the 1930 Federal census and to be 
used solely to reduce the county tax levy for school current ex- 
pense. The minimum tax rate which a county must levy for 
school current expenses in order to share in the Equalization 
Fund is 47 cents, a reduction of 20 cents under the rate that has 
been required from 1923 to 1933. (See Chapter 261, laws of 
1933.) (See Table 2.) 

The reduction of $24,982 in the appropriation to the State 
Department of Education, of $2,000 for educational measure- 
ments, of $1;500 for publications and printing, will necessarily 
mean some decrease in staff, less State-wide testing and fewer 
State bulletins. (See Table 2.) 

Because fewer appointments of teachers are being made and 
through a reduction in medical fees, the cost of medical exami- 
nations of teachers will be reduced $1,500. All State aid for ex- 
tension courses will be eliminated, thus saving $3,000. (See 
Table 2.) 

Since fewer buildings will be under construction, the amount 
paid the consultant architect will be reduced by $750. (See 
Table 2.) 

The amount estimated as necessary to meet the expected de- 
ficit in the 1931 fund distributed on the basis of census and 
attendance, $150,000, is, of course, not needed in the 1934 and 
1935 budgets. Since 1932, the budget has no longer made pro- 
vision for a State public school tax, but stipulates that the direct 



12 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



State tax shall be available for general governmental purposes. 
Because of this change, the State public school budget will lose 
no more than any other State department supported from gen- 
eral funds, should the collections from taxes prove to be lower 
than estimated when the budget was made. 

The school budgets in the counties will be decreased in the next 
two years by the reductions in salaries of teachers and school 
officials, by giving no increases in salary because of additional 
experience, by holding the number of positions to a minimum 
whenever vacancies occur, by reducing costs of transportation 
and by other economies. The counties will benefit financially by 
these reductions and also by the increase in State aid made avail- 
able by the distribution of $1,500,000 to the counties on a popu- 
lation basis. Item 31 of the miscellaneous appropriations in the 
budget* reads as follows : 

ITEM 31. To County Boards of Education for the sole purpose 
of reducing the tax levies of the several counties for school pur- 
poses other than capital outlay and debt service, in accordance with 
the following schedule, which is based on a population distribution 
in accordance with the 1930 Federal census. 





193 A 


1935 


Somerset 


$ 42,427.00 % 


42,427.00 


Calvert _ 


17,289.00 


17,289.00 


Charles _ -.. 


29,334.00 


29,334.00 


Garrett - 


36,125.00 


36,125.00 


Caroline _ _ 


31,549.00 


31,549.00 


St. Marv's 


27,561.00 


27,561.00 


Dorchester 


„ 48,654.00 


48,654.00 


Carroll 


• 65,285.00 


65,285.00 


Worcester _ 


39,238.00 


39,238.00 


Wicomico 


56,667.00 


56,667.00 


Kent - _ 


25,844.00 


25,844.00 


Queen Anne's _ 


26,440.00 


26,440.00 


Anne Arundel — .. 


100,103.00 


100,103.00 


Allegany 


143,527.00 


143,527.00 


Talbot - 


33,720.00 


33,720.00 


Prince George's 


109,043.00 


109,043.00 


Washington 


119,546.00 


119,546.00 


Frederick 


98,784.00 


98,784.00 


Howard .' _ 


29,340.00 


29,840.00 


Cecil _ 


46,864.00 


46,864.00 


Harford 


57,345.00 


57,345.00 


Montgomery 


89,286.00 


89,286.00 


Baltimore 


226,029.00 


226,029.00 



Total Appropriations from 

General Funds $1,500,000.00 $1,500,000.00 



Because of these appropriations the State will carry a larger 
proportion of the school current expenses in the Maryland coun- 
ties than ever before. 



* See Chapter 597 of the laws of 1933. 



1930 FEDERAL CENSUS DATA 
Families Reporting Radio Sets 

Through the publication of the number of families reporting 
radio sets, the 1930 federal census offers convincing evidence of 
the differences among the communities of the State for outside 
contacts. The per cent of families in the twenty-three counties 
having radio sets is 36.7, compared with 49 per cent in Balti- 
more City. Among the individual counties the range in per cent 
of families having radio sets is from less than 12 per cent to 
over 57 per cent. (See Chart 1.) 

CHART 1 



MARYLAND FAMILIES REPORTING RADIO SETS ACCORDING TO 1930 FEDERAL CFUSDS 



County 
County Average 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Charles 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Washington 

Howard 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Harford 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel 
Prince George's 
fiiontgomery 
Baltimore 

Baltimore City 
State 



Nmber 
70,184 

349 
265 
1,075 
666 
852 
1,193 
1,574 
1,090 
879 
989 
2,206 
1,487 
3,962 
4,932 
1,218 
2,981 
6,676 
2,744 
2,364 
4,768 
6,192 
6,081 
15,661 

94,965 
166,149 



Per Cent 




4L2 
45.5 
51.S 




13 



14 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Families Owning Their Own Homes 

Ownership of their own homes was reported by 58.1 per cent 
of the famihes in the counties in contrast with 50.3 per cent in 
Baltimore City. The counties varied in the per cent of families 
owning their own homes from 47.7 to 66.8 per cent. (See 
Chart 2.) 

CHART 2 



MARYLAND FAWILIF5 OWNING THEIR OWN HOilES ACCORDING TO 1930 FEDERAL CENSUS 



County- 
County Average 

Allegany 
Washington 
Queen Anne's 
Cecil 
Talbot 
Charles 
St. Wary's 
Kent 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Harford 

Caroline 

Howard 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Garrett 

Carroll 

Prince George's 
Baltimore 
Somerset 
liontgomery 

Baltimore City 
State 



Number 
111,023 

8,626 
7,849 
1,846 
3,093 
2,665 
1,757 
1,606 
1,999 
3,603 
1,146 
6,626 
3,140 
4,237 
2,596 
2,105 
7,487 
4,821 
2,555 
5,406 
8,750 
17,494 
3,849 
7,877 

97,540 
208,563 



Per Cent 



1930 Federal Census Data on Homes Owned 



15 



Median Value of Owned Non-Farm Homes 

The median value of owned non-farm homes in Maryland 
counties according to the 1930 federal census was $4,016 in the 
23 counties as against $4,778 in Baltimore City. Among the 
counties the variation in median value ran from $1,224 to $9,540. 
These data furnish facts showing the divergence in wealth 
among the counties. (See Chart 3.) 



CHART 3 



MEDIAN VALUE OF OTOED HON-FABiJ HOL'.ES IN liARYLAND 
ACCORDING TO 1930 FEDERAL CENSUS 



County 

County Average 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Howard 

Washington. 

Allegany 

Harford 

Anne Arundel 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Baltimore City 
State 



Nvunber 
79,237 

793 

501 
2,584 

673 
2,646 
1,520 
1,090 
1,942 
1,361 

991 
1,680 
3,241 
2,065 
5,001 
2,925 
1,085 
6,157 
7,784 
2,245 
5,154 
6,980 
14,655 
6,268 

97,465 
176,702 



16 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



More complete data on the value of owned non-farm homes 
are available in Table 3 which shows the per cent of owned non- 
farm homes having a value under $1,500 ; from $1,500 to $2,999 ; 
from $3,000 to $4,999; from $5,000 to $7,499; from $7,500 to 
$9,999; and of $10,000 and over. The per cent of owned non- 
farm homes for which the value was not reported was less than 
5 per cent, except in Calvert, Charles, and Garrett Counties. It 
will be noted that the financially poor counties show higher per- 
centages for the houses of lower value (Columns 2 and 3) and 
lower percentages for those having higher values (Columns 6 
and 7). (See Table S.) 

TABLE 3 

Value of Owned Non-Farm Homes in Maryland According to 1930 Federal Census 



Total Number Per Cent of Owned Non-Farm Homes Having Value Median 





Owned 






$1,500 


$3,000 


$5,000 


$7,500 


$10,000 


Not 


Value 


County 


Non-Farm 


Under 


to 


to 


to 


to 


and 


Re- 


Re- 


Homes 


$1,500 


$2,999 


$4,999 


$7,499 


$9,999 


Over 


ported 


ported 


Average County . 


. . 79,237 


18. 


6 


18.7 


22.9 


19.4 


6.5 


11.8 


2.1 


$4,016 


St. Mary's 


793 


56. 


2 


15.3 


8.6 


7.4 


1.8 


5.9 


4.8 


1,224 


Calvert 


501 


43 


,7 


15.4 


9.6 


5.8 


3.4 


3.2 


18.9 


1,305 




2,584 


51 


5 


26.2 


11.8 


6.6 


1.2 


1.4 


1.3 


1,438 


Charles 


573 


47 


,3 


19.4 


12.7 


8.4 


1.9 


2.3 


8.0 


1,460 


Dorchester 


2,646 


49 


6 


23.2 


13.6 


7.9 


2.1 


3.3 


.3 


1,514 


Kent 


1 , 520 


46 


.2 


25.2 


14.4 


8.2 


2.6 


1.8 


1.6 


1,659 


Queen Anne's 


1,090 


38, 


9 


29.8 


14.6 


10.3 


1.8 


3.1 


1.5 


1,884 


Talbot 


1,942 


38 


.0 


25.0 


17.4 


8.9 


3.4 


5.7 


1.6 


2,095 




1,361 


30 


1 


30.8 


24.6 


7.8 


1.6 


3.2 


1.9 


2,431 


Garrett 


991 


28. 


,8 


26.1 


17.6 


12.9 


3.1 


6.0 


5.5 


2,506 


Worcester 


1,680 


29 


.7 


26.7 


21.7 


11.5 


3.1 


5.0 


2.3 


2,568 


Wicomico 


3,241 


28, 


.3 


29.0 


19.5 


13.2 


2.8 


6.2 


1.0 


2,578 


Cecil 


2,063 


23 


.5 


25.8 


23.4 


15.4 


4.8 


6.5 


.6 


3,033 


Frederick 


5,001 


20 


.0 


23.0 


26.0 


17.0 


3.3 


7.4 


3.3 


3,413 


Carroll 


2,925 


15 


.3 


24.9 


30.5 


19.2 


3.5 


3.7 


2.9 


3,545 


Howard 


1,083 


16 


,7 


20.9 


25.5 


18.4 


5.3 


8.9 


4.3 


3,804 


Washington 


6,157 


17 


.2 


19.9 


24.1 


17.9 


6.4 


11.1 


3.4 


3,937 


Allegany 


7,784 


17 


.8 


19.2 


25.0 


20.6 


7.3 


9.4 


.7 


4,012 


Harford 


2,245 


13 


,3 


22.4 


24.5 


20.1 


6.7 


11.1 


1.9 


4,087 


Anne Arundel 


5,154 


11 


.3 


20.0 


28.6 


23.9 


5,6 


9.1 


1.5 


4,253 


Prince George's. . 


6,980 


9 


.9 


15.3 


26.1 


28.6 


9.7 


7.8 


2.6 


4,803 




14,655 


4 


.0 


10.9 


29.7 


29.7 


9.0 


15.6 


1.1 


5,413 


Montgomery , , 


6,268 


7 


.6 


6.4 


8.7 


14.6 


14.0 


46.1 


2.6 


9,540 


Baltimore City . . 


. . 97,465 


1 


4 


14.1 


37.5 


27.5 


7.1 


10.1 


2.3 


4,778 


State 


176,702 


9 


1 


16.2 


31.0 


23.9 


6.8 


10.8 


2.2 


4,525 



Facts of a like kind on the monthly rental paid for non-farm 
homes in Maryland according to the 1930 census set forth the 
per cent of rented non-farm homes having a monthly rental 
under $15, from $15 to $29, from $30 to $49, from $50 to $99, 
and $100 and over. The last column shows the median monthly 
rental reported as $17.34 in the counties and $28.68 in Balti- 
more City. In no county is the median rental as high as it is 
in Baltimore City. (See Table 4.) 



Value of Owned Homes and Rental of Non-Farm Homes 17 



TABLE 4 

Monthly Rental Paid for Non-Farm Homes in Maryland According to 
1930 Federal Census 



Rented Per Cent of Rented Non-Farm Homes Having Rental Median 



County 


Non-Farm 


Under 


$15 to 


$30 to 


$50 to 


$100 


Not 


Rental 


Homes 


$15 


$29 


$49 


$99 


and Over 


Reported 


Reported 




60,026 


43.4 


32.6 


15.6 


4.8 


.6 


3.0 


$17.34 


Calvert 


318 


77.0 


8.2 


.3 






14.5 




Garrett 


1,227 


83.0 


12.8 


2 2 


.5 




1.5 


* 


St Mary's 


684 


78.4 


11 .3 


2 3 


.7 


'i 


7.2 


* 


Somerset 


1,474 


79.9 


14.7 


2.3 


.2 


.1 


2.8 


* 


Queen Anne's 


897 


79.1 


13.8 


5.4 


.3 


.1 


1.3 


* 


Caroline 


1,129 


69.6 


22.7 


2.5 


.2 


2 


4 8 


* 


Kent 


1,070 


74 6 


16 8 


5.0 


.9 




2 7 


* 


Worcester 


1,379 


70.2 


21.9 


5.6 


.4 


' ^1 


1.8 


* 


Dorchester 


2 , 192 


69.7 


25.2 


4.0 


.3 




.8 




Talbot 


1,467 


66.8 


22.3 


7.4 


2.3 


' .1 


1.1 


* 


Charles 


664 


51.7 


31.8 


1.7 


1.6 


.6 


12.6 


11.16 




925 


59.3 


29.7 


5.8 


1.4 


.1 


3.7 


12.23 


Carroll 


2,093 


58.8 


30.4 


6.4 


1.2 


.1 


3.1 


12.73 




2,397 


53.4 


31.1 


11.5 


2.5 


.4 


1.1 


14.03 


Cecil 


2,179 


52.8 


30.9 


13.6 


1.2 




1.5 


14.22 


Frederick 


3,806 


45.3 


34.0 


12.6 


2.8 


.2 


5.1 


15.67 


Harford 


1,942 


43.3 


34.9 


11.9 


4.7 


1.9 


3.3 


17.01 


Anne Arundel 


3,710 


31.6 


31.7 


15.4 


11.7 


1.9 


7.7 


19.82 


Allegany 


9,050 


35.2 


37.8 


21.9 


4.3 


.3 


.5 


20.86 


Washington 


6,796 


28.5 


46.6 


19.1 


4.4 


.2 


1.2 


21.11 


Baltimore 


8,195 


25.6 


39.6 


23.2 


7.4 


1.0 


3.2 


23.38 


]\Iontgomerv 


2,999 


32.1 


22.7 


19.2 


18.3 


2.8 


4.9 


25.03 


Prince George's .... 


3,433 


24.2 


34.3 


30.5 


5.4 


.3 


5.3 


25.08 




91,897 


11.5 


40.5 


31.2 


10.4 


2.5 


3.9 


28.68 


State 


151.923 


24.1 


37.4 


25.0 


8.2 


1.7 


3.6 


24.84 



*L'nder $10 per month. 

Size of Families 

The variation among the units of the State in the relationship 
between children and adults may be exhibited by reporting the 
per cent of families having young children. In the counties as 
a group 24 per cent of the families enumerated had two or more 
children under ten years of age, while the corresponding figure 
for Baltimore City was only 18.7 per cent. Only one county re- 
ported a smaller percentage than Baltimore City of families with 
two or more children under ten. The county with the highest 
per cent had 35.4 per cent of its families with two or more chil- 
dren under ten. This is nearly double the percentage for the 
county having the smallest percentage of families with two or 
more children under ten — 17.8. (See Chart 4.) 



18 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 4 



MARYLAND FAMILIES HAVING TWO OR MORE CHILDREN UNDER TEN TEARS OF AGE 
ACCORDING TO 1950 FEDERAL CENSUS 



County 
County Average 

St. Mary's 
Charles 
Garrett 
Calvert 

Prince C-eorge's 

Allegany 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Cecil 

rrashington 

Harford 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Baltimore City 
State 



Per Cent 




36,227 
82,046 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT GROWS 

The enrollment in county white elementary schools was higher 
by 1,964 in 1932 than in 1931. The counties with the largest 
white elementary enrollment at the left of Table 5, except Wash- 
ington and Wicomico, showed gains in pupils from 1931 to 1932. 
About one-half of the counties with the smallest enrollments at 
the right of Table 5 showed increases in pupils from 1931 to 
1932, while the remainder had fewer pupils in 1932. Baltimore 
City shows a slight decrease in white elementary school enroll- 
ment. (See Table 5.) 



TABLE 5 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, Excluding Duplicates 
For Years Ending July 31, 1932, 1931, and 1923 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1932 



1931 



1923 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1932 



1931 



1923 



Total Counties. 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington . . . . 
Prince George's 

Frederick 

Montgomery. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Cecil 



^111,370 

17,753 
12,610 
11,323 
8,068 



857 
163 
868 
240 
427 
217 
785 



3,445 



109,406 

17,211 
12,438 
11,342 
7,893 
7,789 
6,776 
6,554 
5,205 
4,307 
4,128 
3,813 
3,323 



■106,069 

13,333 
11,107 
10,859 
6,421 
8,505 
4,524 
4,947 
5,902 
4,290 
5,373 
3,986 
3,405 



Dorchester 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's . . . . 

Charles 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Baltimore City . . . 

State 



3,175 
2.393 
2,391 
2,279 
2.032 
1,951 
1,645 
1,536 
1,482 
1,043 
907 



3.099 
2.439 
2.425 
2.352 
2.071 
1.909 
1,713 
1.473 
1.559 
1.070 
855 



3,432 
2,984 
3,059 
3,025 
,241 
105 
101 
,803 
,748 
117 
,060 



t*78.069jt*78.202 
t*189.439i *187.608 



t*79.124 
t*185,193 



* Total excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment in 
vocational schools. For enrollment in counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 279. 



It will be noted that the white elementary enrollment in the 
counties, — 111,370, exceeds that in Baltimore City — 78,069, 
which includes kindergartens and an estimate of the enrollment 
in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools. Part of the difference 
in public elementary school enrollment is explained by the 
parochial and private school enrollment which is over 21,000 
more in the City than it is in the counties. Part of the remain- 
ing difference is probably due to the excess of county over city 
population, and to the larger number of children per family in 
the counties than in the city. (For enrollment in parochial and 
private schools, see Tables III to V, pages 280 to 283, and for per 
cent of families having two or more children under ten years of 
age, see Chart 4.) 



19 



20 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



1932 White Elementary Enrollment 
Type of School Ck>unties Batimore City 

Public 111,370 78,069 

Catholic 9,309 29,957 

Private 1,337 1,817 



Total 122,016 109,843 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

The opening date of white schools in the different counties in 
September, 1931, spread over the period from September 1 to 
September 10. At the close of the year the end of the session 
covered a longer time — from May 27 to June 24. In consequence 
the number of days in session varied among the counties from 
181 to 195, a difference totalling three weeks of school. (See 
Table 6.) 

TABLE 6 

Length of Session in White Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



School Year, 
1931-32 



COUNTY 



Xo. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



COUNTY 



Average Days 
Session 





White 


White 


Elemen- 


High 


tary 


Schools 


Schools 


188.0 


187.9 


195.0 


194.8 


192.7 


192.7 


189.2 


190.1 


190.0 


189.9 


189.8 


189.5 


187.6 


187.8 


189.9 


187.5 


187.0 


186.9 


188.0 


186.4 


186.7 


186.2 


185.8 


185.5 


185.1 


185.5 


185.2 


185.4 


186.1 


184.9 


185.2 


184.4 


185.5 


184.4 


183.2 


184.2 


184.1 


184.0 


184.0 


184.0 


182.1 


183.5 


181.8 


183.4 


182.3 


182.7 


181.9 


181.1 


188.6 


190.0 


188.2 


188.8 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City 



9/3 

9/8 

9/9 

9/1 

9/8 

9/7 

9/2 

9/8 

9/7 

9/1 

9/8 

9/8 

9/8 

9/9 

9/9 

9/10 

9/8 

9/8 

9/1 

9/9 

9/1 

9/1 

9/1 

9/8 



6/17 
6/17 
6/24 
6/10 
6/7 
6/10 
6/10 
6/10 
6/10 
6/10 
6/17 
6/17 
6/17 
6/17 
6/10 
6/17 
6/10 
*6/10 
5/27 
6/10 
6/10 
5/31 
6/3 

6/17 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Harford 

Kent 

Howard 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Garrett 

Washington. . . . 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Prince George's . 

Dorchester 

Montgomery. . . 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Charles 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Baltimore City. 

State Average . . 



* High schools, 6 8, 6/9. 

For length of session for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, page 286. 

The law requires the white schools to be in session at least 180 
days. There were only nine schools in 1932 which were open 
fewer than 180 days. A comparison of this number with the cor- 



Length of Session ; Per Cent of Attendance 21 

responding figures for preceding years since 1926 shows a rapid 
decline in the number. Seven counties had schools which opened 
late, closed early, or were closed during the school year. In only 
two counties was more than one school affected. (See Table 7.) 

TABLE 7 

Number of County White Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 Days, 
Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Number of County Schools Open Fewer Than 180 Days 





For All Counties by Year 




For 1932 by County 










Having 










Ha\'ing 


More 








Total 


One 


Than One 


County 


Number 


Year 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 






1932 


9 


8 


1 


Anne Arundel 


... tl 


1931 


12 


7 

22 
45 
25 
68 
109 


5 
6 
17 
8 
15 
15 


Calvert 




1930 


28 


Garrett 




1929 


62 


Montgomerv 




1928 


33 






1927 


83 


Carroll 


2 


1926 . 


124 




. . . 2 



* School opened late. 

tThe only school having more than one teacher which was open fewer then 180 days. 

OVER 90% ATTENDANCE IN ALL TYPES OF WHITE SCHOOLS 

For the first time the per cent of the average number belong- 
ing in average attendance exceeded 90 in every type of county 
white elementary school. The difference between the per cent 
of attendance in county white one-teacher and graded schools 
was less than 2 per cent, lower than for any year preceding. The 
improvement in attendance is marked, especially when attend- 
ance in the one- and two-teacher schools in 1932 is compared 
with 1923. (See Table 8.) 

TABLE 8 

Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White Elementary Schools, for School 
Year Ending in June, 1932, 1931, 1929, 1927, 1925, 1923 



1932 
Decrease 

Type of School 1932 1931 1929 1927 1925 1923 Underl931 

White Elementary 91.4 91.6 88.8 88.7 87.2 84.2 .2 

One Teacher 90.1 89.9 85.7 85.0 83.1 79.4 *.2 

Two Teacher 91.0 91.4 87.5 87.4 85.8 82.2 .4 

Graded 91.7 92.0 89.8 90.2 89.4 87.3 .3 



*Increa9e 

Similar data for the individual counties are given for the white 
elementary schools in Table 9 and for the one-teacher, two- 
teacher and graded schools in Table 10. The improvement in 



22 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



every county from 1923 to 1932 is very striking. (See Tables 
9 and 10.) 

TABLE 9 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 
June 1932, 1931, 1929, and 1923 



County 


°1932 


1931 


1929 


ia23 


County 


°1932 


1931 


1929 


1923 


County Average . . 


. 91 


.4 


91.6 


88.8 


84. 


2 


Dorchester 


91 


.4 


91 


.4 


88 


.3 


81.2 














Washington 


*91 


3 


91. 


5 


88 


.7 


84.9 


Prince George's. . . 


.t93 


.0 


92.9 


91.0 


84, 


,9 




*91 


.1 


*91 


.7 


*88 


.2 


81.9 


Kent 


92 


.8 


90.7 


88.6 


86, 


.7 
















Caroline 


92. 


5 


93.2 


90.0 


86. 


5 


Queen Anne'e . . . 


.91 


.0 


89 


,8 


87 


.6 


85.4 


St. Mary's 


92 


5 


90.2 


86.4 


74, 


5 


Charles 


90 


.6 


88 


3 


83 


.8 


79.5 


Garrett 


92 


.4 


92.5 


86.6 


83. 


,9 


Baltimore 


t90 


.6 


91 


.0 


88 


.7 


84.0 
















Howard 


90 


4 


90. 


8 


89 


.6 


84.0 


Allegany 


*92. 


.3 


*94.0 


*91.0 


89. 







90 


.3 


89 


.9 


87 


.8 


84.5 


Talbot 


92 


.1 


92.5 


89.4 


85 


.8 


















Somerset 


92 


.0 


91.6 


88.2 


83 


.3 


Carroll 


89 


.8 


90 


.6 


86 


.4 


79.4 




91 


.8 


90.9 


89.7 


84. 


5 


Worcester 


89 


.5 


89 


.5 


88 


.0 


83.5 


Wicomico 


91 


.8 


91.5 


89.8 


86, 


5 


Calvert 


88 


.0 


89 


.5 


84 


.8 


79.9 


Frederick 


..t91 


.7 


92.5 


88.7 


83 


,6 


Baltimore City. 


. . 91 


.2 


91 


.4 


90 


.5 


89.8 


Cecil 


91 


.4 


90.7 


86.7 


84 


.8 






























Entire State 


91 


.3 


91 


.6 


89 


.5 


86.7 



* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. 
tincludes Junior High School, Grade 7. 

° For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 285. 

TABLE 10 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1932, 1931, and 1924, 
By Types of White Elementary Schools 



Schools Having One Teacher Schools Having Two Teachers Graded Schools 

County tl932 1931 1924 County tl932 1931 1924 County tl932 1931 1924 



County Aver . . 


.90. 


1 


89. 


9 


80. 


,9 


County Aver. . 


.91. 





91, 


4 


83. 


9 


County Aver. . 


.*91. 


7*92. 





88 3 


Talbot 


92 


.9 


92 


.4 


87 


.2 


Somerset 


93 


.8 


93 


.4 


83 


.3 


St. Mary's . 


93 


.3 89 


.2 




Kent 


92 


.0 


89 


.8 


84 


.8 


Talbot 


93 


.8 


92 


.9 


86 


.7 


Prince George's 193 


.2J93 


.2 


89^0 


Garrett 


91. 


.8 


91 


.7 


81 


.2 


Kent 


93 


.7 


90 


.9 


85 


.8 


Kent 


92 


.9 91 


.3 


88.3 
89.9 


Somerset 


91 


.8 


91 


.2 


81 


.7 


Cecil 


93 




92 


.5 


86 


.5 


Garrett 


92 


.9 93 


.4 


St. Mary's 


91 


.6 


88 


.4 


79 


.3 


Prince George's 92 


.9 


92 


.7 


85 


.8 


Caroline 


92 


.8 93 


.3 


89.9 


Frederick 


91 


.4 


92 


.5 


79 


.6 


St. Mary's . . . . 


92 


.9 


92 


.2 


81 


.4 


Allegany 


*92 


.5*94 


.2 


92.4 


Cecil 


91. 


1 


90 


.0 


81 


.7 


Garrett 


92 


.8 


93. 





87, 


.7 


Washington . . . 


.*92 


.2 92 


.4 


88.8 


Prince George's 90 


.9 


90 


.2 


83 


.3 


Allegany 


92 


.7 


94 


.0 


88 


.9 


Wicomico 


92 


.1 91 


.4 


89.3 




90 


9 


88 


.9 


77 


.3 


Anne Arundel . 


.92 


.5 


91 


.9 


81 


.9 


Dorchester 


92 


.0 92 


.3 


89.5 


Wicomico 


90. 


6 


91 


.4 


83 


.9 


Caroline 


92 


.3 


92 


9 


87 


.9 




.t91 


.9 92 


.6 


86.4 


Caroline 


90 


4 


91 


.9 


88 


.3 


Wicomico 


92 


.2 


93 


.2 


86 


.3 


Talbot 


91 


.9 92 


.6 


88.5 


Anne Arundel. 


.90. 


4 


89. 





77. 


6 


Queen Anne's . 


.91 


1 


91. 





86. 


5 


Anne Arundel. 


. 91 


.8 90 


.8 


87.9 


Baltimore 


90. 


2 


90 


.0 


82 


.3 


Calvert 


91 


.0 


90 


.8 


81 


.7 


Somerset 


91 


.8 91 


.3 


86.7 


Dorchester 


89 


.9 


89 


.4 


81 


.3 


Dorchester, , . 


90 


.7 


90 


.1 


86 


.7 


Queen Anne's. 


. 91 


.7 90 


.3 


88.3 




89. 


6 


88 


.6 


82 


5 


Frederick 


90 


.3 


91 


,7 


80 


.3 


Montgomery. . 


.*91 


.4*91 


.7 


86.3 


Montgomery. . 


.89. 


4 


90 


.3 


78 


1 


Carroll 


90 


.3 


90. 


5 


81. 


4 


Howard 


91 


.1 92 


.0 


85.8 


Harford 


89. 


1 


89 


.4 


82 


,7 


Montgomery. . 


.90 


.0 


92 





80 


.5 


Cecil 


91 


.0 90 


.4 


87.3 


Queen Anne's . 


.89 





87 


.8 


82 


.9 


Howard 


90 


.0 


90 


5 


81 


.9 


Charles 


90 


.8 88 


.5 


88.4 


Calvert 


88 


.9 


89 


.8 


77 


.2 


Harford 


.89 


.6 


90 


.3 


85 


.6 


Baltimore .... 


190 


.8 91 


2 


86.2 


Allegany 


88. 


5 


90 


.7 


82 


.9 


Baltimore 


89 


.4 


89 


.2 


82 


.5 


Harford 


90 


.7 89 


:9 


88.9 


Worcester. . . . 


88. 


1 


86 


.3 


77 


.0 


Charles 


89 


1 


87, 


1 


84 


3 


Carroll 


90 


.2 91 


.1 


84.3 


Carroll 


87, 


9 


89 


.3 


78 


.2 


Washington. . . 


.88 


.4 


89 


.2 


80 


.6 


Worcester. . . . 


90 


.1 90 


5 


89.3 


Washington. . . 


.87. 


5 


87 


.7 


80 


1 


Worcester 


85 


1 


89 


6 


82 


6 


Calvert 


84 


.9 86 


.9 





* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. 
X Includes Junior High School, Grade 7. 

t For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VH. page 285. 



Per Cent of Attendance by Counties; by Months 23 
TABLE 11 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Schools by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1932 





AVERAGE NUMBER 






PER CENT OF 








BELONGING 








ATTENDANCE 






Al<Ji\ 1 ±1 


























All 


One- 


Two- 


Graded 


All 




One- 


Two- 


Graded 




Elementary 


Teacher 


Teacher 






Elementary 


Teacher 


Teacher 






September 


103,774 


12,277 


11,837 


79 


660 


95.9 




94.1 


95.2 


96 


2 


October 


106,448 


12,764 


12,237 


81 


447 


93.6 




92.0 


93.3 


93 


9 


November 


106,790 


12,890 


12,084 


81 


816 


92.3 




91.7 


92.6 


92 


4 


December 


106,711 


12,834 


12,021 


81 


856 


90.5 




90.0 


90.2 


90 


6 


January 


106,690 


12,730 


12,091 


81 


869 


91.4 




90.3 


91.4 


91 


6 




106,534 


12,735 


12,048 


81 


751 


90.4 




89.5 


90.7 


90 


6 




106,088 


12,637 


11,941 


81 


510 


84.1 




81.4 


82.7 


84 


7 


April 


105,594 


12,490 


11,922 


81 


182 


91.0 




89.0 


90.3 


91 


4 


May 


104,992 


12,400 


11,847 


80 


745 


91.9 




90.3 


91.1 


92 


2 


June 


*88,188 


*10,053 


*10,095 


*68 


040 


95.1 




94.0 


94.7 


96 


4 


Average for Year 


106,081 


12,581 


11.804 


81 


696 


91.4 




90.1 


91.0 


91 


7 



* In three counties the schools close on May 31st and no pupils are enrolled in June. 



TABLE 12 



County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days, for School Years 
Ending in June from 1924 to 1932 





PRESENT UNDER 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


YEAR 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 



NUMBER 



1932 


5,707 


874 


684 


4,149 


13 , 180 


2,126 


1,613 


9,441 


1931 


5,825 


1,155 


717 


3,953 


13,631 


2,733 


1,717 


9,181 


1930 


6,888 


1,566 


996 


4,326 


15,871 


3,883 


2,329 


9,659 


1929 


8,692 


2,512 


1,337 


4,843 


19,985 


5,539 


3,121 


11,325 


1928 


8,479 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


18,712 


5,989 


2,656 


10,067 


1927 


10,382 


3,701 


1,572 


5,109 


22,513 


7,749 


3,579 


11,185 


1926 


11,533 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


25,327 


9,359 


4,196 


11,772 


1925 


12,343 


5,179 


2,180 


4,984 


26,497 


10,502 


4,776 


11,219 


1924 


15,110 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


30,913 


12,684 


5,704 


12 , 525 


PER CENT 


1932 


5.3 


6.8 


5.7 


5.0 


12.3 


16.6 


13.4 


11.4 


1931 


5.5 


7.7 


5.8 


5.0 


12.9 


18.3 


13.8 


11.7 


1930 


6.6 


9.3 


7.4 


5.8 


15.2 


23.2 


17.2 


13.1 


1929 


8.4 


13.3 


9.6 


6.8 


19.3 


29.4 


22.5 


16.0 


1928 


8.2 


13.3 


8.7 


6.6 


18.2 


28.3 


19.7 


14.7 


1927 


10.1 


16.1 


10.9 


7.8 


21.9 


33.7 


24.8 


17.1 


1926 


11.3 


17.8 


11.9 


8.6 


24,9 


38.1 


26.9 


19.1 


1925 


12.2 


19.6 


13.2 


8.5 


26.1 


39.7 


29.0 


19.2 


1924 


15.0 


23.4 


15.6' 


10.7 


30.7 


45.4 


33.5 


22.5 



24 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Monthly Attendance 

The monthly enrollment in county white elementary schools 
reached its peak in November and thereafter decreased each 
month until the close of the year. The per cent of attendance 
was highest in September and June and lowest in March. (See 
Table 11.) 

Fewer Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days 

There were 5.3 per cent of the white elementary pupils present 
fewer than 100 days, a slight decrease under 5.5 per cent for 
1931. Since 1924 the schools have shown a remarkable improve- 
ment in reducing the number and per cent of pupils present fewer 
than 100 and 140 days, and this is particularly the case with the 
one- and two-teacher schools. (See Table 12.) 

Similar data are furnished for individual counties for the year 
1932 in Table 13. 



TABLE 13 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days for 
School Year Ending July 31, 1932 



PER CENT OF PUPILS ATTENDING 





All Elementary 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 




Graded 


COUNTY 




Schools 






Schools 






Schools 






Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Total Number . 


5,707 


13 , 180 


874 


2,126 


684 


1,613 


4,149 


9,441 


County Aver . . 


5 


3 


12 


3 


6 


8 


16 


6 


5 


7 


13 


4 


5 


.0 


11.4 


Kent 


2 


5 


7 


4 


2 


4 


7 


3 


2 


3 


8 


6 


2 


6 


7.1 


Prince George's 


2 


5 


8 


1 


2 


6 


11 


7 


2 


7 


8 





2 


4 


7.8 


Caroline 


3 


4 


8 


9 


5 


1 


11 


2 


3 





8 


9 


3 


3 


8.6 


Garrett 


2 


2 


9 


1 


2 


1 


10 


8 




4 


4 


6 


2 


9 


8.4 


Allegany 


4 


5 


9 


1 


7 


3 


14 


8 


1 


8 


5 





4 


5 


9.2 


Frederick 


3 


1 


10 


8 


4 


6 


10 


7 


4 


3 


14 


8 


2 


8 


10.3 


Baltimore 


5 


4 


11 


2 


7 


3 


14 





5 


9 


12 


3 


5 


2 


10.9 


Harford 


5 


1 


12 





8 





16 


6 


8 


5 


17 


5 


3 


4 


9.4 


Queen Anne's. . 


3 


8 


12 


2 


8 


5 


19 


9 


4 


2 


12 


2 


1 


9 


9.5 


Dorchester. . . . 


4 


9 


12 


2 


4 


8 


14 


2 


3 


4 


14 


1 


5 


2 


11.3 


Somerset 


5 


7 


13 





6 





13 


5 


5 


6 


13 


5 


5 


6 


12.7 


Worcester 


5 


2 


13 


6 


8 


2 


19 


2 


3 


9 


21 


1 


4 


7 


11.9 


St. Marv's .... 


4 


7 


13 


8 


4 


7 


15 


7 


5 


4 


11 


7 


3 





15.0 


Talbot 


5 


5 


13 


8 


3 


4 


13 




6 


8 


11 


4 


5 


8 


14.0 


Washington. . . 


7 





14 


3 


13 





26 


4 


11 


6 


22 


2 


5 


6 


11.5 


Cecil 


6 


6 


14 


5 


8 


8 


18 


8 


3 


9 


9 





6 


4 


14.3 


Wicomico 


6 


8 


14 


5 


5 


5 


14 


9 


6 


6 


17 


1 


7 


2 


14.1 


Charles 


5 


9 


14 


6 


5 


6 


16 


7 


5 





18 




6 





14.1 


Carroll 


5 





14 


7 


6 


4 


19 


9 


5 


8 


14 


8 


4 


6 


13.5 


Anne Arundel . 


7 


2 


14 


9 


7 


1 


13 


1 


7 


9 


15 





7 


1 


14.9 


Howard 


7 





16 


1 


10 


6 


23 


1 


3 


4 


12 


5 


6 


1 


13.4 


Montgomery. . 


9 


2 


16 


9 


14 


5 


24 


5 


11 





21 


3 


8 


5 


15.6 


Calvert 


8 


7 


24 





8 


8 


25 


8 


8 


9 


16 


3 


8 


5 


29.2 



Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days; Late Entrants 25 

LATE ENTRANTS TO WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
TABLE 14 



Causes of Late Entrance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 

June, 1924-1932 





ENTERING AFTER 
FIRST MONTH. EX- 
CLUSIVE OF TRANS- 
FERS 


PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS 
ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE FIRST 
MONTH BECAUSE OF 


year 


Number 


Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Just 
Mo\-ing 
to Place 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


! let?! 
1 Causes 



White Elementary Schools 



1932 


2,832 


2.4 


*.4 




6 




6 


t.2 


.5 




1931 


3,020 


2.6 


.8 




7 




5 


.1 






1930 


4,240 


3.6 


1.2 




9 




6 


.2 


1 




1929 


6,227 


5.4 


1.6 


1 





1 





.4 




;? 


1928 


5,534 


4.8 


1.7 


1 


1 




8 


.4 


.5 


.3 


1927 


7,330 


6.4 


2.2 


1 


4 


1 


1 


.5 


.7 


. 5 


1926 , 


8,646 


7.6 


2.7 


1 


6 


1 


3 


.8 




. 5 


1925 


9,297 


8.2 


2.8 


2 


1 


1 


6 


.8 


il 


i 


1924 


11,792 


10.4 


3.5 


2 


5 


1 


8 


1.4 







Oxe-Teacher Schools 



1932 


586 


4.0 


*1.1 


.9 




7 


t.5 


.6 


o 


1931 


805 


4.7 


1.9 


1.1 




8 


.2 


.5 


.2 


1930 


1.334 


6.9 


3.2 


1.4 




7 


.6 


.7 


.3 


1929 


2.160 


9.9 


4.3 


1.5 


1 


1 


.8 


.9 


1.3 


1928 


2.178 


8.9 


4.2 


1.7 




9 


.9 


.6 


.6 


1927 


3,058 


11.6 


5.0 


2.3 


1 


2 


1.3 


.9 


.9 


1926 


3,854 


13.7 


6.2 


2.5 


1 


5 


1.9 


.9 


.7 


1925 


4,349 


14.3 


6.1 


3.1 


1 


9 


2.0 


.9 


.3 


1924 


5,644 


17.5 


7.4 


3.5 


1 


9 


3.0 


1.4 


.3 


Two-Teacher Schools 


1932 


373 


2.8 


*.5 


.6 




7 


t.4 


.4 


2 


1931 


454 


3.3 


1.1 


.8 




6 


.3 


.3 


.2 


1930 


710 


4.7 


1.8 


1.1 




8 


.3 


.4 


.3 


1929 


926 


6.0 


2.1 


1.1 


1 





.4 


.7 


.7 


1928 


896 


6.0 


2.1 


1.6 




9 


.4 


.5 


.5 


1927 


1,228 


7.6 


3.1 


1.6 




9 


.6 


.7 


.7 


1926 


1,494 


8.6 


3.5 


1.6 


1 


2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1925 


1,725 


9.4 


3.2 


2.6 


1 


7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1924 


2,183 


11.5 


3.9 


2.6 


1 


8 


1.6 


1.1 


.5 



Graded Schools 



1932 


1,873 


2.1 




.3 




6 




6 


t.l 


.4 


.1 


1931 


1,761 


2.0 




.5 




6 




4 


.1 


.3 




1930 


2,196 


2.7 




7 




7 




5 


.2 


.4 


:l 


1929 


3,141 


4.0 




8 




9 




9 


.2 


.6 


.6 


1928 


2,460 


3.2 




8 




8 




8 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1927 


3,044 


4.2 


1 





1 





1 


1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1926 


3,298 


4.8 


1 





1 


4 


1 


2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1925 


3,223 


5.0 


1 





1 


6 


1 


4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1924 


3,965 


6.4 


1 


4 


1 


8 


1 


7 


.5 


.8 


.2 



* Fourteen years or more, employed, 
t Under 14 years, illegally employed. 



26 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



The number and per cent of pupils entering white public ele- 
mentary schools after the first month, exclusive of transfers, 
were lower than corresponding figures for the year preceding. 
This was the case for one- and two-teacher schools, but not for 
the gi'aded schools. The two-teacher and graded schools showed 
a slight increase in late entrants due to families just moving in 
and due to illness or quarantine. The one- and two-teacher 
schools showed an increase in the per cent of pupils under four- 
teen years old who were kept from entering school on time be- 
cause of employment. (See Table 14.) 

Figures for individual counties on late entrance because chil- 
dren 14 years old or under 14 years were employed or because of 
negligence or indifference are given in Table 15. 



TABLE 15 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or Neglect, 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 



Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Follo\\-ing Reasone: 



COUXTY 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence 
or Indif- 
ference 


L nder 
14 Years 
niegaUy 
Employed 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
14 Years, 
Ulegally 
Employed 


County Aver. . . 


1,456 


1.2 


.4 


.6 


.2 








Prince George's. 


38 


.4 


.1 


.3 




1 


4 


4 


Cecil 


23 


.6 


.2 


.4 




6 


7 


1 


Baltimore 


119 


.6 


.1 


.5 
.6 




3 


9 


5 


^Montgomery . . . 


66 


.9 


.2 


.1 , 


4 


10 


10 


Alleganv 


125 


.9 


.1 

.6 


.8 




2 


19 


3 


Wicomico 


41 


1.0 


.4 




14 


8 


2 


Kent 


16 


1.0 


.8 


.1 


.1 


20 


1 


6 


Dorchester. . . . 


34 


1.0 


.5 


2 


.3 


12 


3 


11 


Garrett 


48 


1.1 


.8 


.2 


.1 


19 


2 


7 


Frederick 


90 


1.1 


.6 


.4 


.1 


15 


5 


9 


Worcester 


31 


12 


.2 


.7 


.3 


5 


16 


14 


Anne .Arundel 


94 


1.3 


.2 


.7 


.4 


7 


11 


16 


Harford 


74 


1.6 


.5 


.7 


.4 


9 


14 


17 


Carroll 


90 


1.6 


.6 




.3 


16 


18 


12 


Talbot 


35 


17 


.9 


.7 


.1 


21 


12 


8 


Somerset 


43 


1.8 


.5 


.7 


.6 


11 


15 


20 


Caroline 


44 


19 


1.1 


.4 


.4 


22 


6 


15 




43 


2.0 


.5 


1.2 


.3 


8 


22 


13 


Washington. . . . 


257 


2.1 


.7 


.9 


.5 


17 


20 


19 


Charles 


37 


2.4 




1.0 


.9 


10 


21 


21 


St. Marv's 


26 


2.4 


8 


.7 


.9 


18 


17 


22 


Queen Anne's . . 


52 


3 


1.2 




1.1 


23 


13 


23 


Calvert 


30 


3 3 


.6 


2 3 


.4 


13 


23 


18 











Late Entrants and Withdrawals 27 
WITHDRAWALS FOR PREVENTABLE CAUSES FEWER 
TABLE 16 



Causes of Withdrawal from County White Elementary Schools, for School Year 

Ending in June, 1932 



Causes of Withdrawal 


Number Lea\-ing 


Per Cent Lea^■ing 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary- 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Removal, Transfer, 
Death, Commitment 
to Institutions 

Total Other Causes . . . 

Employment 

Mental and Physical 

Incapacity 

Under 7 or Oyer 16 . . . 

Poverty 

Other Causes 


12,008 


2,013 


1.331 


8.664 


10.1 


13.6 


10.0 


9.5 


2,966 

978 

1.243 
376 
276 

93 


453 

190 

141 
76 

38 
8 


328 

126 

139 
39 
17 
7 


2,185 

662 

963 
261 
221 
~7S 


2.5 
.8 

1.1 

.3 
2 

i 


3.1 
1.3 

1.0 

.5 

• 


2.5 
1.0 

1.0 

.3 

:1 


2.4 
.7 

11 

.3 
.2 
.1 









TABLE 17 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending June 30, 1932 



COUNTY 



Withdrawals 
for Removal, 
Transfer, 
Death or 
Commitment 



No. 



Per 

Cent 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSE; 



Total 
Num- 
ber 



Total 
Per 
Cent 



PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 



Em- 
ploy- 
ment 



Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 



Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sorj' At- 
tendance 
Age 



Pov- I Other 
ertv i Causes 



Total and Average 

Prince George's. . . 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's .... 

Baltimore 

Dorchester 

Anne Arundel .... 

Howard 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Kent 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Charles 

Worcester 

Washington 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Calvert 



12,008 

1,045 
458 
546 
171 

1,942 
251 
788 
258 

1,285 
513 
155 
521 
781 
219 
615 
60 
234 

1,199 
84 
193 
522 
105 
63 



10.1 

12.4 
12.5 
9.9 
9.7 
10.6 
7.6 
11.0 
12.2 
9.6 
11.5 
9.9 
11.2 
10.4 
9.3 
7.5 
3.9 
9.4 
9.9 
7.8 
9.4 
12.8 
4.3 



2,966 

122 
56 
97 
31 

324 
61 

143 
54 

347 

117 
41 

123 

214 
68 

243 
46 
77 

406 
37 
72 

143 
95 
49 



2.5 



8 
8 

2.0 



3.9 
5.3 



.8 

.3 
.3 
.7 
.7 
.3 
.7 
.5 
.5 
.7 
.7 
1.4 
.9 
.5 
1.6 
1.2 
1.0 
1.1 
1.5 
1.9 
1.1 
1.3 
2.0 
1.7 



1.1 



.8 
.7 
.9 
.5 
.9 
1.1 
1.1 
.9 
1.0 
1.1 
1.7 
.8 
1.3 
.7 
1.1 



.1 
.1 
.1 
.3 
.3 

1.0 
.6 
.4 
.1 
.4 
.4 
.3 

1.3 



28 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Although withdrawals from school for removal, transfer, 
death, and commitment to institutions show slight increases for 
1932, those due to employment and poverty exhibit decreases 
under 1931. (See Table 16.) 

Withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment 
averaged 10 per cent of the pupils in county public white ele- 
mentary schools. In one county only 4 per cent of the white 
elementary pupils moved away or were transferred, while in 
four counties over 12 per cent of the pupils were withdrawn for 
removal, transfer, death and commitment. The counties vary 
greatly in the proportion of their population which shifts about 
from place to place. The problem of adjustment for the pupils 
affected is therefore much greater in some counties than it is in 
others. (See Table 16.) 

Withdrawals because of employment, mental and physical in- 
capacity, and poverty are tied up with the adequacy with which 
the individual counties are meeting their social welfare prob- 
lems. (See Table 17.) 

LONG ABSENCES INCREASE IN 1932 

The number and per cent of pupils absent over 40 days in 
1932, nearly 8 per cent, showed an increase over 1931. Sickness 
and illegal employment caused more long absences than for the 
preceding year. (See Table 18.) 



TABLE 18 

Per Cent of Pupils Absent 40 Days or More, With Cause of Absence, for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1932 











All White Ele- 




One- 


Two- 




mentary Schools 


Cause of Absence 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 








Schools 


Schools 


Schools 














1932 


1931 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 












Mental Defects 


4.5 


4.6 


4.4 


4.5 


3.8 


Poverty, Indifference, Neglect 


3.4 


3.0 


2.5 


2.7 


2.8 


Illegally Employed 


1.2 


.8 


.3 


. 5 


2 


Bad Weather and Roads 


.4 


.1 


.1 


.1 


'l 


Other Causes 


.3 


.2 


.1 


.1 


2 


Total 


9.8 


8.7 


7.4 


7.9 


7.1 


Number Absent 40 Days or More . . 


1.337 


1,077 


6,344 


8,758 


7,790 



Withdrawals, Long Absences, Index of Attendance 29 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance and 
withdrawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been 
arranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for public white elementary schools. That county is con- 
sidered highest which has a high percentage of attendance ac- 
companying a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. 
A county which makes no effort to get its children in school when 
they open and permits them to withdraw before the close of the 
year may keep them in regular attendance while they are en- 
rolled, but it is undoubtedly helping all of its pupils to secure an 
education less well than a county which brings all of its children 



TABLE 19 

An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1932 







PER CENT 


OF 




RANK IX PER CENT OF 


COUNTY 






















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


Count\' and Average 


91 


4 


1 


2 


2 


5 








Prince George's 


93 





4 


1 


4 


1 


1 


1 


Cecil 


91 


4 




6 


1 


5 


12 


2 


2 


Alleganv 


92 


3 




9 


2 


6 


6 


5 


9 


Kent 


92 


8 


1 





2 


6 


2 


7 


11 


Garrett 


92 


4 


1 


1 


2 


6 


5 


9 


10 


Baltimore 


90 


6 




6 


1 


8 


18 


3 


5 


Dorchester 


91 


4 


1 





1 


8 


13 


8 


6 


Anne Arundel 


91 


8 


1 


3 


2 





9 


12 


7 




91 


1 




9 


2 


8 


15 


4 


13 


Caroline 


92 


5 


1 


9 


2 


9 


3 


17 


14 


Frederick 


91 


7 


1 


1 


2 


9 


11 


10 


15 


^^'icomico 


91 


8 


1 





3 


5 


10 


6 


21 


Carroll 


89 


8 


1 


6 


1 


8 


21 


1-t 


3 


Queen Anne's 


91 





3 





1 


8 


16 


22 


4 


Talbot 


92 


1 


1 


7 


3 


5 


7 


15 


20 




92 


5 


2 


4 


3 


4 


4 


21 


19 


Harford 


90 


3 


1 


6 


2 


6 


20 




12 


Howard 


90 


4 


2 





2 


6 


19 


\l 


8 


Somerset 


92 





1 


8 


3 


9 


8 


16 


22 


Worcester 


89 





1 


2 


3 


.1 


22 


11 


17 


Washington 


91 


3 


2 


1 


3 


3 


14 


19 


18 


Charles 


90 


6 


2 


4 


3 





17 


20 


16 


Calvert 


88 





3 


3 


5 


3 


23 


23 


23 



* For employment, negligence, and indiflference. The county having the smallest percentage of late 
entrants is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. The county 
having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



30 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

into school at the beginning of the year, discourages withdrawals, 
and still keeps a high percentage of attendance. 

The six counties at the top of the list according to this ranking 
are Prince George's, Cecil, Allegany, Kent, Garrett, and Balti- 
more. (See Table 19.) 

DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE COUNTY ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The biennial age-grade studies make available the following 
comparisons of grade enrollment in white schools in the fall of 
1931 and the fall of 1921 : 



TABLE 20 

Comparison of Grade Enrollment in Maryland Counties in November, 1931 and 

October, 1921 



White Elementary School 




White High School 




Enrollment 






Enrollment 


Nov., 


Oct., 






Nov., 


Oct., 


Grade 1931 


1921 


Change 


Year 


1931 


1921 Change 


Kindergarten 405 


* 


+ 405 








1 16,960 


19,815 


-2,855 


I 


9,366 


5,460 +3,906 


2 15.692 


14,403 


+ 1,289 


II 


7,497 


3;339 +4,158 


3 15,093 


14,592 


+ 501 


Ill 


5,973 


2,378 +3,595 


4 15,092 


14,061 


+ 1,031 


IV 


4,641 


1,696 +2,945 


5 14,674 


12,455 


+2,219 




6 13,883 


10,786 


+3,097 








7 12,139 


9,017 


+3,122 








8 12,995 


12,026 


+ 969 









* Enrollment for kindergarten in one school in one county not available, 
t Three counties hadi an eighth grade in the elementary school course in 1921, while this 
was the case for four counties in 1931. 



The first grade is the only one to show a decrease in enrollment 
over the ten-year period, due chiefly to the reduction in retarda- 
tion resulting from better attendance and improvement in in- 
struction. Note the large increases in enrollment from the fifth 
grade through the last year in high school. (See Table 20.) 

The enrollment of white pupils for the year 1932 is highest in 
the first grade and thereafter, except for the third grade, shows 
a decrease for each succeeding grade. Especially for boys, the 
first grade enrollment is far in excess of that for any other 
grade. It will be noted that, with the exception of grade 8, the 
number of boys exceeds the number of girls in each grade 
through the first year of high school. For the last three years 
of high school the girls exceed the boys. Comparison with 1931 
indicates a decrease in the enrollment in the first grade and the 
first year of high school for both boys and girls and for girls in 
grades 2 and 4. (See Chart 5.) 



Distribution of White Enrollment by Grades 31 
CHART 5 



Grade 
or Year 

Kgn, 
1 

2 
3 
4 



II 



IV 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLED+BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1932 



Total 
428 

17,103 
15,614 
15,020 
15,260 
14,750 
13,947 
12,262 
3,039 

9,662 

7,636 

6,070 
♦4,799 



Boys 



Girls 



225 
203 



7.916 



7.292 



7,351 



7r2Q7 



6,111 



1,555 



4|784 



3.307 



t Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to an institution. 
* Includes 72 boys and 81 girls, post-graduates. 



The enrollment by grade in each county is available in 
Table 21. 

A comparison of the per cent of pupils in one-teacher, two- 
teacher, and graded schools enrolled in each grade indicates that 
the one- and two-teacher schools have a larger proportion in the 
primary grades and a smaller proportion in the upper grades 
than the graded schools have. (See Table 22.) 



32 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Grade Distribution; White Elementary School Graduates 33 
TABLE 22 



Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade of Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools (By Types) Year Ending June 30, 1932 





*Number in Each Grade 


Per Cent in Each Grade 


GRADE 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 








428 






. 5 


1 


2,369 
2,036 
1,970 
2,029 


2,086 


12,648 


18.5 


17.4 


15.3 


2 


1,865 
1.780 


11,713 


15.9 


15 . 5 


14.2 


3 


11,270 


15.4 


14.8 


13.6 


4 


1,868 
1.635 


11,363 


15.9 


15.5 


13.8 


5 


1,750 
1,408 


11,365 


13.7 


13.6 


13.8 


6 


1,569 


10,970 


11.0 


13.1 


13.3 


7 


i;i45 
91 


1,091 


10,016 


8.9 


9.1 


12.1 


8 


123 


2,825 


.7 


1.0 


3.4 










Total 


12,798 


12,017 


82,598 

















* Exclusive of pupils who withdrew for removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. 



MORE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS GRADUATE 

The county public white elementary schools graduated a larger 
number and per cent of pupils than ever before in their history. 
The 10,825 graduates, 10.1 per cent of the total white elementary 
school enrollment, included 912 more graduates than in 1931. 
The graduates represented 9.3 per cent of the boys and 10.9 per 
cent of the girls enrolled in the county white elementary schools. 
(See Table 23.) 



TABLE 23 

White County Elementary School Graduates 



Number Per Cent 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


* 10, 825 


*9.3 


*10.9 


*10.1 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9.913 


*8.7 


*10.2 


*9.4 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


*10.5 


*9.7 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


*10.4 


*9.6 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


*10.1 


*9.1 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


*10.2 


*9.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1923 


3,200 


4.136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 



34 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



The number of boys graduated exceeded the number of girls 
graduated in Calvert, Cecil, Garrett, and St. Mary's, but the per 
cent that the graduates were of total enrollment was higher for 
boys than for girls in only Calvert and Cecil. (See Chart 6.) 

A very large increase in graduates is found in Anne Arundel 
County due to promotions to high school from both the seventh 
and eighth grades. Anne Arundel has taken the initial steps 
toward the elimination of the eighth grade by promoting to high 
school those seventh grade pupils who scored high on the Otis 
Orleans Standard Graduation Examination which was given to 
pupils in the seventh and eighth grades. Other counties which 
have large increases in graduates are Calvert, Talbot, and Fred- 
erick. (See Chart 6.) 

Counties having eight grades in the elementary course are 
likely to appear at the bottom of the chart, since at the maximum 
the graduates can include only one-eighth of the enrollment, 
whereas in seven grade counties they may represent one-seventh. 

TABLE 24 



Number of County White Elementary School Graduates in 1932 by Types of Schools 



COUNTY 


Number of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1932 


Per Cent of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1932 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




483 


519 


476 


525 


4,224 


4.598 


7 


2 


8 


6 


7 


5 


9 


2 


9 


9 


11 


6 


Calvert 


14 


15 


21 


25 


20 


12 


11 


6 


10 


8 


14 


1 


18 


8 


13 


1 


7 


3 


Cecil 


47 


41 


33 


43 


129 


103 


10 


7 


10 


5 


11 


3 


15 


8 


13 


4 


11 


9 


Talbot 


7 


5 


2 


4 


94 


117 


5 





5 


2 


9 


1 


18 


2 


11 


3 


15 


4 


Anne Arundel 


1 




18 


17 


348 


394 


2 


2 






8 


7 


8 


5 


11 


5 


14 







126 


105 


25 


31 


95 


83 


12 


6 


12 


1 


9 


3 


13 


3 


11 





11 





Kent 


17 


26 


11 


13 


44 


51 


8 





15 


5 


8 





11 





10 


4 


14 


3 


Wicomico 


40 


43 


19 


20 


134 


144 


9 


7 


11 


5 


13 


4 


13 


9 


10 


5 


11 


8 


St. Mary's 


19 


17 


29 


23 


13 


9 


8 


9 


10 


2 


11 


3 


12 


2 


14 


9 


11 


3 


Frederick 


22 


18 


32 


49 


347 


375 


9 


8 


8 


7 


7 


2 


12 


4 


10 


5 


12 


3 


Caroline 






14 


13 


80 


127 










8 
6 


4 


9 


4 


9 


7 


15 


9 


Carroll 


3 


11 


18 


23 


222 


269 


7 


1 


2 


7 


9 


10 


3 


11 


7 


15 


1 


Charles 


4 




7 


9 


64 


77 


33 


3 






8 


6 


11 


4 


9 


2 


12 


4 


Worcester 


8 


10 


3 


3 


109 


107 


4 


1 


6 


3 


4 


5 


4 


8 


11 




13 


5 




16 


16 


17 


14 


46 


58 


9 


9 


10 


3 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


13 


6 




22 


36 


58 


61 


762 


777 


6 


5 


11 


5 


6 


8 


8 


2 


10 


4 


11 


3 


Harford 


29 


29 


34 


31 


139 


153 


7 


4 


7 


8 


9 


2 


10 





9 


9 


11 


9 


Somerset 


12 


21 


22 


17 


70 


88 


5 


5 


10 


7 


13 


2 


11 


2 


8 


2 


11 


8 


Montgomery 


15 


17 


20 


22 


■^285 


*295 


4 


8 


6 


8 


5 


3 


6 


7 


10 


2 


11 





Howard 


16 


28 


14 


11 


47 


51 


5 


4 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


9 


8 


9 


10 


7 


Prince George's 


12 


23 


36 


30 


269 


278 


4 


4 


8 


8 


9 


2 


7 


8 


8 


5 


9 


5 


Allegany 


22 


13 


8 


15 


■*478 


♦521 


7 


3 


5 





1 


7 


3 


2 


8 


8 


10 





Dorchester 


13 


18 


8 


14 


75 


112 


4 


3 


6 


8 


3 


8 


7 





7 





11 


2 


Washington 


18 


27 


27 


37 


354 


397 


2 


9 


4 


5 


4 


5 


6 


3 


8 




9 


4 



Includes pupils promoted from eighth grade in junior high schools. 



White Elementary School Graduates 
CHART 6 



35 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN 1932 COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT* 



Coianty Nttmber 

Boys Girls 

Co^^vSage ^»^^^ 



|Per Cent Boys 



I t Per Cent Girls 



10.9 



Calvert 


55 


52 


Cecil 


209 


187 


Talbot 


103 


126 


'Anne Arundelt 


367 


4U 


Garrett 


246 


219 


Kent 


72 


90 


Wicomico 


193 


207 


oi/* uaix y o 


61 


49 


Frederick 


401 


442 


Caroline 


94 


140 


Carroll 


243 


303 


Charles 


75 


86 


llUi, L'CO OC^X 


120 


120 


Queen Anne's 


79 


88 


Baltimore 


842 


874 


Harford 


202 


213 


Somerset 


104 


126 


'Montgomery* 


320 


334 


Howard 


77 


90 


Pr. George's 


517 


331 


■^Allegany** 


508 


549 


Dorchester 


96 


144 


^Washington** 


399 


461 




+ Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to an institution. 
* Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 
** County has eight grades in elementary school course, 
t Includes seventh grade pupils promoted to high school. 

^ In transition stage between seven and eight grades in elementary school course. 



36 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



The number and per cent of graduates in general is higher in 
two-teacher than in one-teacher schools, and in graded than in 
two-teacher schools. Some of the low percentages for one- and 
two-teacher schools are due to the transfer of pupils who were 
in the highest grades of one- or two-teacher schools to the graded 
schools. (See Table 24.) 

REDUCTION IN PER CENT OF OVER-AGE PUPILS, 1921 TO 1931 
From the biennial age-grade studies, it is possible to compare 
the per cent of pupils over-age in white elementary schools for 
November, 1931 and 1921. The very great reduction in retarda- 
tion in every county is apparent. (See Table 25.) 

TABLE 25 

Per Cent of Over-Age Pupils in County White Elementary Schools, 
November, 1931 and 1921 





Per Cent of 


Reduc- 




Per Cent of 


Reduc- 




Pupils 


Over Age 


tion 




Pupils Over Age 


tion 


County 


1931 


1921 




County 


1931 


1921 




Average 


14.4 


31.6 


17.2 


Baltimore 


15.2 


28.9 


13.7 








Somerset 


15.8 


31.7 


15.9 


Alleganv* 


8.8 


27.9 


19.1 










Kent 


10.7 


27.9 


17.2 


Prince George's . . . 


. 16.7 


27.6 


10.9 


Talbot 


11.1 


30.0 


18.9 


Harford 


17.3 


33.5 


16.2 


Cecil 


11.6 


35.6 


24.0 


Calvert 


19.9 


38.8 


18.9 


Caroline 


11.8 


33.2 


21.4 


Howard 


19.9 


39.6 


19.7 










Charles 


20.1 


35.0 


14.9 


Montgomervt 


12.2 


33.4 


21 2 










Washington* 


14.0 


28.2 


14^2 


Dorchester 


20.1 


29.1 


9.0 


Worcester 


14.2 


28.1 


13.9 


St. Mary's 


20.4 


43.6 


23.2 


Frederick 


14.2 


35.7 


21.5 




20.5 


46.5 


26.0 


Anne Arundel*. 


14.2 


27.1 


12.9 


















7 Grade Systems . . 


. 15.7 


32.5 


16.8 


Carroll 


14.2 


33.8 


19.6 








Queen Anne's .... 


14.4 


27.1 


12.7 


*8 Grade Systems . . 


. 11.9 


27.9 


16.0 


Wicomico 


15.0 


26.9 


11.9 











t Since both a seventh and eighth grade system exist in Montgomery, pupils in this county have 
been excluded from the total for seven and eight grade systems. 
* Eight grade systems. 



NON-PROMOTIONS INCREASE FROM 1931 TO 1932 
TABLE 26 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary Schools 



Number Per Cent 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Bo3'S 


Girls 


Total 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1931 


9,231 


5.293 


14.524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1930 


8,962 


5.371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1929 


9,147 


5.609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1927 


9.954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16.532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 



White Elementary Pupils Over-Age and Not Promoted 37 



More boys and girls in 1932 were reported by teachers as not 
ready to pursue the work of the succeeding grade than was true 
of the three years preceding. The failures included 15,272 pupils 
or 14.2 per cent of the enrollment. Of the boys 17.2 per cent 
were considered not promoted as against 11 per cent of the girls. 
(See Table 26.) 

CHART 7 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF CODNTI WHITE ELE^tlENTARy AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED . 1932 

County Number 

■■Per Cent Boys Per Cent Girls 



Total and 
Co. Average 

Allegany 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Harford 

Garrett 

Calvert 



Boys Girls 
9,597 5,675 

785 
164 
140 
449 
258 
178 
350 
337 
73 




39 



Wicomico 
Frederick 
St. Mary's 
Carroll 
Kent 

Anne Arundel 
Prince George's 690 
Washington 1,006 
Baltimore 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 297 

Howard 248 

Charles 211 

Dorchester 426 



185 
384 
50 
270 
71 
340 
435 
678 

1,584 1,077 
180 82 



293 
643 
66 

443 
136 
620 




rn.5 



\2,z///7Z/////////////////A 



^^^^ 



122 
138 
106 
235 



5.0 ■//////// //■// /////////////\ 



38 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Several counties which had very few non-promotions in 1931 
showed an increase in the number and per cent for 1932. This 
is especially noticeable for Caroline, Cecil, Garrett, and Queen 
Anne's. On the other hand, Somerset and Calvert decreased 
greatly the number and per cent of non-promotions from 1931 
to 1932. Dorchester, Charles, and Howard continued the non- 
promotion of over one-fourth of the boys and 15 per cent of the 
girls. (See Chart 7.) 

For the counties as a group, the per cent of non-promotions 
was hardly greater in one- and two-teacher schools than in 
graded schools. In Anne Arundel, Cecil, Frederick, Garrett, 
Howard, and Queen Anne's, however, the percentage of non- 
promotions was higher in the graded schools than it was in the 
one- and two-teacher schools. (See Table 27.) 

Non-Promotions by Grades 

It was especially in the first three grades and for girls in the 
fifth grade that the per cent of non-promotions increased over 
last year. One-fourth of the boys in the first grade were not 
promoted, while the corresponding per cent for girls was 18. In 
the other grades the non-promotions included from 14.5 to 16.5 
per cent of the boys and from 9 to 10.7 per cent of the girls. 
(See Chart 8.) For similar data by counties, see Tahle IX, 
page 287. 

CHART 8 



Grade 


Boys 


Kgn. 


IS 


1 


2,305 


2 


1,372 


3 


1,179 


4 


1,299 


5 


1,091 


6 


1,156 


7 


931 


8 


249 



NON PROMOTIONS BY GRADES IN CODNTI WHITE ELEMENTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING" IB 
JUNE, 1932 

Nvunber 

'Is HHPer Cent Boys EZaPer Cent Girls 



12 



1, 441 llfi . r////////////////7///Z/7///////W ZA 

703 Fi^^ppf^iy™''" * 

661 * 9. 2^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



770110^ 



65o Ff!lB8B^B^ 



532r ?^.ir////////////A 

'\Z ^^,^/////////////A 



Non-Promotions by County, Grade and Type of School 



39 



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I> .-I CO (M O 



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d C5 ic Tj^' d 



,-H C5 rH O 

(N 00 05 (N 00 



»0 OO O OO lO CO 05 



i 

pi 

o 
w 



^2 



00 O <M O Oi 
(M 05 00 »0 



00 lO (M O CO O O 00 ^ i-H>. 05 T-H 00 O (M 00 

00 (N CO 00 CO 

1-1 1-1 rH 1-1 1-1 (M 



1— I lO I> 

05 CO o 



CO 1-1 CO Tt^ Tt^ 

Tt- 00 o 00 ci 



CO O CO (N T}H 
X 1-t i-i O CO 



CO CO CO (M 1-1 
GO ^ CO O: O 



<M O X 1-1 (Nt^cOt^'* COCOCOCO'*^ 



(M T-i Tti CO CO 

1-1 1-1 CO (M rH 



(N iC CO O 00 

1-H <M ^ 



CO 05 CO lO 
X >o lO 



(N O 1-1 

(m' d d 



c 



1> TjH 1-1 CO lO 

05 Oi T-< X »o 



O 05 CO lO (N 



05 00 IC CO 
t> t-l 05 Oi CO 



O 00 1-t (N 
CO 05 1> 



CO i> X 00 

^ ^ --H (M ^ 



t>. O 00 05 Oi 

1-1 rH (N 



tHX005(N 

T-l 1-1 T-( <N 



to lO CO 
CO rtH r-l 



COTtHX'-iO i-iiOCO'^'X iC^XfN^ cOC5C505^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 



05 05 O 
1-1 1-1 (N 



o 
o 

OB 

Si 



(M CO 05 Tt^ X 
GO X Oi ^ 



r-H lO CO 
05 O C5 ^ 
i-< (M 



I> O <M X CO 
CO lO ^ to LO 
CO 



1-1 rt^ 1> ^ 
Ci 1> CO (M CO 

CO to CO 1—1 



05 X <M <N X 
CO 00 00 rt< 
CO 1-1 <M to 



to X 
to 1—1 



xooot^o cor^co(Mco i-i 

tOlM^COi-i t^Oi-<i-i(N OOOOCO 
1-1 (M T-i CO to 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 (M 



o 



53 O 



CO Oi (N CO C5 
CO 1-1 O 



<M <N to !>. !>. 
CO CO CO 



O'*00<N'* CO00tOTt^(M (NCOO 
C<j CO i-t 1-1 CO»H(Mi-i t^i-ii-i 



■*IOCO(N05 (M-^XOCO "^XXXO: i-(f-tO5C0i-i tOCO"^ 
tOCOXi-i(N C0C0(MtOt^ C0»OC0C^CO cOTt^COOQ OC0(N 



iotoiO(Nto cocoiN-^OJ x-^toco^ lo-^coxr* i-i-^x 

to <N to 1-1 cO'^(Mi-t'* CO 1-H X to T-i 



(M CO 1-1 



OOO^^Ttix (NcOi-iX(N tO(M(Mi-iO COfN'^cOCO t^OO^ 
COCOi-i XCQ Ttit^COTtit^ tOCOCOC^i-i i-<J>.CO 



^ C ^ 



o 
> p 



02 



OJ C o3 



o 



40 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

Similar data for one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded schools 
are presented in Table 28. 



TABLE 28 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Boys and Girls Not Promoted, 
by Grades, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



GRADE 


NUMBER 


PER CENT 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 












15 
1,660 
1,047 
891 
900 
850 
927 
793 
236 


12 
1,014 
571 
511 
557 
619 
529 
454 
131 










6.7 
24.5 
17.0 
15.1 
15.4 
14.7 
16.5 
15.7 
17.1 


5.9 
17.3 
10.3 
9.5 
10.1 
11.1 
9.9 
9.1 
9.1 


1 

2 

3 . 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

Total 


323 
179 
152 
191 
128 
115 
88 
6 


227 
61 
79 

111 
81 
50 
46 
5 


322 
146 
136 
208 
113 
114 
50 
7 


200 
71 
71 

121 
70 
51 
32 
1 


25.1 
15.8 
14.8 
18.1 
13.9 
16.3 
15.3 
13.0 


21.0 
6.7 
8.4 

11.4 
9.8 
7.1 
8.1 

11.1 


28.5 
14.2 
15.1 
20.8 
13.2 
13.9 
9.5 
12.5 


20.9 
8.5 
8.1 

14.0 
9.0 
6.8 
5.7 
1.5 


1,182 


660 


1,096 


617 


7,319 


4,398 


17.5 


10.9 


17.3 


10.8 


17.1 


11.0 



Causes of Non-Promotion 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest loomed as 
the most important causes of non-promotion reported by teach- 
ers. Of the white elementary pupils 5.4 per cent failed of pro- 
motion for these reasons, and this percentage was higher by .6 
than for 1931. Personal illness was reported as responsible for 
a larger number of failures in 1932 than in 1931. (See Table 29.) 

For similar data for individual counties, see Table 30. The 
reports on unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest 
probably give a clue to the social welfare needs of the counties 
and point to the possible improvement in school results to be 
expected, if each county has a functioning social welfare pro- 
gram. (See Table 30.) 



White Elementary School Non-Promotions by Cause 



41 







«O00r»Q0>C ^ ^ .— c Tf 'M <— 1 Cl'OOOlO cCO". fO 






t-»CC»Ct>-'^ CiHOJffli-^ »CCCC:OCOO O"^©*!© W^'^ 






CC^«C»-H«C C^IC^1C'-'»C COCIOOCCCC (N C. O "^t^OO 


paXo[dui3 puB 

J8AQ JO SJBa 




^22^^ caQ0«Oj^ c<iccu5r^oo t^anon a; ■<*< 


89da{[I [«UOSJ3(J 




C5'<j<«co^ ^^®«oo jot-ccgoo cs^2 






OSIMI^'C OOO'^t^'^ ^22^2 *2ShSc5 2cs?3 






^ _ (N IN (N »H ^(N<-i 


pu^ auoijtpuoQ 
9UIOJJ 8;Bu'n:>jojaQ 




^»CTt<xt^ ^^-^22 ®2^*2 22c^2J^ c5?3m 



t^C. MOO-* -Hrct^u:;^ -<»C>C:CO COC^t^C -^-^Oi 





^^rMCCi-i »C-<®^ ■ TtCC^CCiO lO IN "-i ■»»» «rt W 


[ooqog jaqjouy 


00 -^fTfiOt^c: -^aQOfCC: t^t^I>'*C5 005«<-M Nt-O 


paXoidiug puB 

J3A0 JO SJBa \ fl 


oooocc'-' c; 1-1 »o -^j" c^»CTj<r-H»c »o<N«ooai «o>«o 




00 COfCTftcCOO OOTfOO-^SC Q0»O«(N«O OtO^-^t- 


-paanv JB{n3ajax 






CD U?O0«t>.fC Mt>.J^00»O C^OOCCOOM ClcecOOiOS O500CO 

(N cv)^j^ c^c^qM CO ^e<5 cc m«oc^ 



^jsaja:jai JO ?ioB7 1^ ^cr-woot^ c^ct^-Noo c-.Ococo-h iocooiO>o 

puB 8aoi;tpuof) I 

aiuoH ajBumJOjua i cccccc^^ u,u,^:o«? fcco«co.o .ow5t-t-« 



00 CO CO 

oot^t^ 



(N T)<>CO^C C«00-* '^St-CCCO'-* C^'^C^iCCO 
00'-i^(M C^C^?rfCCC CCCC-ffiC «o>ccocooc 



pajouiojj ;ou p^ox 



ooTfiicxco >nc^coc^oo r^cofct^o lO^fi-tMn 
^5■<*<0'^'X icrC'-<--t^ ^^cc^Oco c^oocOco<-' 

M 04(N(Nl^^: ;^iC»0'-4-<*< 0-<l>(NC: .-iCOCD^^Tt" 



CO 1^1-1 
OO^CO 

M ec CO 



ml 



2 

"IS o 



J= 

c h w 
^ cs u 

OJS o 



42 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 29 



Causes of Non-Promotions for White Elementary School Pupils Not Promoted for 

Year Ending July 31, 1932 











All 


Causes of Xon-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Elementary 
Schools 






1932 


1931 



^'U^IBER 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and Lack 












of Interest 


619 


652 


4,502 


5,773 


5,062 


Mental Incapacity 


323 


349 


2,182 


2,854 


2,886 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


181 


164 


988 


1,333 


1,315 


Personal Illness 


231 


200 


1,499 


1.930 


1,695 


Fourteen Years or Over, Emploj'ed 


149 


84 


495 


728 


*822 


Transfer from Other Schools 


116 


117 


670 


903 


825 


Late Entrance 


44 


44 


197 


285 


t283 


Other Causes 


179 


103 


1,184 


1,466 


1,636 


Total 


1,842 


1,713 


11,717 


15,272 


14,524 



PER CENT 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and Lack 


















of Interest 


4 


8 


5.4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4.8 


Mental Incapacity 


2 


5 


2.9 


2 


7 


2 


6 


2.7 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 


















Sickness 


1 


4 


1.4 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1.2 


Personal Illness 


1 


8 


1.7 


1 


8 


1 


8 


1.6 


Fourteen Years or Over, Employed 


1 


2 


.7 




6 




7 


*.8 


Transfer from Other Schools 




9 


1.0 




8 




8 


.8 


Late Entrance 




4 


.4 




2 




3 


t.3 


Other Causes 


1 


4 


.8 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1.5 


Total 


14 


4 


14.3 


14 


2 


14 


2 


13.7 



* Thirteen Years or Over, Employed. 

t Late Entrance Other than 100-Day Pupils. 



STANDARD TESTS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Since 1923 each four years the State has given standardized 
tests in reading and arithmetic in the twenty-three counties. In 
October, 1931, the tests chosen were the Greene-Noar Reading 
Test for grades 3 to 7 (8) , the Wisconsin Inventory Test in Prob- 
lem Solving for Grades 3 and 4, the Clapp- Young Self-Marking 
Test in Arithmetic Problem Solving for Grades 5 to 7 (8), and 
the Clapp English Test for Grades 5 to 7 (8). It was the inten- 
tion of the State Department of Education to retest in the spring, 



Causes of Non-Promotions; Use of Standard Tests 43 

but this plan was abandoned after receipt of the request from the 
Governor that 5 per cent of the amount appropriated in the State 
budget be returned to the State Treasury. Over one-half of the 
counties were sufficiently interested to give another form of the 
tests at their own expense in the spring. Tests reported by the 
county supervisors as administered to various grades, in addi- 
tion to those given State-wide in October, are listed in Table 31. 

TABLE 31 

Standard Tests Given During the School Year, 1932-33 in the County White 
Elementary Schools After the State- Wide Testing in October, 1932 



grades given tests in 



COUXTY 


Readixg 


Arithmetic 


English 


IXTELLIGENCE 


Batteries 


e3 
O 

c 

« 

O 


Hi 

.2-- 


Crabb McCall 
Practice 


(3 a: 
C 


= 


a 
o. 

e3 
O 


* 
C 

o3 

e 


*^ 

c 
.2 

"a 


l.i 
II 

il 


Otia-Orleans 
Graduation 




Anne Arundel 


3-8 
3-7 
3-7 






5-8 
5-7 
5-7 


3-4 
3^ 
3-4 


5-8 
5-7 
5-7 








7-8 




Calvert 
























1 






Carroll 








4-5* 






Charles 


3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 
3-7 






5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 


3-4 
3-4 


5-7 










Garrett 
















Harford 
























3^ 
3-4 
3-4 
3-4 
3-4 


5-7 
5-7 
5-7 
5-7 

5- 7 

6- 7 








7 




Kent 


i-2 




7* 














2-7* 






























St. Mary's 
















Somerset 


















Worcester 




4-7 


3 































* All tests were reported as given in the spring except Terman, given in September, National given 
in November and New Stanford Achievement given in February. 



A few counties used intelligence tests and batteries. Anne 
Arundel and Howard reported using the Otis-Orleans Standard 
Graduation Examination. Montgomery continued its policy be- 
gun the year before of using the Stanford Achievement Test for 
the midyear testing. (See Table 31.) 

SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR THE HANDICAPPED 
Physically Handicapped Children in the Counties 

During the school year 1931-32, special educational provisions 
were made for 60 physically handicapped children in Maryland 
counties at a per pupil cost to the State of $131.15. Of these 
children 19 were taught in two special classes in Cumberland 
and Hagerstown, 29 were given instruction at their homes, and 
the remaining twelve were provided with special transportation 



44 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



to regular classes in the county schools. Instruction was given 
by 26 teachers, of whom 2 gave full-time, 21 were regular teach- 
ers who gave crippled children instruction in their homes for 
an hour two afternoons each week, and 3 were regular substitute 
teachers who gave two hours each week to home teaching. In 
addition, a full-time physiotherapist was employed for the chil- 
dren in Cumberland. 

Of the 29 children who received instruction at home, 12 were 
in the first grade, 4 in the second, 3 in the third, 5 in the fourth, 
3 in the fifth, and 2 in the sixth. Of this group, 5 were recom- 
mended for return to regular classes, 3 were discontinued due 
to the lack of satisfactory progress, and 21 were recommended 
for home teaching in 1932-33. 

For the current year 1932-33, 18 children are being taught in 
the two special classes, 7 are enrolled in a physiotherapy center 

TABLE 32 

Special Provision for Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland Counties, 

Fall of 1932 



County 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

CarroU 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . , 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 
Wicomico 

Total 



Number of Pupils 



Taught 



In Special 
Classes 



At 
Home 

1 

3 
5 

"2" 
1 
1 
2 
3 



3 
1 
1 

1 

2 
3 

31 



Transported 
to 
Regular 
Classes 



" Includes 7 children at physiotherapy center in Westernport. 
* Includes one full-time teacher for the special class, 
t Excludes one full-time physiotherapist. 



Provision for Handicapped Children 



45 



at Westernport, 31 are receiving instruction at home, and 9 are 
being transported to regular schools, — a total of 65. The esti- 
mated per pupil cost to the State is $135.82. The teachers in- 
clude 2 full-time special teachers, 19 regular teachers who give 
home instruction two hours each week, and 4 substitutes. In 
addition, a full-time physiotherapist divides her time between 
Cumberland and Westernport. (See Table 32.) 

Standardized tests were given in September to each child who 
was receiving special instruction, either at home or in one of the 
special classes. The results showed that those children who are 
studying subjects designed for normal children of the same 
chronological age made scores equal to those of the correspond- 
ing normal children, while the handicapped pupils who were 
over-age because of failure to receive previous instruction were 
slightly below the average for their age groups. 

Mentally Handicapped Children in the Counties 

In 1931-32 supervisory assistance was given to 3 counties 
which had 8 special classes for retarded children. For the cur- 
rent year, 1932-33, the number of counties has increased to 5 
and the number of classes to 15. Standardized tests were given 
to all of these children in September, 1932, and follow-up tests 
will be administered at the close of the present school session. 

Teacher Training 

During the summer of 1932, the enrollment of teachers from 
Maryland counties who pursued courses in special education for 
handicapped children included 17 at Johns Hopkins University 
and 32 at the University of Maryland, a total of 49. This was a 
marked increase over the twelve enrolled in special education 
classes during the summer of 1931. 

On the day prior to the October, 1932 State Teachers' Meeting, 
12 county teachers of special classes for retarded children, to- 
gether with two county supervisors and three attendance officers, 
visited special classes for handicapped children in Baltimore for 
the purpose of observing instruction. This same group visited 
the State Training School for the Feebleminded on the morning 
of the following day and then attended the newly organized spe- 
cial education section of the State Teachers' Convention that 
afternoon. 

Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 

From 1931 to 1932 there was an increase of 6 in the number 
of classes in Baltimore City for physically handicapped white 
children, bringing the total to 44 classes, which took care of 
1,053 children. There was an increase of one or two classes for 
each type except Americanization and cardiac cases. The open 
air classes and those for crippled children took care of the ma- 



4G 1932 Report of State Dep.\rtment of Education 



jority of the physically handicapped. It was possible for some 
of the children to return to regular classes. Of those who re- 
mained 83.7 were promoted once or twice during the year. (See 
Table 33.) 



TABLE 33 



Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1932 









Returned 




Per Cent 


Promoted 


KIND OF CLASS 


No. of 


Total 


to 


Average 


of 


Once or Twice 




Classes 


Admitted 


Regular 


Net 


Attend- 












Classes 


Roll 


ance 


No. 


jPer Cent 






White Pupils 










Physically Handicapped , . 


44 


1,0.53 


94 


812 




703 


83.7 




16 


463 


59 


342 


88 


290 


80.1 


Crippled 


11 


247 


12 


201 


91 


168 


88.9 






85 


1 


Ti 
1 O 


So 


71 


94.7 




4 


102 


15 


69 


95 


55 


72.36 


\rnericanization 


3 


78 


4 


71 


89 


66 


94.3 


Deaf 


2 


25 




23 


88 


23 


100.0 




2 


32 


3 


13 


48 


23 


88.5 


Cardiac 


1 


21 




20 


83 


7 


36.8 




. . . 92 


2,202 


40 


1,786 




*1,578 


*80.9 




82 


2,017 


40 


1 , 632 


88 


*1,454 


*81.6 


Special Center 


10 


185 




154 


84 


*124 


*72.9 






Colored Ptpils 










Physically Handicapped . . 


s 


182 


27 


147 




111 


76.6 




3 


57 




56 


85 


40 


70.2 




2 


66 


25 


39 


100 


34 


100.0 




2 


39 




35 


80 


25 


69.4 


Open Air 


1 


20 


2 


17 


88 


12 


66.7 


IMentally Handicapped .... 


12 


273 


3 


192 




*150 


*61.7 


Opportunity 


. . . 5 


119 


2 


85- 


64 


*50 


*47.2 






154 


i 


107 


78 


*100 


*73.0 



*Making satisfactory improvement. 

t Per cent of number admitted, exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or withdrawn in 
other ways. 



There were 8 more classes for mentally handicapped children 
than in 1931, bringing the total to 92, which provided for 2,202 
pupils. Of those not returned to regular classes, 81 per cent 
were reported as making satisfactory improvement. (See Table 
33.) 

The classes for colored handicapped children shown in Table 
33 are mentioned on page 170. 

Baltimore City received State aid in 1931-32 toward the spe- 
cial transportation expense for 4 crippled high school pupils. In 
1932-33 there are 7 crippled high school pupils who are benefiting 
from this State aid. 



Baltimore City Special Classes; Teacher Certification 47 



CHART 9 







TRAINING OF yJvRTLAND COUNTY VIELTE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 






NUMBER 




Hi % REGULAR UID% PROVISIONAL 






REG- 


provi- 








OCT, 


ULAR 


sional 


FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


1228 


31 








1922 


1351 


52 








1923 


1633 


32 








1924 


1936 


38 








1925 


2212 


27 








1926 


2414 


24 








1927 


2597 


21 








1928 


2756 


35 




1929 


2814 


16 




1930 


2831 


14 








1931 


2870 


♦15 




1932 


2704t 














SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


933 


189 








1922 


894 


175 








1923 


820 


97 








1924 


590 


125 








1925 


517 


55 








1926 


405 


21 








1927 


287 


2i 








1928 


184 


8 


Oi 






1929 


142 


- 


B 






1930 


118 


1 


D 






1931 


73 


- 


a 






1932 


62 


- 


B 














THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


368 


291 








1922 


365 


201 








1923 


320 


124 








1924 


229 


101 








1925 


182 


65 


EE 








161 


46 


EB 






1927 


87 


24 


EB 






1928 


60 


4 


a 






1929 


41 


3 


9 






1930 


32 


- 


D 






1931 


25 


Q 






1932 


18 




D 







* Includes 4 substitutes. 

t Excludes teachei-s in grade 7, and grades 7 and 8 of junior or senior-junior high lehoolB. 
For 1932 data by counties, see Table XI, page 289. 



48 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



CERTIFICATE STATUS OF TEACHERS 

Of the 2,784 teachers in service in October, 1932, in county 
white elementary schools, exclusive of those teaching in grade 
7 (8) of junior high schools, 2,704 or 97 per cent held ele- 
mentary principal's and regular first grade certificates, 62 or 2 
per cent held second grade certificates, and 18, or less than 1 per 
cent, held third grade certificates. Those holding second and 
third grade certificates have been in the service some time and 
are keeping their certificates in good standing only by attendance 
at summer school each year. These lower grade certificates are 
no longer being issued. The remarkable change in certificate 
status since October, 1921, is shown graphically in Chart 9. 

The one-teacher schools have a larger proportion of teachers 
holding second and third grade certificates than the two-teacher 
schools, and similarly the two-teacher schools have a larger pro- 
portion than the graded schools. In every type of school the 
per cent holding elementary principal's and first grade certifi- 
cates is higher than a year ago. (See Table 34 and for individual 
counties Table XII, page 290.) 



TABLE 34 

Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elementary Teachers in Various Types 

of Schools, October, 1932 



GRADE OF 
CERTIFICATE 


Number in 


Per Cent in 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


First and Elementary 

Principal's 

Second 

Third 

Total 


2,704 
62 
18 


386 
18 

9 


342 
14 

3 


1,976 
30 
6 


97.1 
2.2 
.7 


93.5 
4.3 
2.2 


95.3 
3.9 
.8 


98.2 
1.5 

.3 


*2,784 


413 


359 


*2.012 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



* Excludes seventh and eighth grade teachers in junior high schools who are included in Table 
XIII, page 291. 

For individual counties, see Tables XI and XII, pages 289 and 290. 



In individual counties the per cent of white elementary teach- 
ers holding regular elementary principal's and first grade cer- 
tificates ranges from 88 to 100. In six counties 100 per cent of 
the teachers hold these certificates, while in only four counties 
is the per cent below 95. All except four of the counties show 
gains over 1931 in the per cent of trained teachers employed. 
(See Table 35 and Table XI, page 289.) 



Certification; Summer School Attendance Elementary Teachers 49 



TABLE 35 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers, Exclusive of Those in Grades 
7 (8) in Junior High Schools, Holding Regular First Grade Certificates in October, 
1932, With Comparisons of Per Cent for 1931 and 1921 



County 



1932 



Num- 
ber 



Per 
Cent 



Increase 
in 1932 
Per Cent 
Over 



1931 



1921 



Count V 



1932 



Xum- Per 
ber Cent 



Increase 
in 1932 
Per Cent 
Over 



1931 



1921 



Total and Average 

Baltimore 

*Calvert 

*Caroline 

*Garrett 

♦Kent 

*Queen Anne's . . 
*Prince George's 

*Allegany 

*Anne Arundel . . 

Talbot 

Frederick 



12.704 

t366 
20 
159 
126 
45 
46 
tl98 
:261 
161 
49 
tl89 



97 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
99 



Montgomery . . 
*Wicomico . . . . 

Howard 

♦Dorchester. . . 

Harford 

♦Charles 

♦Carroll 

Washington . . . . 
♦St. Mary's.... 
♦Worcester . . . . 

Cecil 

♦Somerset 



iisi 

89 
56 
86 

117 
38 

130 
;259 
32 
551 
811 
60 



98 
97 
97 
96 
95 
95 
95 
95 
94 
90 
90 
88 



30 
76 
72 
78 
57 
80 
68 
68 
78 
73 
63 
66 



* Received Equalization Fund in 1931-32. 

t Excludes teachers in grade 7 in junior high schools. 

X Excludes teachers in grades 7 and 8 in junior high schools. 

° Decrease. 

For counties arranged alphabetically for 1932 data, see Table XL page 289. 



With the graduation in June, 1933, of the first students from 
the three-year normal school course, teachers who qualify as 
having had three years of normal school training or the equiva^ 
lent will hold ''Advanced First Grade Certificates." The stand- 
ard of training for elementally teachers will, therefore, be 
raised. 



MORE TEACHERS ATTENDED SUMMER SCHOOL IN 1932 

There were 963 county white elementary teachers, 8 super- 
visors, and 4 attendance officers who attended summer school in 
1932. The teachers represented 34.6 per cent of the county 
white elementaiy teachers in service in October, 1932. The 
range among the counties in per cent of teachers who attended 
summer school in 1932 was from 20 to 53 per cent. Ten counties 
had over one-third of their elementary teachers in summer school 
in 1932; only one county had fewer than one-fourth. (See 
Table 36.) 

Nearly 72 per cent of the teachers attended the University of 
Maryland and Johns Hopkins University, the University of Mary- 



50 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



land enrolling 369 of the teachers and Johns Hopkins 322. The 
recently organized summer session at Western Maryland Col- 
lege enrolled 48 elementary teachers, while Columbia, the Uni- 
versity of Delaware and Duke University enrolled between 30 
and 34. (See Table 36.) 



TABLE 36 

County White EJementary Teachers in Service in October, 1932, Reported 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1932 



by 



County 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1932, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1932 



Number 



1963 


34.6 


*18 


52.9 


t92 


47.7 


31 


45.6 


41 


45.6 


141 


38.5 


*51 


37.2 


34 


37.0 


45 


36.6 


21 


35.6 


***89 


33.6 


**66 


33.2 


a20 


32.8 


tl9 


32.8 


60 


32.4 


28 


31.1 


14 


31.1 


15 


30.0 


tl3 


28.3 


75 


27.5 


t43 


26.2 


33 


26.2 


*10 


25.0 


4 


20.0 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 

of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



Total 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Prmce George's 

Worcester 

Howard 

Montgomery . . . 
Dorchester. . . . 

Kent 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's. . 

Washington 

Anne Arundel. . 

Garrett 

Charles 

Calvert 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western ]\Iaryland College 

Columbia University 

University of Delaware 

Duke University 

University of Virginia 

Pennsylvania State Teachers' College 
Shepherd State Teachers' College. . . . 
Harrisonburg State Teachers' College 

University of California 

University of North Carolina ....... 

University of Southern California. . . . 

Umversity of Vermont 

Catholic UmVersity 

Umversity of Maine 

Fredericksburg State 

Teachers' College 

University of Michigan 

University of Pennsylvania 

William and Mary College 

All Others 

Travel 



J963 

a6c368 H 
*322 
48 
d34 
33 
t30 
a21H 
12 
12 
8 



X Excludes 8 super\'ising or helping teachers and 4 attendance officers. 
* Each asterisk represents one superv-ising or helping teacher excluded, 
t Excludes one attendance officer. 

a One took a course at both University of Maryland and University of Virginia. 

b Excludes 3 attendance officers. 

c Excludes 3 super^^sing or helping teachers. 

d Excludes 4 supervising or helping teachers. 



EXTENSION COURSES 

Four counties, Allegany, Washington, Carroll and Frederick, 
arranged for extension courses for 145 of their teachers in 1931- 
32. It was possible for the State to reimburse the counties or 
individual teachers to the extent of $1,075 for the courses taken 
by 73 teachers. (See Table 37.) 

No further reimbursement will be made by the State for these 
courses. For 1933 the appropriation for this purpose will be 
returned to the State Treasury and thereafter no appropriation 
is available. (See Table 2, pages 10 and 11.) 



Summer School Attenda>'ce, Extension Courses, Resignations 51 



TABLE 37 

Extension Courses for White Teachers 



County 


Total 
Enrollment 


Total Number 

for Whom 
Reimbursement 
Was Allowed 


Total 
Reimbursement 


1929-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1929-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1929-3011930-31 


1931-32 


Allegany 

Carroll 


13 


21 
19 
5 
83 


55 
19 
8 
63 


7 


10 
17 
4 

55 


33 
9 
8 

23 


S105 ,S 150 
! 213 


S 495 
135 
100 
345 


Frederick 






i 56 


Washington 

Totals 


76 


28 


495 i 825 


89 


128 


145 


35 


86 


73 


S600 $1,244 


$1,075 



FEWER TEACHERS RESIGNED FROM WHITE COUNTY 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

From year to year there has been a steady decline in resigna- 
tions from county white elementary schools, so that in 1930-31 
they are fewer by 123 than they were four years ago. In 1927-28 
there were 399, the year following, 384, then 330 for 1929-30, 
and for 1930-31 there were 276 withdrawals. This last figure 
does not include 22 withdrawals because teachers were on leave 
of absence, 19 transfers from one county to another, and 34 
transfers from elementary schools to regular, junior, or junior- 
senior high schools. For the first time this year the teachers in 
junior and junior-senior high schools which have been in ex- 
istence in the counties since the school year 1926-27 are shown in 
separate tables.* This will explain the difference between this 
table and those corresponding in reports for the past five years. 
(See Table 38.) 

From 1930 to 1931 there was a reduction in the resignations 
and dismissals for all causes, except for inefficiency, which in- 
creased from 23 to 37, and for removal, which increased from 
8 to 14. As in previous years, the chief cause of resignation was 
marriage, which occasioned the withdrawal of 122 teachers from 
the white elementary schools. This figure compares with 136, 
164 and 148, corresponding figures for the three years immedi- 
ately preceding. The reduction either indicates fewer marriages 
or that teachers who marry are continuing to hold their positions. 
(See Table 38.) 

There was considerable reduction under the corresponding 
figures for previous years in the number of teachers who went 
into work other than teaching, probably because positions in 
other fields were not open ; also in the number of teachers taking 
positions in other states or in private schools. The resignations 
for retirement and illness were considerably below those for the 
years preceding. (See Table 38.) 



* See Table 88, page 118. 



52 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 38 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools* Between October of One Year 
and October of the Following Year 



Oct., 1927 Oct., 1928 Oct., 1929 Oct., 1930 to 
to to to Oct., 1931 

Cause of Withdrawal Oct., 1928 Oct., 1929 Oct., 1930 No. Per Cent 



Marriage 


148 


164 


136 


122 


44.2 


Inefficiency 


. 31 


27 


23 


37 


13.4 


Retirement 


14 


27 


27 


19 


6.9 


Teaching in Another State or 












in Private School 


25 


48 


34 


15 


5.4 


Moved Awav 


10 


8 


8 


14 


5.1 


Low Certificate Grade or 












Failure to Attend Summer 












School 


37 


12 


15 


12 


4.3 


Teaching in Baltimore City, 












in State Normal School, or 












Acting as Supervisor or 












Attendance Officer 


30 


23 


9 


11 


4.0 


Work Other Than Teaching . 


43 


35 


36 


10 


3.6 


Illness 


24 


14 


15 


9 


3.3 


Death 


10 


8 


7 


6 


2.2 


Other and Unknown 


27 


18 


20 


21 


7.6 


Total t 


*t399 


*t384 


*t330 


*t276 


100.0 


Leave of Absence 


44 


31 


23 


22 




To Other Counties 


53 


46 


47 


19 




To County Junior, Junior- 












Senior or Regular High 












Schools 


3 


9 


12 


34 





* Teachers withdrawing from elementary grades in junior high schools are excluded from this table. 
They are included in Table 88, page 118. 

t Total excludes teachers on leave of absence, or transfers between counties, or those transferring 
to junior, junior-senior, senior or regular high schools. 



TURNOVER IN WHITE COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS LOWER 

In October, 1931, there were 279 white elementary teachers 
giving instruction in the counties of the State who were not 
teaching in any county the preceding October. This meant a 
turnover for less than 10 per cent of the staff. This number 
and per cent were approximately one-half as large as the cor- 
responding figures for October, 1926, when studies of turnover 
were first undertaken. The average annual reduction in turn- 
over over the six-year period has been over 50. The number of 
teaching positions in white elementary schools, both because of 
consolidation and the organization of junior high schools, has 
dropped each year since 1926 with one exception. The reduction 
of 61 in 1931 is larger than any reduction previously shown. § 
(See Table 39.) 



§ For data on teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools, see Tables 89 and 90, 
page 119. 



Resignations and Turnover of White Elementary Teachers 53 

TABLE 39 



Teacher Turnover in County White Elementary Schools* Between October of One 
Year and October of the Following Year 



October 


New to 
Maryland 
County White 
Elementary 
Schools* 


Change in 
Number of 

Positions 


Number New to Maryland County 
Elementary Schools* Who Were 


Inexperienced 


Experienced 
But Not in 
Maryland Coimty 
Elementary Schools 
Preceding Year 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


1931 

1930 

1929 

1928 

1927 

1926 


279 
339 
394 
445 
478 
552 


9.7 
11.6 
13.4 
14.9 
16.1 
18.3 


-61 
-25 
-33 
+ 12 
-39 


204 
251 
266 
322 
378 
385 


75 
88 
128 
123 
100 
167 







* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior and junior-senior high schools are excluded from 
this table. They -will be found in Table 89, page 119. 



The staff new to the county elementary schools of the 23 
counties considered as a group included 204 inexperienced teach- 
ers and 75 who had had previous teaching experience, but who 
had not given instruction in any county in Maryland during the 
preceding year. These figures were below the comparable figures 
for the year prior to October, 1931, by 47 and 13, respectively. 
Over a six-year period the average annual reduction in the num- 
ber of inexperienced and experienced teachers employed in white 
elementary schools has been 26 and 18, respectively. (See 
Table 39.) 

Table 40, in which turnover in the individual counties for the 
school year 1931-32 may be observed, is on a slightly different 
basis from the summary turnover table just described. Since 
teachers who transfer from county to county are not new to the 
counties of the State considered as a group, but are new to the 
county to which they transfer, they have been excluded fi-om 
the summary table showing turnover for the 23 counties con- 
sidered as a group, but they have been included for the various 
counties to which they have transferred. Another difference be- 
tween the two tables arises from the fact that the earlier sum- 
mary table includes changes between one October and the next 
October, while the later table comprises all changes between the 
close of one school year and the close of the following school 
year. 

A comparison of the summary for the school years 1930-31 and 
1931-32 at the top of Table 40 indicates a reduction from 387 to 



54 



1932 Report of State Department op Education 



294 in the number of teachers new to the white elementary- 
schools of the individual counties. The corresponding percent- 
ages new to the individual counties dropped from 13.0 to 10.0 
per cent. The number of teaching positions involved decreased 
in the two periods considered by 24 and 61, respectively, due, as 
explained before, to consolidation and organization of junior 
high schools. The 210 inexperienced teachers taken into the 
service in 1931-32, were a reduction from 238 for the preceding 
school year. Likewise the 32 experienced teachers who had 
previously taught in the county, but were not in service the year 
before, showed a decrease from the comparable figure of 56 of a 
year ago. Only 17 teachers who had had teaching experience 

TABLE 40 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the 
Elementary Schools of Each Individual County 
During the School Year 1931-32 



County 



New to 
County 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1930 

to 

Oct., 1931 



Number New to Countj' Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 



Inex- 
peri- 
enced 



Experienced 



m 

County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
Year 
Before 



but 

New 

to 
State 



From 
An- 
other 
County 



From 
Junior, 
Junior- 
Senior, 

or 
Regular 

High 
School 



Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 



*Total and Averai 

1930- 1 

1931- 2 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Kent 

*Allegany 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Harford 

*Frederick 

Charles 

Garrett 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Cecil 

*Washington 

*Montgomery . . . . 

Howard 

*Prince George's. 
Anne Arundel. . . . 



387 
294 

1 

2 
2 
3 
2 

22 
3 

18 
2 



13.0 
10.1 

1.1 

3.0 
4.0 
4.3 
5.6 

5.8 
6.4 
7.0 
7.4 
9.4 

9.4 
9.5 
10.0 
11.2 
12.9 

12.9 
13.5 
13.7 
14.2 
14.7 

14.8 

15.5 
16.3 



-24 
-61 



-4 
-5 



238 
210 



-1 
-1 



-4 
+3 
-2 
+1 

-1 
-9 
-1 
-12 
+1 

-8 



+3 
-31 



+ 10 

+7 



1 

2 
3 
1 

20 
2 
8 
1 
4 

7 
12 

2 
13 
10 

18 
7 
12 
32 
13 

9 
11 

22 



I 1 
I 1 



* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools are excluded from 
this table. They are included in Table 90, page 119. 



Turnover of White Elementary Teachers 



55 



outside the State took county positions in 1931-32, whereas this 
was true of 29 teachers in 1930-31. Transfers from county to 
county dropped from 44 to 19 in the later year. The number of 
substitutes employed dropped from 15 in the earlier year to 11 
in the later year. (See Table 40.) 

Among the individual counties the number of white elementary 
teachers new to the county ranged between 1 and 36, and the per 
cent new to the elementary staff varied from 1 to 16. (See 
Table 40.) 

TEACHERS CHANGING TYPE OF SCHOOL WITHIN COUNTY 

Of 169 county teachers, who, in being transferred to different 
elementary schools within the counties in which they had posi- 
tions the preceding year, changed the type of school, i. e., from 
a one-teacher to a two-teacher or graded school or vice versa, or 
from a two-teacher to a graded school or vice, versa, only 35 
changed from a larger to a smaller school, whereas 134 went 
from smaller to larger schools. On the other hand, of 25 county 
teachers, who were in schools which changed in type* because 
of increase or decrease in enrollment, 11 were in schools which 
increased their teaching staff, while 14 were in schools which de- 
creased their teaching staff. (See Table 41.) 

TABLE 41 

Number of County White Elementary Teachers Changing Type of School 
Within the County 



Changing 
Type of 

Type of Change School* 

One-teacher to two-teacher 29 

One-teacher to graded 71 . 

Two- teacher to one-teacher 9 

Two-teacher to graded 34 

Graded to one-teacher 13 

Graded to two-teacher 13 

Total 169 



In Schools 
Which Changed 
in Type of 
Organization* 
3 

'7 

8 

■7 

25 



* From a one-teacher to a two-teacher or graded school or vice versa, or from a two- 
teacher to a graded school or vice versa. Changes in size among graded schools are not 
included. 



EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS 

The median experience of 2,784 white elementary teachers in 
service in October, 1932, was 7.6 years, or .8 more than a year 
ago. Every county, except three, reflected this increase in ex- 



56 



1932 Report of State Department 



OF Education 



PJOJJBH 



saiJBqo 



ajouiiJiBgJ. 



lapunjy auuy 



<N«-H(N 



111 



;«ci2::2l2i^ 



i 
I 



Teaching Experience; Size of White Elementary School Classes 57 

perience due to the decrease in turnover. The median experi- 
ence in the individual counties ranged between 5 and 13 years. 
(See Table 42.) 

Teachers having four and three years of experience outnum- 
bered those having fewer or more years of experience. Super- 
visors may much more easily develop a long term program with 
teachers who remain in the service over a considerable period of 
years. (See Table 42.) 

The one-teacher schools also showed an increase in the experi- 
ence of teachers, the median for the counties growing from 4 
years in 1931 to 5.1 years in October, 1932. The variation for 
these schools was greater than for all elementary schools, the 
median in one county being less than one year and in another 
county 15 years. The largest number of teachers in one-teacher 
schools had one year of experience. The inexperienced group 
was about one-third as large as it was a year ago. (See 
Table 42.) 

SIZE OF CLASS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS GROWING 

The average number of pupils belonging per principal and 
teacher in county white elementary schools increased by .9 to 
34.9 during the school year 1931-32. With the exception of three 
counties, Cecil, Caroline, and Howard, every county and Balti- 
more City shared in the increase. It is interesting to note that 
the county average per teacher and principal was two more than 
the Baltimore City average, and that only seven counties had a 
lower average than Baltimore City. The range among the coun- 
ties was from 27.7 in St. Mary's to 40.9 pupils belonging per 
teacher and principal in Baltimore County. (See Chart 10.) 

It was the smaller one- and two-teacher schools which brought 
about the low average per teacher in the counties standing at the 
bottom in Char^t 10. The average enrollment per teacher in one- 
teacher schools was 25.7, in two-teacher schools 30.6, and in 
graded schools 37.8. The average for one-teacher schools was 
lower than that for two-teacher schools, and for two-teacher 
schools was lower than that for graded schools in every county, 
except four — Wicomico, Somerset, Howard, and Talbot — in 
which the two-teacher schools had a lower average per teacher 
than the one-teacher schools. (See Table 43.) 



58 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 10 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Washington 

Pr. George's 

Worcester 

CecU 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Kent 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 



1930 1931 1932 
53.6 34.0 



40.3 
37.6 
34.9 
30.0 
33.8 
33.9 
34.6 
34.0 
35.0 
30.?. 
32.5 
30.6 
32.3 
31.1 
33.3 
32.0 
32.1 
28.3 
30.4 
31.2 
29.0 
24.7 
27.0 



39.8 
37.3 
35.7 
35.0 
34.5 
54.7 
35.1 
54.5 
34.4 
31.8 
33 
31.1 
33.6 
31.7 
32.5 
31.6 
32.3 
28.7 
30.5 
31.3 
28.8 
26.6 
27.6 






Balto. City 32.1 32.0 



State 



33.0 33.2 




• Excludes 27.3 for junior high and 16.4 for vocational schools. 
For counties arranged alphabetically for 1932 data, see Table XV, page 293. 



The average per teacher in one-teacher schools varied from 
18 to 32.3, in two-teacher schools from 21.0 to 36.3, and in graded 
schools from 32.4 to 42.0. (See Table 43.) 



Pupils Belonging per White Elementary Teacher 



59 



TABLE 43 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



County 



Schools 
Having 
One 

Teacher County 



Schools 
Having 
Two 

Teachers County 



Schools 
Having 

Three or 
More 

Teachers 



County Average. . . 25 . 7 

Baltimore 32.3 

Wicomico 31.0 

Frederick 29.3 

Talbot 27.9 

Cecil 27.6 

Prince George's 26 . 2 

Harford 26.1 

Somerset 25.7 

Howard 25.6 

Washington 25.3 

St. Mary's 25.2 

Garrett 25.1 

Montgomery 25.1 

Calvert 24.9 

Allegany 24.8 

Caroline 24.5 

Worcester 24.1 

Anne Arundel 24 . 

Carroll 23.3 

Dorchester 23.2 

Queen Anne's 22 . 3 

Kent 22.1 

Charles 18.0 



County Average. . . 30 . 6 

Baltimore 36.3 

Queen Anne's 36 . 1 

Frederick 34.4 

Allegany 33.8 

Calvert 33.6 

Washington 33.3 

Worcester 32.8 

Garrett 31.2 

Cecil 31.1 

Kent 31.0 

Carroll 29.8 

Prince George's ... 29 . 3 

Dorchester 29.3 

Caroline 29.1 

Harford 27.5 

St. Mary's 26.8 

Wicomico 26.6 

Montgomery 26.5 

Charles 26.0 

Anne Arundel 25 . 4 

Somerset 25.3 

Howard 24.9 

Talbot 21.0 



County Average. . . 37.8 

Baltimore 42.0 

St. Mary's 40.5 

Calvert 39.9 

Wicomico 39.3 

Charles 39.2 

Anne Arundel 39 . 2 

Frederick 38.4 

Cecil 38.4 

Queen Anne's 38 . 3 

Dorchester 38.3 

Carroll 37.7 

Talbot 37.5 

Washington 37 . 4 

Worcester 37 . 4 

Howard 37.2 

Harford 37.1 

Somerset 37 . 

Prince George's ... 36 . 7 

Garrett 36.5 

Allegany 36 . 3 

Kent 36.1 

Caroline 35.7 

Montgomery 32.4 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 293. 



SALARIES OF TEACHERS SHOW INCREASE 

The average 1932 salary per principal and teacher in county 
white elementary schools ($1,230) showed a smaller increase, 
$13, than for any year since 1919. The increase in the propor- 
tion of teachers holding regular first grade certificates and the 
added number of teachers with more than 3 years of experience 
account for the increase. (See Table 44.) 

Salaries of elementary teachers, rated as first class, according 
to the minimum State salary schedule are $950 for the first three 
years of experience, $1,050 for the next two years, $1,100 for the 
next three years, and $1,150 thereafter. As a result of 1933 



60 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 44 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher 

1932-1917 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year 


\^Tiite 


Year 


White 


Ending 


Elementarj- 


Ending 


Elementary 


June 30 


School 


June 30 


School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1932 


$1,230 


1924 


$1,030 


1931 


1,217 


1923 


990 


1930 


1 , 199 


1922 


937 


1929 


1 , 184 


1921 


881 


1928 


1,155 


1920 


631 


1927 


1,126 


1919 


521 


1926 


1 , 103 


1918 


542 


1925 


1,057 


1917 


491 



legislation, these salaries will be subject to a 10 per cent reduc- 
tion beginning in September, 1933, and the salary increments 
based on experience will not be paid for a two-year period. 
Teachers holding first grade certificates in charge of one- or two- 
teacher schools receive $100 additional. Principals of elementary 
schools receive salaries varying with experience and size of 
school, the maximum being $1,750. All salaries from $1,200 to 
$1,799 will be subject to a reduction of 11 per cent for a two- 
year period beginning in September, 1933, and no salary incre- 
ments based on experience will be paid. The teachers in three 
counties, Allegany, Baltimore and Cecil, receiving more than the 
minimum salary schedule voted to accept a reduction in salary 
if all other county officials did likewise. 

The average salary of white elementary teachers in every 
county, except five, Anne Arundel, Washington, Calvert, How- 
ard, and Carroll, showed an increase from 1931 to 1932. The 
salaries in the counties ranged from an average of $1,077 to 
$1,541, six of the counties at the top of the list with a range from 
$1,200 to $1,541, paying above the minimum State schedule. The 
average salary in Baltimore City of $1,788 was a decrease of 
$24 under 1931. This is partly accounted for by the 6% per cent 
salary decrease which took effect January 1, 1932. A decrease 
of 10 per cent went into effect in January, 1933, in Baltimore 
City. (See Chart 11.) 

The average salary in one-teacher schools, $1,153, was lower 
than the average in two-teacher schools, $1,198, and in graded 
schools, $1,254. Despite the additional $100 paid by law to quali- 



Salaries of White Elementary Teachers 
CHART 11 



61 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1929 


1930 


1931 


Co. Average 


$1184 $1199 $1217 




1518 


1505 


1522 


f.'ontgomery 


1228 


1285 


1328 


Allegany 


1262 


1265 


1294 


Pr. George's 


1194 


1204 


1207 


Cecil 


1170 


1197 


1205 


Anne Arundel 


1192 


1209 


1210 


Queen Anne's 


1151 


1174 


1126 


Kent 


1155 


1151 


U58 


Washington 


1155 


U65 


U78 


Harford 


1071 


1106 


1128 


Garrett 


1067 


1084 


1105 


Frederick 


1083 


1099 


U09 


Vvicoinico 


1114 


1124 


1125 


Talbot 


1121 


1092 


1108 


Calvert 


1119 


1070 


1118 


Somerset 


1081 


1088 


1100 


Worcester 


1073 


1069 


1091 


Howard 


1074 


1091 


1105 


Caroline 


1061 


UOl 


1092 


Carroll 


1064 


1082 


1097 


Dorchester 


1042 


1065 


1075 


Charles 


1024 


1033 


1086 


St. yary's 


991 


1015 


1052 


Balto. City 


1780 


1759 


1812 


State 


1408 


1415 


1448 




* Excludes $1,908 for junior high and $1,892 for vocational teachers in 1932. 
For counties arranged alphabetically for 1932 data, see Table XVI, page 294. 



fied teachers in charge of one- and two-teacher schools, teachers 
with experience usually prefer to work in a larger school at a 
reduction in salary. (See Table 45.) 



62 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 45 

Average Salary Per Teacher in County White Elementary Schools for Year 
Ending July, 1932 



Schools 
Having 



County One 
Teacher 



County Average . . $1 , 153 

Baltimore 1 , 632 

Montgomery 1,400 

Prince George's ... 1 . 253 

Allegany 1 , 156 

Cecil 1,151 

Kent 1,148 

Anne Arundel .... 1 , 142 

Calvert 1,137 

Queen Anne's .... 1 , 136 

Garrett 1,131 

Frederick 1,125 

Washington 1,122 

Wicomico 1,118 

Harford 1,116 

Somerset 1,113 

Talbot 1,100 

Worcester 1,099 

St. Mary's 1,098 

Howard 1,087 

Caroline 1,085 

Carroll 1,048 

Dorchester 1 . 048 

Charles 850 



Schools 
Having 
County Two 
Teachers 



County Average . . $1 , 198 

Baltimore 1,561 

Montgomery 1,313 

Allegany 1,302 

Prince George's ... 1 , 220 

Kent 1,197 

Queen Anne's .... 1 , 186 

Cecil 1,179 

Calvert 1,151 

W^orcester 1 , 139 

Washington 1 , 137 

Frederick 1,136 

Garrett 1,126 

Harford 1,118 

Talbot 1,107 

Anne Arundel .... 1 , 106 

Wicomico 1 , 105 

Howard 1,084 

Dorchester 1,081 

St. Mary's 1,073 

Caroline 1,061 

Charles 1,054 

Somerset 1,049 

Carroll 1,008 



Schools 
Having 

County Three or 

More 
Teachers 



County Average . . $1 , 254 

Baltimore 1,532 

Montgomery 1 , 364 

Allegany 1,308 

Cecil 1,260 

Queen Anne's .... 1 , 228 

Prince George's ... 1 , 217 

Anne Arundel .... 1.211 

Washington 1 , 180 

Kent 1,178 

Harford 1,167 

Wicomico 1,135 

Garrett 1,133 

Talbot 1,133 

Frederick 1,128 

Somerset 1 , 125 

Carroll 1,124 

Howard 1,121 

Dorchester 1,121 

Caroline 1,107 

Charles 1,101 

Worcester 1,100 

Calvert 1,049 

St. Marv's 1,018 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XVI, page 294. 

In Baltimore, Prince George's, and St. Mary's Counties, the 
reverse is the case, the highest average salary is paid in one- 
teacher schools, the next highest in two-teacher schools, and the 
lowest salary in graded schools; in Kent, Worcester, and Fred- 
erick the two-teacher schools have the highest average salary; 
while in Montgomery, Garrett, Anne Arundel, Wicomico, How- 
ard, Caroline, Somerset, and Carroll, the teachers in two-teacher 
schools received the lowest salary. Calvert had its highest salary 
in two-teacher schools and the lowest in graded schools. (See 
Table 45.) 



Salaries of White Elementary Teachers and Principals 



63 



Salaries in October, 1932 

The reductions in salaries which took effect in several counties 
in September, 1932, are reflected in the distribution of salaries 
for 2,564 teachers in county white elementary schools in October, 
1932. The median salary of teachers in schools having one- 
teacher or three or more teachers is $1,150, while it is $1,200 in 
schools having two teachers. The median salary for 1,792 
graded teachers is $50 less than for October, 1931, while for 359 
instructing in two-teacher schools it is $50 more than a year ago. 
(See Table 46.) 

TABLE 46 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers in Service 
in Maryland Counties, October, 1932 



TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY 
SCHOOLS* 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



8 
1 

7 
1 

144 
17 
53 
47 
75 
14 
16 
9 
1 
7 
1 



413 
$1 . 150 



TT„ ■„„ Graded 

H^^'^^^S Schools 

Teachers Excluding 

ieacners principals 



6 
3 

36 
8 
46 
19 
59 
23 
70 
18 
13 
24 
4 
6 
2 
6 
3 
2 
2 
8 



359 
$1,200 



10 
5 
151 
64 
209 
190 
316 
156 
251 
114 
56 
76 
25 
25 
21 
100 
4 
10 
5 



1,792 
$1,150 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



24 
9 

194 
73 
399 
226 
428 
226 
396 
146 
85 
109 
30 
38 
24 
106 
7 
12 
9 
13 



2,564 
$1 , 150 



Salarv 



$1,150. 
1.200. 
1,250. 
1,300. 
1,350. 
1,400. 
1,450. 
1,500. 
1,550. 
1,600. 
1.650. 
1,700. 
1,750. 
1,800. 
1.850. 
1.900. 
1.950. 
2.000. 
.050. 
.100. 
.150. 
,200. 
,250. 
,300. 
,350. 
,400. 
,500. 



Total 
Median , 



* Teachers in Junior High Schools will be found in Table 10.3, page 135. 



64 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



The median salary for 220 principals of county white ele- 
mentary schools having three or more teachers is $1,550, $100 
less than for October, 1931. (See Table 46.) 



MORE MEN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of men in service in county white 
elementary schools in 1931-32 was higher than for any year 
since 1928. There were 217 men who included 7.2 per cent of 
the staff. For the most part the men employed held positions 
as elementary school principals. (See Table 47.) 



TABLE 47 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching in County White Elementary Schools 



Year X umber Per Cent 

1932 217 7.2 

1931 206 6.7 

1930 195 6.4 

1929 20S 6.8 

1928 204 6.6 



Year Number Per Cent 

1927 218 7.1 

1926 224 7.3 

1925 233 7.6 

1924 253 8.3 

1923 287 9.4 



The per cent of the staff in the white elementary schools who 
were men varied from to 15. Carroll, Frederick, Washington, 
and Garrett, which employed the highest percentage of men, had 
fewer men in service in 1931-32 than they had the preceding 
year. On the other hand, Baltimore County, Dorchester, Anne 
Arundel, Allegany, Montgomery, and Caroline employed more 
men than they had the year preceding. (See Table 48.) 



TABLE 48 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number 


Per Cent 


3 


3.2 


4.2 


3.4 


10 


4.7 


2 


5.1 


21.5 


6.4 


10.7 


6.4 


7 


7.7 


15 


11.3 


44.8 


11.4 


39 


12.7 


26.1 


12.9 


21.7 


14.7 



Total and Average 217 . 2 



Calvert 

Kent 

Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Prince George's. 

Howard 

Talbot 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Caroline 



7.2 



1 

3 
1 

1.2 

2 

2 

9 



1.1 

1.4 
1.6 
2.3 
2.9 
3.1 
3.1 



Cecil 

Harford 

Montgomery . 

Charles 

Allegany .... 
Anne Arundel 
Dorchester . . . 

Garrett 

Baltimore. . . 
Washington. . 

Frederick 

Carroll 



Men in Elementary Schools; Cost per White Elementary Pupil 65 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL LOWER 

The instruction cost per county white elementary pupil was 
nearly one dollar less in 1932 than for the school year preceding. 
While the average cost per pupil was ?49, in individual counties 



CHART 12 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN TVHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1930 1931 1932 

Co. Average $ 50 $ 50 

Montgomery 
St. Mary's 
Kent 
Calvert 
Queen Anne's 
Charles 
Anne Arundel 
Garrett 
Allegany 
Caroline 
Talbot 
Carroll 
Worcester 
Pr. George's 
Cecil 
Howard 
Dorchester 
Baltimore 
Somerset 
Harford 
Wicomico 
Frederick 
Washington 

Baltimore City 74 76 
State 69 60 




* Excludes $85 for junior high and $180 for vocational schools. 
For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 169, page 225. 



66 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



the amounts varied from $43 to $61. Of the counties 15 showed 
a decrease in cost per pupil, while but 8 had a larger expenditure 
per pupil. In Baltimore City there was a decrease of $3, making 
the cost per pupil $73. (See Chart 12.) 

All the items making up the cost per county pupil in white ele- 
mentary schools were lower in 1932 than in 1931, except auxil- 
iary agencies, which were higher by 50 cents per pupil, and su- 
pervision, which was higher by 1 cent per pupil. Salaries of 
teachers were lower by 56 cents, repairs by 47 cents, books and 
materials by 21 cents, and heating and cleaning buildings by 17 
cents. 

Supervision Cost per Pupil 

The average cost of supervision, $1.39, varied from $.82, $.96, 
and $1.09 in Baltimore, Washington, and Prince George's Coun- 
ties, respectively, which did not employ the full number of su- 
pervisors to which they were entitled, to $2.20 or more per pupil 
in St. Mary's, Kent, and Calvert, the three smallest counties in 
white elementary public school enrollment. (See columns 1 and 
9, Table 49, for cost and rank in cost per pupil for supervision.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil 

The average salary cost of $35.23 per county white elementary 
pupil represented a range from $29.68 in Charles County to 
$44.03 in Montgomery. Montgomery was the only county which 
spent over $39 per pupil for salaries. Salary cost per pupil is 
determined by size of class and salary schedule in effect. Coun- 
ties with small classes will tend to have a high salary cost per 
pupil and vice versa. A high salary schedule will tend to increase 
costs. (See columns 2 and 10, Table 49, for cost and rank in cost 
per pupil for salaries.) 

Cost of Books and Materials per Pupil 

On the average the counties spent for books and materials for 
each white elementary pupil $1.91. The amount spent per pupil 
varied from $1.05 in St. Mary's to over $2.50 in Montgomery, 
Queen Anne's, Carroll, Allegany, and Anne Arundel. For this 
purpose the State contributed from the books and materials 
funds 87 cents per pupil, which is part of the amounts just given. 
In Equalization Fund counties even more was contributed by the 
State as part of the 24 per cent for purposes other than salaries. 
(See columns 3 and 11, Table 49, for cost and rank in cost per 
pupil of books, materials and "other" costs of instruction.) 

Operation and Maintenance Costs 

Cleaning and heating buildings cost $3.62 per county white 
elementary pupil, the cost varying among the counties from $1.78 
in St. Mary's to between $5 and $6 in Kent and Montgomery. 
(See columns 4 and 12, Table 49, for operation cost and rank 
in operation cost per pupil.) 



Cost per White Elementary School Pupil 



67 







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68 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Repair of buildings and equipment required an average ex- 
penditure for each white elementary county pupil of $1.27. A 
number of counties spent less than one dollar per pupil for this 
purpose, viz. Howard, Baltimore, Washington, Somerset, Gar- 
rett, Frederick, Cecil, and Queen Anne's. Prince George's and 
Montgomery were the only counties which spent over $1.75 for 
this purpose. (See columns 5 and 13 of Table 49.) 

Increase in Per Pupil Cost for Auxiliary Agencies 

Auxiliary agencies include expenditures for transportation, 
libraries, and health. The average cost per white elementary 
pupil in 1932 was $5.85 and these amounts varied from less than 
$3 per pupil in Washington County to over $10 per pupil in Caro- 
line, Anne Arundel, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Charles, and Cal- 
vert Counties. (See columns 6 and 14 of Table 49.) 

In Table 50, the counties are arranged in the order of their 
expenditures per pupil for auxiliary agencies, the highest county 
appearing first, the expenditures for transportation, libraries, 
health, and physical education being shown separately. (See 
Table 50.) 

TABLE 50 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools— Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



Traxsportatiox 



Libraries 



Pupils 
Trans- , 
ported 
at 

County ' 
Expense 1 



Amount 
Spent 



Cost 

per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



Total Ex- 
penditures 

for 
Libraries 



Total and Average . 



Calvert 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Howard 

[Montgomery. . . 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Harford 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 

Prince George's. 
Washington . . . . 



24,793 $57 



356 12 
838 21 



,895.28; $23.39 

I I 



$9,270.13 $9.31 



346 
616 
t2,735 
940 
662 
872 

1,968 
318 

1,004 

2,535 
747 
656 
324 

1,310 

1,880 
547 
541 
622 

2,951 
951 

1,074 



,975.65! 
.109.12! 
.264.55 
,924.20 
,217.941 
.685.00 
,369.29 
,932.09 
,779.95i 
.438.86 
,259.81 
.054.01, 
.679.93 
.362.40 
.826.10 
, 1.39 . 14 
.858.87 
,013.47 
.943.90 
.112.00 
.104.56 
.766.67] 
.077.77 



36.45 
25.19 
38.34: 
30.72 
20.92; 
22.01 
26.24 
22.86 
21.23 
32.83 
23.17 
22.90| 
38.39 
21.891 
30.33 
19.95 
23.86 
23 . 79 
29.47 
19.47 
17.66 
21.841 
25.21 



Amount per 



School 



174.18 
170. 69 i 
116.37 
894.84! 
439.99 
305.20! 

32.01 
.365.00 
216.66 
478.501 
178.72; 
212.50! 
69.51' 
46.371 



10.89 
15.52 

4.85 
37.29 
13.33 
13.87 

2.00 
13.52 

3.67 
18.40 

4.47 

4.01 
.78 

1.66 



Teacher 



744.901 
1,223.84; 
135.18 
150.00 
429.62: 
1,615.00 
595.001 
676.05 



13.79 
18.27 
2.94 
2.83 
10.48 
20.19 
9.60 
7.35 



$3.07 

6.70 
4.31 
3.32 

18.92 
2.63 
4.81 
.62 
5.62 
1.47 

10.40 
1.96 
1.05 
.53 



3.51 
3.63 
1.42 
1.20 
4.52 
4.10 
2.82 
2.20 



Health axd 
Physical 
Educatiox 



Total Ex- 
penditures 
for 
Health 



$16,799.23 


$ .16 


50.00 


.03 


111.03 
2,417.79 
115.64 


.07 

.38 
.05 






1,860.76 
58.67 
195.00 


.38 
.04 
.07 


3.00 










3,553.89 
1,885.52 
100.00 


.54 
.16 
.03 






*3,013.51 
1,617.22 
1,817.20 


*.19 
.22 
.17 



Amount 
per 
Pupil 



t Includes 35 pupils transported to the elementary schools of Prince George's County. 

* Expended for teachers of physical education on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. 



Cost per White El. Pupil for Aux. Agencies, Transportation 69 



More White Elementary Pupils Transported 

Expenditures for transportation account for more than 95 per 
cent of the amounts spent for auxiliary agencies. These costs 
replace expenditures for maintenance of one- and two-teacher 
schools, many of which have been eliminated through their con- 
solidation with larger schools. 

The number of pupils transported to white elementary schools 
increased by 4,200 from 20,593 in 1931 to 24,793 in 1932. Every 
county helped to bring about this increase in pupils transported 
which brought the cost to $580,000 or nearly $68,000 more than 
the year preceding. The cost per county white elementary pupil 
transported, $23.39, was less by $1.50 than the corresponding 
amount for 1931. (See Table 50.) 

Cost per white elementary pupil transported varied from less 
than $20 per pupil in Baltimore, Wicomico and Montgomery 
Counties to over $30 in Howard, Queen Anne's, Kent, Calvert, 
St. Mary's, and Garrett. Baltimore and Montgomery Counties 
own a number of the busses in operation. (See Table 50.) 

On the average, 23 per cent of the white elementary public 
school pupils were transported to school at public expense. One 
county, Washington, transported as few as 10 per cent while at 
the opposite extreme 56 per cent were transported in Charles. 
The counties transporting the largest proportion of their ele- 
mentary pupils are those which have done the most to consoli- 
date their schools by the elimination of the one- and two-teacher 
schools. These counties will be found listed first in Table 51, 
while those at the end of the table still had a large proportion of 
pupils in one-teacher schools during the school year 1931-32, or 
had large portions of their population living in thickly populated 
sections. (See Table 51.) 

TABLE 51 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County White Elementary Pupils Transported to 
School at Public Expense Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



Total and Average 

Charles 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Dorchester 



24,793 

838 
940 

2,700 
356 

1,968 
616 
872 
662 
346 

2,535 

1,004 



23.1 

56.1 
44.2 
42.5 
41.4 
39.5 
38.8 
38.6 
35.4 
34.8 
33.2 
32.9 



Somerset 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 

Garrett 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Howard 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Washington. . . . 



656 
318 

1,310 
747 

2,951 
622 
324 
547 

1.880 
986 
541 

1.074 



28.1 
22.4 
19.5 
18.8 
18.0 
17.4 
17.2 
17.0 
15.5 
13.3 
13.1 
9.8 



70 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



It will be noted that the ranking in Table 51 corresponds 
rather closely with that in Table 50, indicating that the per cent 
of pupils transported gives quite an accurate index of the place 
which auxiliary agencies occupy in school finances. Expendi- 
tures for transportation replace salaries of teachers as the con- 
solidation program is carried forward. (See Tables 50 and 51.) 

County Expenditures For Library Books Decrease 
County expenditures for library books totaled $9,270 in 1932 
compared with $14,231 the year preceding. The average amount 
spent per school was $9.31 and per teacher $3.07. Howard spent 
nothing; Garrett, Talbot and Somerset less than one dollar per 
teacher; while Kent and Queen Anne's spent $10.40 and $18.92 
per teacher, respectively, for library books. These amounts 
exclude the funds raised by the schools themselves, which accord- 
ing to law, are matched by the county when thev reach a total 
of ten dollars. (See Table 50.) 

COOPERATION WITH THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSIGNf 

In addition to the library facilities of the schools, many teach- 
ers took advantage of the opportunities for obtaining books from 
the public libraries in the counties and from the Maryland Public 
Libraiy Advisory Commission with offices at 517 North Charles 
Street in Baltimore. (See Table 52.) 

The number of volumes loaned by the Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission to the white elementary schools decreased 
from 12,022 in 1930-31 to 9,799 in 1931-32. All of the counties, 
except Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somer- 
set, and Wicomico, borrowed fewer books the later than the 
earlier year. The Eastern Shore counties made considerable use 
of the Maryland Library Commission in connection with the 
social studies units which were worked out by teachers and 
supervisors with the guidance of Miss Wiedefeld, State Super- 
visor of Elementary Schools. (See Table 52.) 

Travelling school libraries are collections of books loaned for 
a period of four months, at the end of which time they may be 
returned and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for 
four more months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by 
parcel post; thirty-five in those sent by express. The cost of 
transporting the books must be taken care of by the school bene- 
fiting and guarantee of reimbursement for lost or damaged books 
is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made 
up to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, indi- 
vidual needs or professional reading of teachers. These are 
loaned to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to a 
public library. 



t Data supplied by Adelene J. Pratt, Director of Public Libraries. 



Expenditures for El. Library Books; Md. Library Commission 71 

TABLE 52 



Service of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to County White 
Elementary Schools, School Year, 1931-1932 



County 


1 otal 

IN O. OI 

Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 


Number of 


Number of 


ocnoois 
Supplied 


Suppli6d. 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 




9,799 


165 


209 


275 


79 


84 


266 


All 


a341 


a8 


a9 


o9 


o2 


a2 


o21 


Anne Arundel . . . 


COZoO 


cbS 


cb3 


cb7 


5 




5 


Baltimore 


1,300 


19 


20 


32 


16 


17 


67 




1 n 

xU 








1 


1 


3 


Caroline 


574 


4 


10 


16 


1 


1 


4 




1 ,581 


24 


40 


47 


4 


4 


16 




1 OKn 
1 , ^ou 


29 


29 


39 


6 


6 


11 


Charles 


c6370 


cb4 


cb6 


c612 










c218 


c4 


c4 


c4 


cl5 


cl7 


c32 




c422 


c8 


clO 


cl3 


cl 


cl 


cl 


Garrett 


885 


15 


23 


28 










c6665 


c610 


c613 


C&19 


c66 


c66 


c635 




205 


3 


3 


3 


5 


5 


17 


















Montgomery .... 


161 


5 


5 


5 


2 


2 


2 


Prince George's. . 


152 


5 


5 


5 


1 


1 


1 


Queen Anne's . . . 


137 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


4 


St. Mary's 


210 


4 


5 


7 










493 


8 


10 


10 


13 


15 


42 


Talbot 


c6140 


cbl 


cbl 


c64 










d 










c268 


c7 


c7 


c8 


c2 


c2 


c2 




182 


2 


4 


4 


2 


2 


8 



a CumberlandJPublic Library supplied the schools in|Cumberland from its own collection. In addition, 
the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools and supplied other 
schools of the coiinty as shown above. 

b Limited library service given to schools by Coimty Library. 

c Library privalege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no outside 
help. 

Teachers from an elementary school at Cumberland and Dun- 
dalk attended the Library Institute held at Hood College under 
the auspices of the Maryland Library Commission in the summer 
of 1932. 

Health and Physical Education Expenditures Decline Only Slightly 

The county expenditures for health and physical education in 
a few counties amounted in the aggregate to $16,799, a decrease 
of $664 under 1931. The county boards of education in Anne 
Arundel, Carroll, Montgomery, Prince George's and Washington 
pay the salaries of nurses who are given responsibility for fol- 
lowing up the health program for school children. In Allegany 
most of these funds are used for dental service. Baltimore 
County promotes health of school children through the physical 
education program, carried out with the staff of the Playground 
Athletic League. (See Table 50, page 68.) 



72 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



In nine counties no expenditures from public funds were re- 
ported by the boards of education for health and physical educa- 
tion purposes and in seven counties expenditures varied between 
$3 and $195. In these counties reliance is probably being placed 
on the health programs of the full time health officers and nurses 
working under the jurisdiction of the State Department of 
Health. 

SCHOOL HEALTH ACTIVITIES OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH* 

By the end of the school year 1931-32, 21 of the counties of 
Maryland had full-time county health service. At the close of 
the year 1932, Caroline and St. Mary's were the only counties 
without such service. (See Table 53.) 

TABLE 53 

♦Staff and Cost for Counties Having Full-Time Health Officers, September, 1932 

(Airanged According to Date When Full-Time Officer Was Appointed) 



COUNTY 



1 Year 
Started 



Number of 



Nurses 



Clerks 



Total 
Budget 



Amount of 
Receipts from 



County 



State 



other 
Agen- 
cies 



Per Cent of 
Receipts from 



other 
Countyj State Agen- 
cies 



Total 

AUegany 

Montgomery. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Cecil 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Washington. . . 
Anne Arundel . 

Worcester 

Garrett 

Dorchester. . . . 
Queen Anne's . . 

Howard 

Somerset 

Charles 



21 

1922 
1923 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1927 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1929 
1930 
1930 
1930 
1931 
1931 
1931 
1931 
1932 
1932 
1932 



22 



$304,719 

39,074 
22,300 
31,530 
8,215 
13,835 
10,767 
9,379 
8,250 
10,614 
12,469 
11,530 
12,682 
22,266 
30,592 
8,331 
15,190 
11,191 
7,896 
3,685 
4,608 
10,315 



$93,314 

14,310 
9,100 
19,631 
2,400 
5,200 
,900 
,000 
,500 
,600 
,900 
,000 
,400 
,500 
,000 
,000 
,820 
650 
,400 
333 
450 
,220 



$154,360 

10,084 

10,200 
5,569 
5,515 
8,335 
4,067 
6,514 
5,750 
3,514 
7,227 
6.230 
8,904 
7,266 

19,042 
6,331 

11,370 
7,341 
5,496 
2,352 
4,158 
9,095 



$57,045 

14.680 
3,000 
6,330 
300 
300 
1,800 
865 



2,500 
1,342 
2,300 
1,378 
11,500 
6.550 



3,200 

iiooo 



30 


6, 


36 


6' 


40 


8i 


62 




29 




37 


i! 


45 




21 


3 


30 




43 


% 


31 


3| 


26 




18 


% 

7i 


15 


16 


3 


24 





25 


1! 


5 


8 


30 


4i 


9 


0' 


9 


8: 


11 


8 



50.7 

25.8 
45.7 
17.7 
67.1 
60.2 
37.8 
69.5 
69.7 
33.1 
57.9 
54.0 
70.2 
32.6 
62.3 
76.0 
74.9 
65.6 
69.6 
63.8 
90.2 
88.2 



18.7 

37.6 
13.5 
20.1 
3.7 
2.2 
16.7 
9.2 



23 


6 


10 


8 


20 





10 


9 


51 


7 


21 


4 




28.6 


27 


2 





"Data furnished by the State Depar 

There were employed 



ment of Health. 



n the offices of the full-time health 
officers in these 21 counties 52 nurses and 22 clerks. The budgets 
for these offices totaled nearly $305,000 of which 51 per cent 
came from State funds, 30 per cent from county funds, and 19 
per cent from other agencies. State aid varied from 18 per cent 
of the budget in Baltimore County to 90 per cent in Somerset. 
County support ranged from 6 per cent of the budget in Dor- 

* Report furnished through the courtesy of Dr. John H. Riley, Director, State Department 
of Health. 



School Health Activities of State Department of Health 73 



Chester to 62 per cent in Baltimore County. No help was given 
by other agencies in six counties, while at the opposite extreme 
in Washington County 52 per cent came from private sources. 
(See Table 53.) 

Medical Examination and Inspection of School Children 

Medical examination of school children on the invitation of 
school authorities and the control of communicable diseases in 
the schools are important features of the regular duties of the 
County Health Officers. The number of pupils examined or in- 
spected during the year ending July 31, 1932, was 95,729, an 
increase of 26 per cent over the number examined or inspected 
during the school year ending July 31, 1931. Baltimore County 
led with a total of 22,592; Carroll came next with 9,760; Alle- 
gany was third with 7,566. (See Table 54.) 



TABLE 54 

School Activities of the Maryland State Department of Health, 1931-32 



COUXTY 



No. of 
Public 
Health 
Nurses 
Working 
in 

Counties 



No. of 
Visits to 
Schools 

by 
Nurses 



No. of 
Pupils 

Ex- 
amined 



Preschool Childrex Examixed 
IX Sprixg axd Summer, 1931 



Number 



White Colored 



Per Cext 



White Colored 



Per Cent 
Examined 
Requiring 
Vaccination 



White Colored 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

^Vlontgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



1,029 

893 
842 
,218 
307 
91 
516 
180 
355 
176 
532 
428 
302 
5 

529 
235 
432 
437 
t 
64 
467 
392 
325 
303 



95,729 

7,566 
6,109 
22.592 
2,237 
1,392 
9,760 
6,196 
2,923 
2,123 
4,647 
7,050 
1,770 
155 
2,959 
2,192 
2,234 
2,056 
t 

480 
3,646 
3,459 
2,919 
1,264 



3,894 

880 
300 
751 
15 
17 
44 
123 
101 
33 
347 
26 
172 
32 
48 
135 
321 
21 
45 
42 
9 

426 



1,069 



36 
121 



11 
166 



55 



127 
85 
77 
56 
26 
69 
32 
13 
11 
38 



26.4 

46.9 
37.0 
31.4 
13.4 

6.2 

6.8 
25.9 
48.6 

8.7 
34.4 

4.7 
32.5 
10.3 
27.1 
15.0 
29.7 
10.6 
16.3 
13.6 

4.3 
32.6 



30.2 



87.8 
35.5 



7.4 
100.0 



88.5 
27.9 



27.0 



62.5 



2.1 



100.0 
36.5 
18.9 
60.9 
13.8 
30.4 
21.8 
52.0 
5.7 
19.3 



53.9 

47.0 
66.0 
62.5 
33.3 
82.4 
90.9 
89.4 
48.5 
84.8 
85.3 
73.1 
27.3 
81.3 
95.8 
28.9 
54.5 
52.4 
97.8 
100.0 
66.7 
3.5 



71.0 



97.2 
81.0 



18.2 
97.6 



77.8 
78.7 
100.0 

93.3 



38.2 



98.4 
12.9 
5.2 
50.0 
92.3 
95.7 
65.6 



100.0 



100.0 
84.2 



Complete medical examinations were limited as a rule to chil- 
dren in certain grades only. Particular attention was paid to 
the first, third, fourth, and seventh grades, with reexamination 
of selected groups previously examined and in need of corrective 
treatment, or inspection of children in other grades at the re- 
quest of the teachers or in connection with the control of com- 
municable diseases. 



74 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

The findings in the examination* of 9,123 white and colored 
children in public and parochial schools in Baltimore County may- 
be regarded as typical of those throughout the State. Of the 
total examined, 1,484 or 16.3 per cent were underweight or gave 
other evidence of malnutrition; 7,893 or 86.5 per cent needed 
dental attention ; 6,977 or 76.5 per cent had infected or enlarged 
tonsils. 

Analysis of the Baltimore County figures for malnutrition as 
indicated by underweight shows that the highest percentages 
were found in farming sections in the upper part of the county, 
while the lowest percentages appeared in the lower part of the 
county bordering the Patapsco where industrial communities are 
located, but one farming section in the upper end of the county 
also had a low percentage. 

The percentage of malnutrition in Baltimore County children 
examined was lowest in the first grade (11.5) and gradually in- 
creased until it reached 24.3 per cent in the sixth grade. 

There were 2,780 Baltimore County children immunized 
against diphtheria, and 998 children had corrections made. 

Visits of Nurses to Schools 

The counties had 55 nurses engaged in public health work dur- 
ing the year. There was at least one nurse in each county; Al- 
legany and Baltimore each had 7 ; Washington and Anne Arundel 
each had 4; Frederick, Montgomery and Wicomico each had 3; 
eight counties had 2 nurses, each ; and in each of the remaining 
eight there was one nurse. The nurses assisted the health offi- 
cers in the examination and inspection of school children. They 
also assisted in the preschool conferences, in the activities for 
the control of communicable diseases, in the immunization and 
the dental clinics. 

Examination of Preschool Children 

Special conferences for the examination of preschool children 
in preparation for their admission to school were held during 
the spring and summer. Through the cooperation of the county 
superintendents of schools, many of the examinations were held 
in the school buildings. A series of conferences was also held 
during the summer in connection with the visits of the health- 
mobile to Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore. The itin- 
erary for the healthmobile covered St. Mary's, Charles, Calvert, 
Queen Anne's, Kent and Somerset counties. The healthmobile 
staff included a physician with special training in child care, a 
dentist, the public health nurse of the county visited, and the 



* Dr. Tillson examined Baltimore County children in grades one and three of the larger 
public schools and in all grades of the smaller schools. Parochial school children were 
examined on request as were children in grades other than one and three of the larger public 
schools. 



School Health Activities of State Department of Health 75 



chauffeur who helped with the health movies. Largely through 
the cooperation of the Parent-Teacher Associations, there was a 
marked increase in the number of children brought to these con- 
ferences for examination. 

Particular attention was paid to the general health of the chil- 
dren, to nutrition as indicated by weight; to conditions of the 
nose and throat, the chest, heart and lungs, posture, vision, hear- 
ing and the teeth. A detailed record was made of each exami- 
nation and a copy of the findings was sent to the family physi- 
cian. The mothers were directed to consult their family doctors 
and an effort was made to persuade the parents to have condi- 
tions needing correction attended to before the schools opened. 
A record was made, as usual, of all children who attended these 
conferences who had not been vaccinated against smallpox. This 
was brought to the attention of the family physician and also to 
the county health officer so that arrangements for vaccination 
could be made in accordance with the requirements of the school 
law before the children were sent to school. (See Table 54.) 

Communicable Disease Control 

Immunization A^rainst Diphtheria 

Clinics for the immunization of children against diphtheria 
were held throughout the State. In connection with the diph- 
theria control activities in Cecil County, a diphtheria immuniza- 
tion survey was made by members of women's organizations of 
Elkton during the summer of 1932 under the auspices of the 
Chamber of Commerce and the County Health Department. 
This showed that 81.5 per cent of the white school population 
and 33.3 per cent of the white infant and preschool population 
had had protective treatment against the disease. This survey 
was followed* by one, made by the County Department of Health, 
into the extent to which the colored children in the town had 
been immunized. 

County-wide administration of toxoid to all children who had 
not been immunized against the disease was begun by the County 
Health Officer about the middle of September. Cecil County has 
not had a death from diphtheria since March, 1930. 

Vaccination Against Smallpox Compulsory 

The following notice was sent to the parents of children who 
had reached school age by the Superintendent of Schools of Kent 
County : 

"For your child to be admitted to school, it is necessary for him 
or her to be successfully vaccinated ag-ainst smallpox in accordance 
with the State Law quoted below and that he or she present to the 
teacher a certificate of successful vaccination unless after three 
vaccinations against smallpox within six weeks the child is found 
to be already immune from the disease. In the latter event, the 
Board of Education will not require the child to be vaccinated 
against smallpox again for another year. 



76 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



"The Maryland State law regarding vaccination is as follows : 

" 'No teacher in any of the public schools of this State shall receive into such 
school as a pupil any person who has not been successfully vaccinated. Any 
teacher neglecting or refusing to comply with the provisions of this section shall, 
on conviction thereof before any justice of the peace having jurisdiction over said 
offense, be fined ten dollars ($10.00) for each and every offense. And no public 
school trustee or commissioner shall grant any permit to any person who has not 
been successfully vaccinated to enter as a pupil any public school under the same 
penalty.' 

"In addition to a certificate of successful vaccination against 
smallpox, each beginning child will be required to present to the 
teacher some written evidence of the exact date of birth. The 
date of birth will be promptly recorded by the teacher. 

"I suggest that you have your child vaccinated at once, so there 
will be ample time for a second or third vaccination before the 
opening of school in the event the first and second attempts are 
unsuccessful. 

"If your family physician finds that your child's physical condi- 
tion is such that its life would be endangered by vaccination against 
smallpox, please get a written statement to that effect from the 
physician and present it to the teacher of your child. Such a cer- 
tificate will be accepted for a period of one year." 



TABLE 55 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of Maryland State 
Department of Health, August 1, 1931-JuIy 31, 1932 



County 



Total . 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Charles 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomerj'. . . . 
Prince George's. . 
Queen Anne's . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 



Wicomico. . . . 
Healthmobile. 



Time Given 
to Service* 



aFull 

Part 

J2 days a mo 

Half 

JFull 4 mos 

Half 

Part, 1 mo 

Part 

IHalf 

6Full 

Full, 2 mos 

JHalf 

jFull, 2 mos 

t 

Full, 2 mos 

4 Half-Day 
Clinics Weekly 

Half 

°Full, 3 mos 



Number of 
Children 



Exam- 
ined 
by 
Den- 
tists 



16,672 

1,410 
2,596 
350 
1,915 
1,111 
tl,293 

tio 

261 
1,311 

774 
1,094 
1,684 

291 



114 

121 
1,418 
919 



Treated 



7,719 

1,087 
827 
313 
377 
420 
tl,505 
t86 
176 
640 
223 
273 
407 
253 



48 

121 
315 
648 



Number of 



Fillings 

In- 
serted 



11,276 

417 

1,693 
305 
781 
1,115 
2,604 
105 
272 
774 
709 
460 
491 
395 



58 

67 
804 
226 



Teeth 

Ex- 
tracted 



9,032 

726 
1,053 
216 
515 
534 
1,410 
68 
281 
522 
314 
499 
412 
340 



43 

240 
658 
1,201 



Clean- 
ings 



3,117 

126 
50 
14 
83 
399 
1,145 
4 
64 
248 
178 
177 
189 
180 



17 



Treat- 
ments 



1,525 

151 
185 
4 

176 
1 

134 
14 
11 

241 

183 
53 

152 
15 



12 



11 

182 



Total 
Opera- 
tions 



41,622 

2,830 
5,577 
889 
3,470 
3,160 
6,586 
201 
889 
3,096 
2,158 
2,283 
2,928 
1,221 



244 

531 
3,133 
2.426 



* The scope of the service varies from full- and half-time service to one-day clinics conducted but 
once a month. The variations as nearly as possible have been reduced to the same basis. Part-time 
infers one or more one-day clinics monthly. 

a On a part-time basis temporarily from February to July, 1932. 

t Apparent discrepancy between number examined and treated due to treatment of children 
reported as examined in preceding year. 
b Part-time service until May, 1932. 
c At T. B. Sanitorium. 
t See also healthmobile at foot of table. 

° Service given for three months in Calvert, Charles, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. IMary's, Somerset. 



School Health Activities of State Department of Health 77 

Dental Clinics 

Dental clinics were a part of the regular school health service 
in 16 counties. There were also special clinics held during the 
visits of the healthmobile in Southern Maryland and on the East- 
ern Shore. The total number of children examined at these 
clinics was 16,672, an increase of 1,727 over the number exam- 
ined in 1931; the number treated was 7,719, an increase of 113. 
(See Table 55.) 

Conree on Oral Hygiene at State Normal School 

A course of three lectures on oral hygiene w^as given during 
the spring term to the members of the first year class at the State 
Normal School at Towson by Dr. Richard C. Leonard, Chief of 
the Division of Oral Hygiene of the State Department of Health. 
The course covered briefly the physiology of the mouth and 
teeth, the importance of diet in connection with calcification and 
as a means of resisting decay, the pathology of the mouth and 
teeth and the role of personal hygiene in safeguarding mouth 
health. Plans are under way for the course to be made an an- 
nual one and to be incorporated in the school's regular course 
in hygiene. 

Sanitary Inspections 

The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Department 
of Health made sanitary inspection of 133 county public schools 
during the year. The improvements recommended were made 
at the following schools : 

Sewage treatment plant installed at Vienna, Stevensville, Pitts- 
ville, McCoole. 

Sewage irrigation field improve at Oxon Hill and installed at New 

Market and Smithsburg. 
Sewage disposal plant installed at Hancock, Rising Sun, Helen, 

Manchester, Pomonkey, Great Mills, Union Town, Union Bridge. 
School connected with public sewer at Maryland Park. 
Water supply installed at Pittsville, Helen, Manchester, Pomonkey, 

Union Bridge. 
New well drilled at Huyett. 
Old well reconstructed at Glenndale. 

School connected with public water supply at Smithsburg. 
Filter installed on drinking water supply at Chesapeake Terrace. 
Sanitary condition of toilets improved at Centreville. 

Cost per Pupil by Types of Schools 

The current expense cost per white elementary school pupil, 
excluding costs for general control, supervision, and fixed 
charges was $52.30 in the one-teacher schools, $49.99 in the two- 
teacher schools, and $46.88 in the graded schools. In spite of 
transportation costs, the graded schools, which permit the or- 
ganization of large classes, are the least expensive to operate. 



78 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Costs in the one-teacher schools varied from $42.57 to $80.82, in 
the two-teacher schools from $40.84 to $62.68, and in the graded 
schools from $40.90 to $75.33. (See Table 56.) 

TABLE 56 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1932, exclusive of Expenditures for General 
Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges 



One- 
Teacher 
County Schools 



County Average. . $52 . 30 

Anne Arundel. .. . 80.82 

Montgomery. ... 66.95 

Kent 61.89 

Queen Anne's. .. . 60.00 

Baltimore 56.84 

Prince George's . . 56 . 12 

Calvert 54.94 

Allegan}' 54.51 

CarroU 54.28 

Caroline 53 . 94 

Dorchester 53 . 56 

Garrett 53.27 

Charles 50 . 79 

St. Mary's 50.66 

Worcester 50 . 39 

Washington 49 . 4 1 

Cecil 48.64 

Harford 48.13 

Somerset 47.49 

Talbot 47.32 

Howard 46.99 

Wicomico 43 . 40 

Frederick 42 . 57 



Two- 
Teacher 
County Schools 



County Average . . S49 . 99 

Montgomerv 62.68 

Talbot. . . 61.29 

Anne Arundel .... 59 . 1 1 

Kent 57.92 

Worcester 57 . 68 

Wicomico 56.07 

St. Mary's 55.28 

Caroline 53.76 

Baltimore 53 . 72 

Prince George s . . 53 . 16 

Howard 52.98 

Calvert 50 . 95 

Queen Aime's .... 50 . 48 

Charles 48.81 

Garrett 48.72 

Somerset 47.71 

Dorchester 46 . 64 

CarroU 46.29 

Harford 46.09 

Cecil 45.95 

Alleganv 45.62 

Frederick 42.01 

Washington 40 . 84 



Graded 

County Schools 



County Average . . $46 . 88 

St. Mary's 75.33 

Calvert 60.20 

Montgomery 58 . 83 

Queen Anne's .... 56 . 30 

Kent 53.26 

Charles 51.87 

Anne Arundel .... 49 . 49 

Allegany 48.84 

Talbot 48.32 

Caroline 47.43 

Worcester 47.17 

Carroll 46.77 

Garrett 46.51 

Baltimore 45 . 96 

Prince George's. . 45.71 

Cecil 44.92 

Somerset 44.84 

Howard 44.32 

Harford 44.17 

Dorchester 44 . 08 

Frederick 43.09 

Wicomico 41 . 06 

Washington 40.90 



CAPITAL OUTLAY IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Capital outlay for county white elementary school pupils 
totalled $616,042 in 1932. The total investment in county school 
buildings since 1920 has been $10,483,012, Baltimore County hav- 
ing spent over $3,000,000 and Montgomery, Allegany and Wash- 
ington, each having invested more than $1,000,000. (See 
Table 57.) 

Tho average capital outlay per pupil belonging was $5.84 in 
1932 compared with $8.89 for the preceding year. The highest 
capital outlay per pupil in 1932 was found in Montgomery, Anne 
Arundel and Baltimore, while in Kent, Calvert, Somerset and 
Worcester there was practically no capital outlay for white ele- 
mentary schools. (See Columns 8 and 16, Table 49, page 67.) 



Cost per Pupil by Types of Elementary School ; Capital Outlay 79 



i 



li 




-t— 

- — 


-1— 


i 










i 


i ill 






i 


S3 


$659, 

208, 
5, 
189, 






1 


i 


CO 

(N 

2 


s SisssiiiiiiiisiiiiSigi ; 


i 

2 

IS 


CO 

». 


i 






s 




$565, 

110, 

8, 
158, 

18, 
12, 




i 


8 
S 


i 




1 

u 


i 
1 


i 






s 


1 


$1,242, 

28, 
57 , 
672, 
14, 

2, 
11, 
11, 

2, 

89, 
17, 
17, 

3, 

182, 
149, 






i 

s 


i 




i 


i 






i 

u 


i 








s 






i 


i 


i 






-|- 




i 




i 


,919 

,837 
,196 
,099 




2 

00 








CO 

CO 
o 

s 




i 








i 






32§ -S5 : 




e 


i 


1 




165,401 
2 , 585 
1,114 
100 
16 
561 
15,431 
558 
58 


i 

i 


i 


1 

H 










County 


Total Counties. . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 


Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 


iiili 


Montgomery. . . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 
St. Mary's 


Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 


Baltimore City. . 
Total State . . . 



80 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 998 county white elementary schools in operation 
during the year 1931-32, of which 488 had one teacher or less, 
190 had two teachers, and 320 had three or more teachers. There 
were 138 schools in which 7 or more teachers were employed 
compared with 126 in 1931. The number of one- and two-teacher 
schools decreased by 97 and 15, respectively, from the number 
open the preceding year. Each of seven schools located in Alle- 
gany, Baltimore, Washington and Anne Arundel Counties em- 
ployed a staff of over 20 teachers. (See Table 58.) 

All but 3 counties, in which the number did not change, op- 
erated fewer white elementary schools in 1932 than in the pre- 
ceding year. The greatest decreases occurred in Carroll and 
Garrett as a result of consolidation. (See Table 58.) 

TABLE 58 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of Teachers, 

School Year 1931-1932 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . . 
Prince George's. . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



998 

*67 
33 

aSO 
16 
22 
59 
46 
11 
40 

653 
89 
53 
33 
26 

c56 

d62 
24 
24 
28 
16 

e92 
41 
27 



488 

22 
t5 
19 
10 

8 
35 
30 

1 
24 
15 
71 
29 
t22 
17 
22 
20 
13 
15 
16 

8 
47 
25 
14 



190 

*14 
6 

21 
4 
5 
8 
9 
3 
7 

12 
8 

12 
5 
4 

13 
d°lo 















r-l 




CO 




in 


CO 


t> 


00 


05 


o 

(N 


er20 1 


*? 






°? 


T 


o 




1 






1 










■<*< 






t> 


00 


C3 


d 




IM 


CO 




»o 






00 




> 
O 


36 


19 


28 


25 


16 


18 


12 


5 


8 


2 


2 


6 


3 


3 


1 


2 


7 


3 


2 


5 


5 




3 


2 


2 


3 








1 


1 






*2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


' 2 


1 


1 




1 






1 








1 


2 
1 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


4 


i 


1 




1 




1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


























2 


3 




3 


3 


1 




























" 4 












1 


















1 


1 


1 






























3 




1 


2 


1 
























5 


1 




2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 












2 


1 


"i 




1 
















2 




1 


1 




1 














1 










1 


"i 


1 


"i 


























1 




1 






























c3 




2 


3 


1 


1 


c2 


1 






1 


2 












2 




1 


2 


2 


3 


2 








1 
























1 




























































1 




1 




















1 








' 2 




















1 












3 


2 


2 


1 


1 






2 


el 




el 








1 


2 


' 3 




2 


1 


1 




















' 2 


1 





























































* Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Greene St., Midland and Cresaptown Junior High 
Schools. 

t Includes a one-teacher school with primarj- grades only. 

° Includes 2 two-teacher schools in which each teacher has only one or two grades. 

a Includes the seventh grade of Kenwood High School. 

b Includes the seventh grade of Brunswick Senior-Junior High School. 

c Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Bethesda-Chevy Chase and Takoma-Silver Spring 
Senior-Junior High Schools. 

d Includes the seventh grade of Mt. Rainier and Maryland Park Senior-Junior High Schools. 

e Includes the seventh and eighth grades of South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High 
Schools. 



Size of White Elementary Schools; One-Teacher Schools 81 



Fewer Teachers in One-Room Schools 

From 1920 to the fall of 1932 the number of teachers in one- 
teacher schools decreased from 1,171 to 413 and the percentage 
of all white elementary teachers in one-teacher schools was re- 
duced from 39.1 to 14.1. (See Table 59.) 

TABLE 59 



Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1932 



School Year Ending June 30 


County White Elementary Teachers 


Total 


In One-Tea 
Number 


:her Schools 
Per Cent 


Fall, 1932 


2.941 


413 


14.1 


1932 


3,022 


489 


16.2 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


1930 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


1927 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1925 


3,047 


1.005 


33.0 


1924 : 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1923 


3,063 


1.093 


35.7 


1922 


3,054 


1.124 


36.8 


1921 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1920 


2,992 


1.171 


39.1 



The 489 teachers employed in one-teacher schools during 
1931-32 comprised 16.2 per cent of the total white elementary- 
school teaching staff, and the 12,581 pupils enrolled in these 
schools represented 11.9 per cent of the white elementary school 



TABLE 60 



Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1932 





Teachers in _ 


Pupils 


in 




Teacher in 


Pupils 


in 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 












Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 


Total and Aver 


489 


16.2 


12,581 


11.9 






















Somerset 


16 


22.9 


411 


18.1 


Anne Arundel . . 


4 


2.4 


96 


1.5 


Harford 


29 


23.2 


757 


18.5 


Charles 


1 


2.5 


18 


1.2 


Carroll 


35 


23.7 


816 


16.6 


Baltimore 


20 


5.1 


652 


4.0 


Wicomico 


25 


26.3 


776 


22.2 


Allegany 


22 


6.5 


545 


4.5 


Dorchester 


24 


26.4 


556 


18.6 


Frederick 


15 


7.4 


440 


5.9 


Queen Anne's. . 


14 


30.0 


316 


20.2 


Prince George's. 


20 


9.5 


524 


7.1 


Cecil 


30 


31.6 


828 


26.0 


Montgomery. . . 


22 


10.4 


552 


8.4 


Howard 


21 


34.6 


538 


29.0 


Caroline 


8 


12.6 


196 


9.3 


Kent 


17 


37.0 


375 


27,1 


Washington. . . . 


47 


15.3 


1,191 


11.0 


Calvert 


10 


38.5 


249 


29.7 


Talbot 


8 


15.5 


223 


12.2 


St. Mary's .... 


15 


42 9 


378 


39.0 


Worcester 


14 


21.5 


337 


15.2 


Garrett 


7"^ 


54.4 


1,807 


46.1 



82 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



enrollment. Among the individual counties the proportion of 
teachers in one-teacher schools varied from less than a tenth in 
six counties to over a third in five counties, while the percentage 
of pupils in one-teacher schools ranged from less than 6 per cent 
in five counties to over 25 per cent in six counties. All except 
2 counties reduced the proportion of pupils enrolled in one- 
teacher schools from corresponding figures for the preceding 
year. (See Table 60.) 

A comparison of the change in number of teachers and pupils 
in one- and two-teacher schools from 1920 to October, 1932, for 
individual counties is given in detail in Table 61. The greatest 
reductions in one-teacher schools have occurred in Carroll, Fred- 
erick, Garrett and Charles. (See Table 61.) 

TABLE 61 



Number of Schools, and Pupils in White One- and Two-Teacher Elementary Schools 
in Maryland Counties, October, 1932, and Number of Schools in 1920 





One-Teacher Schools 


Two-Teacher Schools 


COUNTY 


Number 


Pupils, 
Oct., 1932 


Number 


Pupils, 
Oct., 1932 




1920 


Oct., 
1932 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


1920 


Oct., 
1932 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Total 


1,171 


413 


10,755 


9 


9 


255 


180 


11,493 


10.6 


Charles 


44 


1 


14 


1 





7 


4 


231 


15.8 


Calvert 


32 


1 


35 


4 


3 


2 


3 


228 


27.7 


Anne Arundel. . 


41 


4 


109 


1 


7 


11 


6 


352 


5.6 


Caroline 


38 


7 


190 


8 


9 


4 


5 


284 


13.4 


Baltimore 


40 


8 


209 


1 


3 


43 


16 


1,277 


7.6 


Talbot 


25 


8 


209 


11 


6 


10 


1 


47 


2.6 


Worcester 


33 


10 


264 


12 


1 


8 


2 


122 


5.6 


Queen Anne's. . 


33 


11 


246 


15 


4 


8 


3 


203 


12.7 


Frederick 


111 


12 


305 


4 


1 


16 


11 


783 


10.4 


St. Mary's , 


48 


12 


335 


32 


6 


5 


9 


520 


50.6 


Somerset 


28 


15 


408 


17 


6 


11 


6 


317 


13.7 


Kent 


24 


15 


343 


24 





5 


3 


193 


13.5 


Prince George's 


42 


16 


455 


5 


8 


15 


13 


820 


10.5 


Howard 


30 


18 


524 


27 


1 


7 


7 


335 


17.3 


Montgomery. . . 


39 


19 


490 


6 


7 


12 


13 


714 


9.8 


Wicomico 


43 


20 


642 


18 


1 


8 


5 


267 


7.5 


Allegany 


51 


21 


529 


4 


4 


18 


14 


939 


7.8 


Carroll 


97 


21 


482 


9 


9 


12 


8 


504 


10.4 


Dorchester. . . . 


57 


23 


562 


18 


2 


9 


7 


402 


13.0 


Cecil 


57 


25 


683 


21 


2 


5 


8 


530 


16.5 


Harford 


51 


29 


736 


17 


6 


12 


12 


699 


16.7 


Washington. . . 


81 


46 


1,152 


10 


4 


16 


17 


1,253 


11.3 


Garrett 


126 


71 


1,833 


46 


1 


11 


7 


473 


11.9 



Decrease in White Rural Schools; Supervision 



83 



SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1931-32, there were 50 supervising and 
helping teachers working in the 23 counties to bring about im- 
provement in the instruction in the county white elementary 
schools. The Assistant State Superintendent and the State 
Supervisor of Elementary Schools aided in increasing the effec- 
tiveness of the county programs of supervision through visiting 
teachers with the supervisors, discussing the work of teacher 
and supervisor, participating in and evaluating teachers' meet- 
ings held by the county supervisors, arranging for supervisors 
to see and evaluate work in other counties, conducting sectional 
and State-wide conferences of supervisors, and in preparing 
bulletins for the use of supervisors and teachers. 

In the fall of 1932 the number of supervisors was reduced to 
49 because of the untimely death of Miss Downs of Anne Arundel 
County who was one of the most promising of the younger super- 
visors. There were no changes in the county supervisory staffs. 

Several counties did not employ the number of supervisors to 
which they were entitled for the number of white elementary 
teachers employed in 1931-32. Harford employed 2, whereas it 
was entitled to 3; Montgomery and Prince George's each em- 
ployed 3 when they might have employed 4 ; Washington, while 
entitled to employ 6 supervisors, had 4 ; Allegany and Baltimore 
Counties, instead of employing 7 and 8 supervisors, respectively, 
had 4 and 5, respectively, but in addition Baltimore County had 

TABLE 62 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers Required and Employed in Maryland 
Counties for Various Numbers of Teachers, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Supervising or Helping Teachers 



Number of Number 
White Elementary Number of Coun- 

Teachers Required ties Name of Counties 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, 

Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, 
Somerset, Talbot. Worcester. 
80-119 2 3 Cecil, Dorchester. Wicomico. 

120-185 3 4 *Anne Arundel. Carroll, Garrett, Har- 

ford (2). 

186-235 4 3 Frederick, Montgomery (3), Prince 

George's (3). 

2.36-285 5 

286-335 6 1 Washington (4). 

336-385 7 1 Allegany (4). 

386-435 8 1 Baltimore (5). 



( ) The number of super^-ising or helping teachers actually employed for the year ending in July, 
1932, is shown in parentheses when this number differs from the schedule. 
* For 1932-33, only two are employed in Anne Arundel County. 



84 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



supervising principals in several of the large elementary schools. 
Due to the death of Miss Downs, Anne Arundel is employing only 
2 supervisors in 1932-33 whereas it is eligible to have 3. (See 
Table 62 and Chart 13, which show the number of supervisors 
in November, 1932.) 

The plan for interchange of visits among the supervisors used 
in 1931 and 1932 was carried out again early in 1933 with ex- 
cellent results. 

The report prepared by each supervisor annually at the re- 
quest of the State Superintendent of Schools for a number of 
years has usually been a review of past accomplishments. It was 
suggested that the 1931-32 report concern itself with supervisory 
plans for the future, i. e. for the next two or three years. In 
counties having more than one supervisor it was urged that the 
report represent the judgment and bear the signatures of each 
one of the supervisors as well as the approval of the superin- 
tendent. 

In addition to explaining and discussing the future program, 
it was requested that the supervisor's report answer such ques- 
tions as the following: 

1. On what factual data are you planning your program of su- 
pervision ? 

2. How were these data gathered or determined ? 

3. What place will classroom visits and teachers' meetings have 
in your program? (Be specific.) 

4. Through what means will you from time to time check on the 
effectiveness of your program? 

The Assistant State Superintendent and State Supervisor of 
Elementary Schools conferred with the school officials of several 
counties prior to the preparation of their report on planning for 
the future. 

According to the legislation enacted in 1933 for the coming 
two years, no county is required to employ more than one super- 
visor for white elementary schools, but additional supervisors 
may be employed at the option of the county board of education 
and it shall be optional with the county commissioners to provide 
funds for the salaries of additional supervisors. (See Chapter 
224, laws of 1933.) 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL POPULATION CONTINUES TO MOUNT 

The constantly increasing county white public high school en- 
rollment apparent since 1916 has taken another leap forward in 
1932 with 28,547 pupils recorded, an increase of 1,549 over cor- 
responding figures for 1931. The unusually high enrollment re- 
ported in the high schools in the last three years may be ac- 
counted for by the transfer to public high schools of pupils who 
under normal conditions would attend private schools, and by 
the lack of employment opportunities open to boys and girls 
during the economic depression. As long as the present situa- 
tion continues, the public high school enrollment will probably 
continue to increase. (See Chart 14 and Table 63.) 

CHART 14 
GROWTH IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



1914- 1915 

1915- 1916 

1916- 1917 

1917- 1918 

1918- 1919 

1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1932 




8,302 
10,900 




12,815 



17,453 
19,003 
20,358 



23,371 
24,760 
26,998 




28,547 



The 1932 increase in enrollment of 1,549 represented a gain 
of 5.7 per cent over the 1931 enrollment. (See Table 63.) All 



86 



Increasing Enrollment in White High Schools 87 
TABLE 63 



Enrollment and Attendance in Approved White County High Schools of Maryland, 
School Years Ending June, 1932 to 1916 



Year Ending 
July 31 


±L<nroll- 
ment 


Average 
Attend- 
ance 


Annual Increase 


Per Cent of 
Increase 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


*1932 




Zo , 0-±l 




1.549 


1.261 


5.7 


5.3 


1931 




ZD , yyo 


OQ OQC 


2.238 


2.098 


9.0 


9.6 


1930 




OA 7An 


on QQf\ 




1 . o±o 




o . U 


1929 




OQ QT1 


on OT^ 

ZD , Zi O 


1,560 


1.195 


7.2 


6.3 


1928 




01 CI 1 

, oil 


1 Q ncn 
ly , UoU 


1,453 


1,576 


7.1 


9.0 


1927 




20,358 


17,504 


1 ,355 


1.286 


7.1 


7.9 


1926 




19.003 


16,218 


1 , 550 


1,236 


8.9 


8.2 


1925 




17,453 


14,982 


1,427 


1,286 


8.9 


9.4 


1924 




16,026 


13,696 


1,138 


980 


7.6 


7 . 7 


1923 




14,888 


12.716 


2.073 


1.528 


16.2 


13.7 


1922 




12,815 


11.188 


1.915 


1.894 


17.6 


20.4 


1921 




10,900 


9.294 


1.508 


1,496 


16.1 


19.2 


1920 




9,392 


7,798 


1.090 


1,113 


13.1 


16.7 


1919 




8,302 


6,685 


366 


208 


4.6 


3.2 


1918 




7,936 


6.477 


369 


150 


4.9 


2.4 


1917 




7,567 


6.327 


567 


523 


8.1 


9.0 


1916 




7,000 


5,804 


787 


528 


12.6 


10.0 



* For indi\-idual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314-319. 



except 6 counties in the State reported increased enrollment and 
attendance in the white high schools in 1932. (The growth in the 
public high school enrollment in the individual counties since 
1920 is shown in Table 104, page 136.) 

The enrollment in county private and parochial secondary- 
schools did not show the increases found in the county public 
high schools. In the counties the commercial and secondary 
school enrollment in Catholic private and parochial schools de- 
creased from 1,491 to 1,427 and in private non-sectarian schools 
it dropped from 1,686 to 1,654. In the counties the combined 
enrollment for public and private secondary schools included 
31,628 pupils. (See Tables III to V, pages 280 to 283.) 

The enrollment in the last four years of high school in Balti- 
more City was 16,053 compared with 14,549 in 1930-31. It will 
be noted that the county public high school enrollment of 28,547 
is nearly 1.8 times as great as the city enrollment. This differ- 
ence may perhaps be explained by the very much greater oppor- 
tunity city children have to find employment. The city enroll- 
ment in Catholic schools, 3,598, was 400 more than the preceding 
year, while the enrollment in non-sectarian private schools 
dropped by 20 to 834. (See Tables II-V, pages 279 to 283.) 



88 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools 

The per cent of attendance in the county white high schools 
decreased from 94.5 per cent in 1931 to 94.1 in 1932. Baltimore 
City reported an average attendance of 93.2 per cent making the 
average for the total State 93.8 per cent. Percentages in the in- 
dividual counties ranged from 92.1 per cent to 95.8 per cent. 
Five counties reported a higher percentage of attendance in 1932 
than for the preceding year. (See Table 64.) 



TABLE 64 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June 1932, 1931, 1930, and 1923 



County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1923 


County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1923 


County Average . , 


94.1 


94 


.5 


94 


.4 


91 


.9 


Talbot 


93.5 


94.3 


94.1 


93 


.2 
















Howard 


93.5 


93.9 


93.7 


89 


.9 




95.8 


95 


.5 


95 
96 


.2 


91 


.5 




93.3 


94.8 


95.8 


93 


.5 




95.7 


95 


.8 


.1 


92 


.3 




93.3 


93.5 


93.9 


91 


.7 


Allegany 


95.1 


95 


.6 


95 


.9 


94 


.8 


Charles 


93.2 


92.6 


94.0 


88 
86 


.7 




95.0 


94 


.6 


95 


.0 


92 


St. Mary's 


93.1 


91.3 


92.9 


.8 


Washington 


. 94.8 


95. 


.6 


95 


.2 


93 


.1 




93.1 


94.0 


93.8 


91 


2 




94.4 


94 


.6 


94 


.2 


92 


.4 


Carroll 


92.8 


93.4 


93.4 


88, 


'.7 


Baltimore 


94.3 


94, 


.5 


94 


.6 


91 


.3 


Harford 


92.5 


93.3 


92.5 


91 


2 


Somerset 


94.0 


95. 


1 


93 


.5 


91. 


.4 


Garrett 


92.4 


93.2 


92.9 


90 


.2 


Prince George's . . , 


93.9 


94 


5 


94 


.5 


91 


.8 


Cecil 


92.1 


92.4 


93.1 


92 


.0 


Queen Anne's 


93.9 


93 


.6 


94 


.3 


91 


.9 














Kent 


93.7 


93 


.7 


90 


.4 


90 


.2 


Baltimore City . . . 


93.2 


92.9 


93.1 


91 


5 




93.6 


93. 


8 


94. 


2 


88. 


9 




























93.8 


93.9 


93.9 


91. 


6 



For attendance in 1932 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 285. 



The average enrollment in the county white high schools was 
highest in October and November, and lowest in May. The high- 
est percentages of attendance were found in September, October, 
January and June. The lowest per cent of attendance was found 
in March. (See Table 65.) 

TABLE 65 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White High 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1932 



Average Average Per Cent Average Average Per Cent 
No. No. of No. No. of 

Month Attend- Belong- Attend- Month Attend- Belong- Attend- 
ing ing ance ing ing ance 

September 26,313 27,296 96.4 March 23,597 26,594 88.7 

October. .. 26,363 27,628 95.4 April 24,598 26,232 93.8 

November. 26,040 27,515 94.6 May 24,438 25,909 94.3 

December. 25,512 27,340 93.3 June *21, 248 *2 1,843 97.3 



January... 25,762 27,104 95.0 Average 
February.. 25,170 26,873 93.7 for Year. 25,249 26,836 94.1 



* In three counties the schools close on May 31st and no pupils are enrolled in June. 



Attendance in White High Schools 



89 



Increasing Importance of the High School 

A way of evaluating the importance of the high schools is to 
find the ratio between the average attendance in the high schools 
and the average attendance in the high and elementary schools 
combined. This ratio increased for the counties from 20.1 per 
cent in 1931 to 20.7 per cent in 1932 and for Baltimore City from 
16.3 to 17.8 per cent. (See Chart 15.) 

If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four 



CHART 15 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1931 




Baltimore City [^//A 



1917 - 1918 




1918 - 1919 ^^^^^BiP 



90 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



years of high school attendance by every elementary school 
graduate, the maximum percentage that could possibly be en- 
rolled in the four years of high school would be 33.3 per cent in 
counties having the 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan, and 36.4 per cent in coun- 
ties organized on the 7-4 plan. 

Among the individual counties corresponding percentages 
based on average number belonging ranged from 16 to 27.3. As 
in previous years, the Eastern Shore counties, except for Somer- 
set and Dorchester, enrolled a larger proportion of their pupils 
in high schools than any county in the central, western or south- 
ern section of the State. (See Table 66.) 



TABLE 66 



Ratio of "Number Belonging" in White High Schools to "Number Belonging" in 
White Elementary and White High Schools Combined, by Counties 



County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1924 


County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1924 


County Average . . 


20.2 


19.6 


18 


.4 


13.3 


Dorchester 


21.4 


21.6 


21 


.1 


16 


.7 












Frederick 


19.9 


20.4 


19 


.5 


14 


.9 


Kent 


27.3 


25.3 


24 


.4 


15.2 


Prince George's , . , 


19.8 


19.0 


18, 


.1 


11 


6 




26.5 


25.4 


22 


.9 


18.8 




19.2 


18.0 


17 


.6 


13 


.5 


Talbot 


26.4 


27.5 


26 


.1 


18.7 




19.0 


18.6 


19 


.2 


12 






25.2 


25.1 


23 


.0 


18.9 




18.8 


19.6 


18 


.3 


13 


'9 




24.8 


23.9 


22 


.5 


19.9 


Calvert 


18.6 


20.0 


17 


.1 


15 


.5 


Cecil 


24.3 


23.5 


21 


.7 


14.3 


Garrett 


18.4 


17.7 


15 


.6 


8 


.4 


Queen Anne's 


23.9 


22.6 


21 


.8 


18.3 




18.3 


17.0 


15 


.1 


11 


.0 


Charles 


23.7 


23.2 


21 


.1 


5.5 


Washington 


17.4 


16.8 


15 


.6 


11 


.1 


Somerset 


22.6 


22.5 


22 


.4 


15.2 


Anne Arundel 


16.0 


15.7 


15 


.4 


10 


.2 




22.5 


21.6 


20, 


.3 


14.8 
















Carroll 


21.8 


21.1 


19, 


3 


13.7 


Baltimore City. , , . 


17.5 


16.1 


15. 


2 


9. 


7 


St. Mary's 


, 21.5 


18.8 


16 


.2 


3.0 
























State Average 


19.1 


18.2 


17 


.1 


11 


8 



More Boys Attracted to High Schools 

There has been a constant increase since 1922 in the propor- 
tion of boys enrolled in high schools. For every 100 girls en- 
rolled in county white high schools in 1932 there were 89 boys. 
The ratio of boys to girls in the individual counties ranged from 
73 in Queen Anne's to 100 in Baltimore County. Every county 
except four shows a gain in the ratio of boys to girls from 1922 
to 1932. (See Table 67.) 

Increase in Number of High School Graduates 

Graduates from four-year white high schools in the Maryland 
counties numbered 4,397 in 1932 of whom 1,772 were boys and 
2,625 were girls, a total increase of 193 graduates over the 4,204 
graduates reported in 1931. (See Table 68.) 



Boys in and Graduates from White High Schools 



91 



TABLE 67 



Number of Boys in High School for Every 100 Girls for School Years Ending in 
June, 1932, 1931, 1930, 1928, 1926, 1924 and 1922 



COUNTY 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1928 


1926 


1924 


1922 


County Average 


89.0 


86 


2 


82 


7 


79 


8 


78 


6 


76 


2 


74.3 


Baltimore 


100 





97 


1 


94 





84.3 


85 


2 


87 


4 


79.2 


Howard 


yo 


A 


99 


2 


98 


7 


89.6 


87 





63 


1 


56.8 


Cecil 


95 


4 


90 


3 


85 





76 


8 


69 


4 


74 


2 


85.0 


Garrett 


94 


8 


87 


2 


7C 
/ O 


9 


72 


4 


/ o 


7 
< 


/ o 


5 


76.5 


Frederick 


93 


1 


91 


3 


85 


4 


84.4 


89 


9 


84 


8 


85.5 


Prince George's 


93 





93 


9 


85 


2 


81 


5 


80 


2 


77 


8 


74.8 


Alleganv 


92 


5 


83 


8 


82 


5 


71 


9 


75 


7 


67 


7 


61.9 


^Montgomery 


91 


6 


88 


3 


80 


6 


86 


2 


90 


9 


76 


7 


63.7 


W QQrlTnCT'fri'n 


91 


2 


87 


1 


Czl 


5 


78.0 


oi 


o 
z 


Q7 


a 
D 


94.6 


Carroll 


87 


8 


82 


3 


82 


8 


84 


5 


83 


8 


74 


2 


72!o 


Caroline 


86 





81 


1 


74 


5 


72 


5 


68 


2 


69 


4 


68.0 


Anne Arundel 


85 


3 


82 


8 


82 


7 


82 


7 


82 


6 


60 


1 


75.5 


Harford 


85 


2 


79 


3 


76 


7 


80 


2 


72 


5 


84 


8 


66.2 




82 


6 


77 


7 


70 


7 


86 


1 


79 


5 


78 





79.7 


Calvert 


81 





84.3 


82 


3 


62 





59 


1 


71 


8 


77.6 


Charles 


80.6 


87 


2 


88 





80 


5 


89 


6 


69 


4 


82.8 




80 


6 


85 


8 


84 


5 


80 


5 


74 


2 


86 


1 


82.1 


St. Mary's 


78 


7 


85 





94 


5 


76 


2 


68 


5 


96 


6 






77 


9 


80 


7 


77 


7 


80 


5 


69 


6 


67 


3 


63.4 




76 


8 


77 


3 


72 


9 


80 


4 


74 


7 


71 


7 


78.6 


Kent 


75.3 


73 


1 


70 


9 


76 


4 


69 


4 


75 


7 


68.5 




74 


7 


80.2 


80.9 


79 


9 


66 


3 


68 


6 


72.5 




73 





63 


4 


66 


7 


66 


9 


63 





68 





61.8 



TABLE 68 

Four- Year White High School Graduates in Maryland Counties, 1932-1919 



Y'ear 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Annual 
Increase 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


193 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


419 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


390 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


402 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


106 


1927 


1,071 


1.816 


2,887 


268 


1926 


1,045 


i;574 


2,619 


80 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


321 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


265 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


320 


1922 


599 


1.034 


1,633 


270 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


213 


1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


146 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 











92 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Approximately half of the counties contributed to the gain in 
the number of graduates in 1932, the most marked increase oc- 
curring in Baltimore County. (See Chart 16.) 



CHART 16 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADDATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



1932 

Boys Girls 



County 


1931 


1932 


Baltimore 


469 


549 


Allegany 


402 


454 


Washington 


381 


399 


Frederick 


339 


328 


Pr. George's 


248 


293 


Montgomery 


234 


234 


Carroll 


233 


217 


Harford 


194 


202 


Wicomico 


182 


198 


Anne Arundel 


179 


189 


Cecil 


173 


168 


Dorchester 


131 


164 


Caroline 


129 


149 


Talbot 


125 


131 


Garrett 


141 


130 


7/orcester 


136 


130 


Somerset 


107 


109 


Kent 


99 


96 


Queen Anne's 


77 


74 


Charles 


82 


73 


Howard 


61 


53 


St. Mary's 


35 


33 


Calvert 


47 


25 




90 


1 144 


90 


1 127 1 




IffiH 138 1 


1 79 


110 1 


1.72 1 


94 1 



102 



86 I 





81 1 


■a 82 1 




96 1 



52_ 

ia 37i 

W2 

E] 



For graduates in individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319. 

Persistence to High School Graduation 

A comparison of the number of graduates with the first year 
enrollment of four years before gives a rough estimate of the 
persistence to graduation of those who entered high school. 
Since the first year enrollment includes repeaters of the preced- 
ing year, the actual persistence is higher than it seems from such 
a calculation. However, the number of graduates probably in- 
cludes pupils who have entered the school after the first year. 



High School Graduates and Persistence to Graduation 



93 



The average of 51.2 per cent in 1932 continued the steady in- 
crease in persistence to high school graduation apparent since 



CHART 17 



County 



Total and 
Co. Average 

Caroline 



PEP. CENT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 
B oy s I I Girl s 

51.2 



First Year 
Enrollment 
1929 1932 



8587 
232 



64.2 



Kent 


155 


61.9 




121 


60.3 


MOTI f.CCiW PT*V 


398 


58.8 




225 


58.2 


Viasliington 


DOD 


0C5. <C 


Calvert 


46 


56.5 


Worcester 


231 


56.3 


Cecil 


297 


55.9 


Anne Arundel 


345 


54.8 


Dorchester 


318 


51.6 


Harford 


392 


51.5 


Carroll 


422 


51.4 


Garrett 


255 


51.0 


Frede: ick 


655 


50.1 


A-llegany 


914 


49.7 


St. Wary's 


67 


49.5 


Pr. Geo. 


609 


48.1 


Tacomico 


420 


47.1 


Baltimore 


1196 


45.9 


Somerset 


257 


42.4 


Queen Anne's 


181 


40.9 


Howard 


165 


32.1 




94 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



1928. The average persistence to graduation in 1932 was 42.9 
per cent for boys and 58.9 per cent for girls. (See Table 69.) 



TABLE 69 
Persistence to Graduation 





First 


Per Cent of Persistence to Graduat 


ion 


Year 


Year 




Four Years Later 






Enrollment 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1929 


8.587 


51.2 


42.9 


58.9 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


56.3 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1925 


6.772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1924 


6.311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 



Among the individual counties the percentage of persistence 
to high school graduation in 1932 varied for boys from 20 per 
cent to 61.2 per cent and for girls from 43.5 to 75.6 per cent. All 
except 7 counties reported increases in persistence to high school 
graduation over corresponding figures for 1931. (See Chart 17.) 



FEWER 1932 COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES ENTER 
NORMAL SCHOOLS 

There were 23 boy graduates of 1932 from 6 counties who 
entered Maryland normal schools in September, 1932. These 23 
boys included 1.3 per cent of the total number of boys graduated 
in 1932, an increase of .5 per cent over corresponding figures for 
1931. (See Table 70.) 

TABLE 70 

Boy Graduates from White County High Schools Entering Maryland 
Normal Schools, 1932 



CorxTY 



Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Graduates 



Boy Graduates Entering 
Maryland Normal 
Schools 



Number 



Per Cent 



Total and Count}^ Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Charles 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Washington 



1 , 775 

253 
191 
30 
36 
141 
176 



23 

11 
8 
1 
1 
1 
1 



1.3 



For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319. 



Persistence to Graduation; Normal School Entrants 



95 



There were 174 girl graduates from Maryland county white 
high schools in 1932 who entered Maryland normal schools in the 
Fall of 1932 as against 214 normal school entrants in 1931. 
These 174 girls represented 6.6 per cent of the total number of 
girl graduates in 1932 compared with 8.6 per cent for 1931. The 
number of normal school entrants from individual counties 
ranged from to 37. The normal school entrants varied from 
to 14 per cent of the 1932 girl graduates. Only 5 counties had 
a larger proportion of their girls entering Maryland normal 

CHART 18 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENTERING MARILAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 
1931 and 1932 



County 



Co. Average 




For 1932 data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319. 



96 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



schools in 1932 than in the preceding year. The failure of pre- 
vious normal school graduates to secure positions, the higher 
standards in scholarship and personality required of high school 
graduates, and lengthening of the normal school course from two 
to three years, and the lack of funds due to the economic depres- 
sion are probably the chief factors which kept certain high school 
graduates from entering normal schools. (See Chart 18 and 
Table 199, page 263.) 

OCCUPATIONS OF 1931 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 
TABLE 71 



Occupations of 1931 Graduates as Reported by Principals of White County High 

Schools 





Number 


Per Cent 


OCCUPATION 












Jjoy s 


VJririS 


r>oys 




Continuing Education 




bfOO 


OO .O 


OO . Z 


Liberal Arts Colleges and L'niversities .... 


270 


248 


15.8 


9.9 


Normal Schools 


15 


199 


.9 


8.0 


Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, 










Agriculture and ^linistry 


30 


5 


1 7 


2 


Engineering Courses 


25 




1^4 




Art and ^lusic Schools 


15 


15 


.9 


.6 


Physical Education, Home Economics, 










and Kindergarten Training Schools 




9 




.4 




5 




.3 






121 


197 


7.1 


7.9 




49 


22 


2.9 


.9 


Post-Graduate High School Courses 


42 


42 


2.4 


1.7 


Hospitals for Training 


2 


216 


.1 


8.6 


Office Work and Banking 


51 


158 


3.0 


6.3 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, 












261 


188 


15.2 


7.5 




191 


572 


11.2 


22.9 


Work in Own or Others" Home 


169 


277 


9.9 


11.1 


Farming, Fishing, Nurserymen, Surveyor. . . 


200 


2 


11.7 


.1 


Married 


1 


145 


.1 


5.8 


Manufacturing, ^Mechanical (Garage), 










Building, Mining 


77 


34 


4.5 


1.3 




30 




1.7 




Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 










11 


25 


.6 


1.0 




10 




.6 






6 


8 


.3 


.3 




132 


139 


7.7 


5.5 


Total 


1,713 


2,501 


100.0 


100.0 



Continuing Education Beyond High School 

Of 1,713 boys graduated in 1931, 574 or 33.5 per cent con- 



Occupations of White High School Graduates of 1931 97 

tinued their education in colleges, universities, and schools of 
various kinds during 1931-32. There were 953 or 38.2 per cent 
of the 2,501 girls graduated in 1931 who entered colleges or 
normal schools the year following graduation. The percentages 
for both boys and girls who continued their education beyond 
high school graduation were lower for 1931 graduates than for 
those of the preceding year. (See Table 71.) 

The largest proportion of the boys who continued their edu- 
cation enrolled in liberal arts colleges and universities, 15.8 per 
cent, in commercial schools 7.1 per cent, and in college prepara- 
tory schools and post graduate high school courses, 5.3 per cent. 
Of the 1931 girl graduates continuing their education, 9.9 per 
cent entered colleges and universities, 8.6 per cent entered hos- 
pitals as nurses, 8 per cent enrolled in normal schools, and 7.9 
per cent in commercial schools. 

Activities Outside or Inside the Home 

Of the 1,139 boy graduates who did not continue their educa- 
tion, 261 engaged in clerical or selling occupations, 200 worked 
on farms or as fishermen, 191 stayed at home, 169 worked in 
their own or others' homes, and the remainder engaged in mis- 
cellaneous fields of work. Of the girls who did not continue in 
schools of higher education, 572 remained at home, 277 worked 
in their own or others' homes, 145 married, and the others took 
positions in the business field or engaged in miscellaneous occu- 
pations. All of these activities showed larger numbers and per- 
centages than the preceding year except office work and banking, 
manufacturing, mechanical, building and mining. (See Table 71.) 

Higher Education of Graduates from Individual Counties 

Among the individual counties the percentage of boys enroll- 
ing in colleges or universities ranged from less than 10 per cent 
in four counties, Cecil, Talbot, Dorchester and Garrett, to over 
30 per cent in three counties. Prince George's, Howard and Kent. 
For girls the proportion attending colleges varied from less than 
3 per cent in Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, Garrett, and Talbot 
to over 15 per cent in Queen Anne's, Harford, Kent, Montgom- 
ery, and Howard. In addition, many more girls than boys en- 
tered normal or teacher training schools, the 223 girls who 
entered these schools in the fall of 1931 including 8.9 per cent 
of the total 1931 graduates. (See Table 72.) 

Approximately three-fourths of the 1931 boy graduates and 
seven-eighths of the girls who were enrolled in colleges and uni- 
versities and college preparatory schools in the fall of 1931 at- 
tended Maryland institutions. The availability of scholarships 
was probably a deciding factor in determining the college at- 



98 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 





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Occupations of White High School Graduates of 1931 



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100 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



tended. The largest number enrolled at the University of Mary- 
land. Western Maryland and Washington College attracted the 
next largest groups. Johns Hopkins, Blue Ridge and St. John's 
followed in succession in the number of 1931 county high school 
graduates whom they enrolled. Each of these colleges drew the 
largest number of its students from the county in which the 
school was located. (See Table 73.) 

In general the commercial schools attracted a larger percent- 
age of graduates from those counties in which the public high 
schools offered no commercial courses. For individual counties 
the per cent of boys enrolled in commercial schools ranged from 
to 19.2, while for girls the corresponding range was from 1 to 
16 per cent. (See Table 72.) 

The proportion of girls in the individual counties who entered 
hospitals for training to become nurses varied from none at all 
for St. Mary's and 2.2 per cent for Charles to 26.7 per cent for 
Calvert. (See Table 72.) 

College preparatory and post graduate high school courses at- 
tracted from to 13 per cent of the boys who graduated in 1931 
and from to 11.6 of the girls. In some counties, of course, op- 
portunities for post graduate work in the public high schools 
were not offered or the offering included no more than had been 
taken prior to graduation. (See Table 72.) 

Work in the Business Field in Individual Counties 

In the counties as a whole, relatively few positions in office 
work and communication were open to 1931 high school gradu- 
ates. The variation in these types of work for boys was from 
to 12 per cent and for girls from to 22 per cent in individual 
counties. An appreciably larger proportion of the 1931 gradu- 
ates were able to secure work as clerks in stores, or as salesmen 
and saleswomen than was the case in 1930. Among the counties 
the per cent of 1931 graduates who took such positions ranged 
from to 30 per cent for boys and from to 16 per cent for girls. 

Staying at Home or Working in Own or Others' Homes 

A much larger proportion of 1931 graduates remained at home 
or worked in others' homes than was the case for 1930 graduates. 
Only 3 counties reported no boys as staying at home ; in the re- 
maining counties the proportion staying at home ranged from 
2.6 to 29.4 for boys and from 8.4 to 61.9 for girls. The propor- 
tion of boys working in their own or others' homes varied from 
to 26 per cent and of girls from to 43.7 per cent. In addition 
in the several counties the per cent of 1931 girl graduates who 
were reported as married ran from to 15 per cent. 



Occupations of Graduates; Enrollment by Subject 



101 



Other Fields of Work 

Farming, forestry, and fishing engaged none of the 1931 boy- 
graduates of one county, while at the opposite extreme 57 per 
cent occupied their time in this way. Manufacturing, mechani- 
cal work, and building became the occupation of 11 per cent of 
the boys from Garrett County, while none of the boys from three 
other counties obtained positions in these fields. The largest 
proportion of boys who occupied positions in transportation were 
graduates of Calvert County high schools. (See Table 72.) 

THE HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN 1932 

Courses in English were taken by practically the entire en- 
rollment in the county white high schools. The social studies, 
offered in all except 1 county high school, enrolled 82 per cent of 
the pupils. Three-fourths of the boys and over two-thirds of the 
girls received instruction in mathematics, and approximately 
two-thirds of the total high school enrollment took courses in 
science. Every white county high school included English, 
mathematics, and science in its curriculum. (See Table 74.) 

TABLE 74 

Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools by Subjects 
Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Subject 



Number 
Enrolled 



Bovs 



Girls 



Per Cent 



Boys 



Girls 



Number 
of High 
Schools 
Offering 
Subject 



Per Cent of 
Total Enroll- 
ment Enrolled 
in Schools 
which Offer 
Each Subject 



Total 



English 

Social Studies 

Mathematics 

Science 

Latin 

French 

Spanish 

Industrial Arts 

General 

Vocational 

Home Economics. . . . 

General 

Vocational 

Agricultm"e 

Commercial Subjects. 
Physical Education . . 

Music 

Art 



13,264 

13,136 
10,896 
10.020 
9,205 
2,559 
1,762 
53 



14,907 

14,813 
12,148 
10,171 
9.792 
3.683 
2,967 
26 



99.0 
82.1 
75.5 
69.4 
19.3 
13.3 
.4 



6,041 
418 



1,261 
2.586 
3,976 
7,031 
671 



461 
770 

3 

948 
168 
477 
714 



45.5 
3.2 



9.5 
19.5 
30.0 
53.0 

5.1 



99.4 
81.5 
68.2 
65.7 
24.7 
19.9 
.2 



50.1 
5.2 



26.5 
28.0 
56.9 
4.8 



152 

152 
151 
152 
152 
94 
120 
2 
79 
77 
12 
115 
96 
25 
45 
65 
37 
119 
10 



100.0 
99.6 
100.0 
100.0 
81.5 
89.3 
3.4 
77.0 
71.3 
18.8 
87.8 
81.0 
13.8 
26.8 
72.3 
47.4 
90.0 
10.3 



For enrollment by subject in individual high schools, see Table XXXVII, pages 320 to 325. 



102 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

Latin, offered in 94 schools in which 82 per cent of the high 
school pupils were enrolled, was chosen by 19 per cent of all the 
high school boys and 25 per cent of the girls. French which was 
offered in 120 schools enrolling 89 per cent of all high school 
pupils was elected by 14 per cent of all high school boys and 20 
per cent of all the girls. (See Table 74.) 

Courses in industrial arts were available in 79 county high 
schools, which included 77 per cent of the entire high school en- 
rollment. General industrial arts courses were taken by 6,041 
boys or 46 per cent of the boys enrolled. Vocational work in 
trades and industries which was offered in 12 schools attracted 
418 boys. (See Table 74.) 

Home economics courses were available in 115 high schools, 
which enrolled seven-eighths of all county high school girls. This 
was an increase of 8 over the number of schools giving these 
courses in 1931. Courses in general home economics were elected 
by 50 per cent of all county high school girls, and vocational 
home economics was taken by 770 girls, just 5 per cent of all 
county high school girls. (See Table 74.) 

These figures do not mean that only 49 per cent of the boys 
and 55 per cent of the high school girls have industrial arts 
and home economics. The actual percentages are closer to 77 and 
88 per cent. But a number of schools are limiting the required 
courses to five periods in the first and (or) second years of the 
course. In consequence in any one year many third and fourth 
year students would not be enrolled for these courses who had 
previously taken them in the earlier years. 

Courses in agriculture were available in 45 high schools which 
enrolled 27 per cent of all county high school boys. There were 
1,261 boys taking the work in agriculture, nearly one-tenth of 
the total number of county high school boys. (See Table 74.) 

Commercial courses were offered in 65 county high schools, 
which enrolled 72 per cent of all county high school pupils. These 
courses were elected by 20 per cent of all the boys and 27 per 
cent of all the girls enrolled in county high schools. Since most 
of the commercial work is offered in the third and fourth years, 
these latter figures do not indicate the proportion of third and 
fourth year pupils taking commercial courses. (See Table 74.) 

Physical education courses were available in 37 schools which 
enrolled 47 per cent of all county high school pupils. It was 
elected by 30 per cent of all boys and 28 per cent of all county 
high school girls. 

Courses in music were offered in 119 county high schools in 
which 90 per cent of all county high school pupils were enrolled. 
Music was taken by 53 per cent of all boys and 57 per cent of all 
county high school girls. Like home economics and industrial 



Number and Per Cent Taking Each High School Subject 103 



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104 1932 Eeport of State Department of Education 

arts, music was a required subject in certain years only. The 
number taking it in any one year does not necessarily indicate 
the number of high school pupils who are or have been exposed 
to music during the high school course. Art, available in only 
10 county high schools, was taken by 671 boys and 714 girls. 
(See Table 74.) 

Enrollment by Subject in Individual Counties 

Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science 

The enrollment by subjects in individual counties will only be 
commented on when it differs greatly from the averages given 
in the foregoing sections. 

Over 90 per cent of the boys and girls in Calvert and St. Mary's 
and of the boys in Kent and Cecil were enrolled in mathematics 
classes. This was due largely to the fact that work in voca- 
tional subjects and foreign languages was not offered in most of 
the schools in these counties. On the other hand, only 48 per 
cent of the girls in Montgomery took mathematics. Many other 
electives were available which the girls chose in the place of 
mathematics. (See Table 75.) 

The distribution of the high school enrollment in the various 
branches of mathematics indicates that Algebra I and II and 
Plane Geometry were the subjects most generally included in the 
high school program. A course in general mathematics was a 
part of the curriculum in 10 counties, as were trigonometry, solid 
geometry, mathematics and arithmetic review in a number of the 
counties. (See Table 76.) 

Because vocational work and foreign languages were not of- 
fered in their high schools, pupils in Calvert, Cecil, St. Mary's, 
and Talbot were given courses in the social studies for nearly 
every year of the course. On the other hand, because so many 
pupils took Latin and French in Queen Anne's the per cent 
taking the social studies was unusually low. (See Table 75.) 

The distribution of the enrollment in the various branches of 
the social studies indicates that every county included United 
States History and Problems of Democracy in its high school 
curriculum. United States history is, of course, a required 
course for third year pupils. World history, modern history, 
and civics were offered in all except one or two counties. An- 
cient history was offered in fourteen counties. Not more than 
three or four counties had courses in early, medieval and modem, 
industrial history and economics. (See Table 77.) 

General science usually offered to first year students was the 
course in science taken by 7,420 high school pupils. Biology 
ordinarily taken by second year pupils was elected by 6,156. 



Number and Per Cent Taking Each High School Subject 105 



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106 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

Chemistry and physics which are given in the -third and fourth 
years or in alternate years enrolled 3,572 and 2,284 high school 
pupils, respectively. (See Table 76.) 

Foreign Languages 

Courses in Latin were offered in at least one school in every 
county except Calvert. The per cent of the total high school 
enrollment electing it ranged from less than 1 per cent in Cecil 
to over 37 per cent in Queen Anne's. Charles, Carroll, and How- 
ard also had a relatively small proportion of pupils taking Latin, 
while relatively large proportions of Baltimore County boys and 
girls and Caroline, Kent, and Washington County girls chose 
Latin as a part of their course. (See Table 75, page 103.) 

TABLE 77 



Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County White 
High Schools for Year 1931-1932 



COUNTY 


NUMBER OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN: 


OD 
U 

■> 

U 




u 

S 
o 
c 
o 
o 


>, 

o 

'u 

o 


u ■ 
o 

K 
c 

.s 

'5 
c 

< 


EUROPEAN HISTORY 


United States 
1 History 


Problems of 
Democracy 


Ancient 

and 
Mediaeval 




Mediaeval 

and 
Modern 


c 
« 
-a 

o 


Total 

Alleganv 


3,636 

77 
268 

46 

96 
173 
210 
360 
131 
314 

99 
124 
168 
124 
145 
262 
316 

17 


282 
237 


436 

266 
73 


4,137 

469 
101 
581 


2,740 

428 
182 
659 


349 

99 
107 
71 


432 


170 


3,305 

329 
82 
933 
67 
106 
288 
90 
44 
43 
115 
54 
142 
42 
118 
119 
212 


5,981 

644 
310 
722 

33 
180 
301 
205 

71 
134 
502 
175 
275 

83 
119 
357 
369 

94 

81 
188 
175 
571 
224 
168 


3,094 

414 
48 
101 
65 
159 
188 
164 
113 
116 
253 
131 
199 
32 
99 
118 
175 
73 
15 
68 
94 
312 
41 
116 


Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore 




102 


Calvert 










Caroline 






54 
71 
236 
56 
145 
447 
211 
198 
33 
24 
264 
229 
108 










Carroll 






54 






37 


Cecil 










Charles 






80 








Dorchester. . . . 
Frederick 














31 


240 
64 
46 
79 
119 
238 
148 








Garrett 










Harford 








96 




Howard 




12 

54 






Kent 










Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. 
St. Mary's, 
















71 


31 












68 


49 






86 
100 
17 
67 
251 


Somerset 


147 
117 

81 
196 
165 






35 
253 
472 






Talbot 








23 






Washington . . . 
Wicomico 


45 




335 










265 




Worcester. . . . 






150 























* Exclusive of w-ithdrawals for removal, transfer, death or commitment to institutions. 



Number and Per Cent Taking Each High School Subject 107 

St. Mary's County was the only one in which no French courses 
were offered. Calvert, which offered no courses in Latin, had 
over one-third of its pupils taking French. In addition a large 
proportion of boys and girls in Queen Anne's, Kent, and over one- 
fourth of the girls in Caroline, Carroll, Garrett, Washington, and 
Worcester chose to take courses in French. (See Table 75, 
page 103.) 

Industrial and Home Arts, Agriculture and Commercial Subjects 
Calvert and St. Mary's were the only counties which offered no 
courses in industrial arts or agriculture to the boys or in home 
economics to the girls in the white high schools. Garrett and 
Howard gave courses in agriculture to the boys, but offered no 
work in industrial arts. In the other counties the number of 
boys enrolled during 1931-32 for industrial arts ranged from 
one-fourth to more than seven-eighths of the total enrollment. 
Agriculture, available in all except 8 counties, interested 3.6 to 
38 per cent of all high school boys in the several counties offering 
it. Howard was the only county in which all the home economics 
work was on a vocational basis. General or vocational home 
economics courses were elected by only 27 per cent of the Mont- 
gomery County girls, while in Cecil and Carroll they were taken 
by 83 and 84 per cent of the girls, respectively. (See Table 75, 
page 103.) 

Commercial courses offered in all except Calvert, St. Mary's, 
and Queen Anne's, were taken by the largest proportion of pupils 
in Carroll, Somerset, Wicomico, and Allegany Counties. (See 
Table 75, page 103.) Most of the counties limited their offering 
in the commercial subjects to stenography, typing, and book- 
keeping given to third and fourth year students. However, 
pupils in 9 counties could take courses in junior business train- 
ing offered in the first year, and in 14 counties there were 
courses in commercial arithmetic for second year pupils. In- 
struction in commercial geography, office practice, second year 
typing, spelling, salesmanship, penmanship, secretarial work, 
commercial law and banking was given in from one to three 
counties. (See Table 78.) 

Physical Education and Music 

The thirteen counties which reported physical education as a 
regular course in the high school curriculum enrolled from 8 to 
97 per cent of the boys and from 5.3 to 90 per cent of the girls. 
Baltimore County, which showed the highest per cent having 
physical education, enlisted the staff and services of the Play- 
ground Athletic League for this purpose. (See Table 75.) 

Music was reported as a subject of instruction in every county 
except St. Mary's. Over 90 per cent of the pupils in Howard and 
Carroll received instruction in music. Cecil County, at the op- 



108 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Commercial Course Enrollment; English Enrollment by Years 109 



posite extreme, had music instruction for only 6 per cent of its 
pupils. 

Data regarding enrollment by subject in each high school are 
given in detail in Table XXXVII, on pages 320 to 325. 

ENROLLMENT IN ENGLISH DISTRIBLTED BY YEARS 

TABLE 79 

County White High School Enrollment in English 
Distributed by Year of English Taken 
Year Number Per Cent 

Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls 

1 9,539 4,825 4,71-1 33.7 35.9 31.6 

II 7,828 3,785 4,043 27.6 28.2 27.1 

III 6,231 2,865 3,366 22.0 21.3 22.6 

IV 4,744 1,963 2,781 16.7 14.6 18.7 

Total 28,342 13,438 14,904 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Of the 28,342 county white high school pupils enrolled in 
English, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, com- 

TABLE 80 

Per Cent of Enrollment Taking English in Each Year of High School 



COUNTY 



Number 
Enrolled 
in 
English 



Per Cent Enrolled in EngHsh in Years 



II 



III 



IV 



Total and Average 

Allgany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

CaroUne 

CarroU 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's . . . 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



28,342 



,049 
,278 
,836 
206 
812 
,452 
,083 
476 
859 
,942 
934 
,233 
456 
538 
,604 
,969 
510 
288 
703 
705 
.373 
,232 
804 



33.7 

34.8 
32.5 
36.4 
31.1 
30.8 
34.7 
34.7 
30.5 
31.0 
30.3 
35.2 
32.6 
39.9 
30.7 
31.3 
35.7 
37.5 
39.9 
31.8 
30.6 
32.8 
33.4 
31.5 



27.6 

27.1 
28.6 
28.9 
30.1 
27.7 
27.6 
29.0 
30.7 
27.6 
25.8 
28.2 
27.4 
26.8 
27.0 
4 
1 
2 
4 
6 
1 
3 
4 




29 
26 
28, 
26 
26 
29 
26 
27 



22.0 

22.2 
23.1 
19.6 
24.7 
22.5 
21.5 
19.4 
21.6 
20.8 
25.2 
22.5 
22.6 
19.9 
24.3 
23.1 
21.5 
19.6 
22.6 
26.2 
20.7 
23.3 
19.1 
23.6 



16.7 

15.9 
15.8 
15.1 
14.1 
19.0 
16.2 
16.9 
17.2 
20.6 
18.7 
14.1 
17.4 
13.4 
18.0 
16.2 
16.7 
14.7 
11.1 
15.4 
19.6 
17.6 
20.1 
17.9 



For enrollment by year in individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 819. 



110 



1932 Report of State Dep.aRtment of Education 



mitment to institutions or death, 34 per cent were in the first 
year, 27 per cent in the second year, 22 per cent in the third 
year, and 17 in the fourth. A larger proportion of boys than of 
girls was enrolled in the first and second years. These per- 
centages give some indication of the losses between the first 
and fourth year of high school. With the entrants to high school 
growing annually, however, there will normally be a higher per 
cent in the earlier than in the later years. (See Table 79.) 

In the individual counties the percentage of pupils enrolled in 
the first year varied from 30 to 40, while in the fourth year the 
range was between 11 and 21 per cent. The high proportion of 
pupils enrolled in the first year is partly caused by the increas- 
ing number of high school entrants, but the losses of pupils from 
year to year because of mental incapacity, lack of interest, and 
other causes also account for the lower percentages in the third 
and fourth years. (See Table 80.) 

WITHDRAWALS AND XOX-PROMOTIONS IX COUXTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of pupils withdrawn from county 
white high schools for causes other than removal, transfer, com- 
mitment to institutions, or death, were higher than in 1931 in 
mathematics, social studies, French, and Spanish. Increases in 
number and per cent not promoted over corresponding figures 
for 1931 were reported in every subject, except mathematics and 
science. 

For boys, increases in the per cent withdrawn were shown for 
the social studies and French, while a higher percentage of non- 
promotion was found in every subject from 1931 to 1932. For 
girls, increases in withdrawals were reported in mathematics, 
the social studies, French, and commercial subjects, while non- 
promotions were greater in all subjects except English, mathe- 
matics, and science. 

The average percentage of withdrawals for causes other than 
removal, transfer, death, and commitment ranged from 4.5 to 
11.0 per cent of the enrollment in the various major subjects 
and the proportion of failures included from 5.1 to 10.8 per cent. 
The highest percentage of withdrawals for boys, 11.5 per cent, 
was reported in agriculture, and the lowest, 5.7 per cent, in 
Latin. The highest per cent of non-promotion for boys was 
found in Latin with 15.9 per cent and mathematics with 13.9 
per cent. Agriculture had the lowest percentage of failures, 5.1. 
For the girls, French and Latin showed the fewest withdrawals 
relatively, while commercial subjects and science showed the 
highest per cent of withdrawals, slightly above 7 per cent. In 
mathematics 7.7 per cent of the girls were reported as failures, 
while this was the case for only 3.8 per cent of girls taking Eng- 



Enrollment by Yrs. in Eng.; High Sch. Withdrawals and Failures 111 



lish. In every subject there was a higher percentage of with- 
drawals and non-promotion for boys than for girls. (See 
Table 81.) 



TABLE 81 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending July, 1932 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 
































c 




c 




c 




a 




c 






% 








& 


T5 








-a 


& 






c3 
ii 




u 


V 




o 




ti 


ca 




2 






TS 


O 


-a 


o 




"o 




O 


"O 


o 




o 




Wit! 




WHY 


Not 
Prori 


With 


Not 
Pron 


With 


Not 
Pron 


With 


Not 
Pron 


Wit! 


Not 
Pron 




2,333 


2,199 


1.362 


1,628 


971 


571 


8.2 


7.8 


10.1 


12.1 


6.5 


3.8 


Mathematics 


1,751 


2.282 


1,042 1,467 


709 


815 


8.3 


10.8 


9.9 


13.9 


6.7 


7.7 


Social Studies 


2,000 1,938 


1.160 1.237 


840 


701 


8.3 


8.0 


10.1 


10.8 


6.6 


5.5 


Science 


l,700i 1,350 


995 


861 


705 


489 


8.8 


7.0 


10.6 


9.2 


7.1 


4.9 




299 


644 


147 


409 


152 


235 


4.8 


10.3 


5.7 


15.9 


4.1 


6.4 


French and Spanish 


217 


349 


114 


224 


103 


125 


4.5 


7.2 


6.2 


12.2 


3.4 


4.2 


Commercial Subjects 


1,006 


1,084 


449 


560 


557 


524 


8.3 


9.0 


10.1 


12.6 


7.3 


6.9 


Agriculture (Vocational) 


139 


61 


139 


61 






11.5 


5.1 


11.5 


5.1 





















Withdrawals and Failures in Individual Counties 

English, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science 

Withdrawals from English included from 6.2 to 15.5 per cent 
of the boys and from 3.6 to 14.9 per cent of the girls in the coun- 
ties reporting the lowest and highest percentages. The highest 
percentage of failures in English for boys, 20.8, was found in 
Worcester, while Garrett reported less than 5 per cent of the 
boys not promoted in English. For girls in the several counties, 
non-promotions in English ranged between less than 1 per cent 
and just over 7 per cent. (See Table 82.) 

Except in a few instances, withdrawals from mathematics and 
the social studies did not differ greatly from those from English. 
With rare exceptions in Frederick, Montgomery, Prince George's, 
and Wicomico, failures in mathematics for boys were higher 
than those in English. Four counties reported 26 per cent of the 
boys as not promoted in mathematics in addition to 10 or more 
per cent withdrawn for causes other than removal, transfer, 
death, and commitment. For Dorchester County girls the mathe- 
matics failures included 21 per cent in addition to over 8 per 
cent withdrawn. (See Table 82.) 

In the social studies the failures in individual counties for boys 
ranged from 7 per cent to over 20 per cent, with corresponding 
limits for the girls of and 13 per cent. St. Mary's County re- 



112 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Withdrawals and Failures for Each High School Subject 113 



ported the highest percentage of failures in the social studies. 
(See Table 82.) 

The maximum per cent of boys not promoted in science was 
17.2 per cent and for girls 12 per cent in Queen x4nne's County. 
The minimum per cent of boys who failed in science was be- 
tween 4 and 5 in Garrett and Kent, while Caroline and Garrett 
failed only 2 per cent of the girls in science. (See Table 82.) 

In the Foreign Languages 

Over 16 per cent of the boys withdrew from Latin in Dor- 
chester, whereas some counties had no withdrawals from Latin. 
The range of withdrawals from Latin for girls was from to 7 
per cent. Failures in Latin for boys were particularly high, in- 
cluding from a fourth to three-eighths of those enrolled for Latin 
in Carroll, Howard, Somerset, and Wicomico. With the excep- 
tion of the high percentage of failures for the small number 
taking Latin in Cecil County, the failures for girls ranged be- 
tween and 16 per cent. (See Table 82.) 

Withdrawals from French were unusually high in Dorchester 
and Somerset, 28.6 and 17.6 per cent, respectively. Failures for 
boys ranged between and 20 per cent. For girls the with- 
drawals and non-promotions for French were for the most part 
lower than for other subjects. (See Table 82.) 

In Commercial Subjects and Agriculture 
The highest percentage of withdrawals from the commercial 
subjects for boys was 18.2 in 2 counties and the lowest percent- 
age 3.4 ; corresponding figures for girls were 13.2 and less than 
1 per cent, respectively. From to 22.7 per cent of the boys and 
from 1.5 to 12.2 per cent of the girls failed to complete the com- 
mercial courses satisfactorily. (See Table 82.) 

The boys who withdrew included from 2.9 to 18.9 per cent of 
those enrolled for courses in vocational agriculture, while non- 
promotions represented from to 16.9 per cent of the agriculture 
enrollment. (See Table 82.) 

THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 
In 1931-32, the county white high schools employed a teaching 
staff equivalent to the full-time service of 1,204 teachers, an in- 
crease of 46 over the corresponding figures for the preceding 
year. Every subject except Latin, which lost 2, and music and 
art, which employed the same number, required a larger teach- 
ing staff on a full-time basis than in 1931. (See Table 83.) 

English, with 206 on a full-time basis, required the services of 
more teachers than any other subject. The number of teachers 
of social studies on a full-time basis was 172, while mathematics 
and science required 155 and 152 teachers, respectively. On a 
full-time basis there were 54 teachers of Latin and 53 of French 



114 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



and Spanish, the latter requiring 3 
Table 83.) 

TABLE 83 



more than in 1931. (See 



Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in 
White County High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



SUBJECTS 



Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
TimeDevoted 
to Different 
Subjects 



Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 



Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 



Teachers 



Schools 



Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 



English 

Social Studies 

Mathematics 

Science 

Latin 

French and Spanish 

Commercial Subject 
Home Economics. . . 

Industrial Arts 

Music 

Agriculture 

Physical Education . 

Library 

Art 

Administration and 
Supervision 

Total 



205.8 
172.1 
155.2 
151.8 
53.5 
52.5 

96.8 
84.0 
a61.2 
44.4 
27.8 
26.0 
12.5 
2.9 

57.5 

1,204.0 



152 
151 
152 
152 
94 
120 

65 
115 
79 
119 
45 
37 
17 
10 



20 
15 
626 
cl2 
1 



41 
32 
66 
25 
3 



108 
a76 
81 
32 
40 



152 



a Includes 3 teachers of vocational industrial arts and 1 each of auto mechanics, carpentry, sheet 
metal and electricity. 

b Includes an orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools which already have a 
regular music teacher, and a music supervisor in Frederick County teaching in 4 schools which already 
have a regular music teacher. 

c Includes one teacher who instructs in both agriculture and industrial arts in two schools. 

The full-time equivalent of 97 teachers was necessary for in- 
struction in the commercial subjects, an increase of 5 over the 
corresponding figure in 1931. Home economics with 84 teachers 
on a full-time basis, actually had 108 different teachers working 
in 115 high schools. Industrial arts and vocational work in 
trades and industries with a staff of 61 teachers on a full-time 
basis, included 76 individuals who instructed in 79 schools. (See 
Table 83.) 

Music actually taught by 81 different teachers in 119 high 
schools required the services of 44 teachers on a full-time basis. 
There were 28 instructors of agriculture on a full-time basis, but 
actually 32 teachers taught in 45 schools. Physical education 
employed 26 teachers on a full-time basis who worked in 37 
schools, and 3 teachers on a full-time basis gave instruction in 
art in 10 schools. (See Table 83.) 



High School Teaching Staff by Subject; High School Certification 115 

Nearly 13 librarians or teacher-librarians on a full-time basis 
were employed in 17 schools. This was an increase of 3.7 librar- 
ians and 2 schools over the preceding year. Administration and 
supervision required on a full-time basis 57.5 principals and vice- 
principals. The principals in 10 county high schools devoted all 
of their time to administrative and supervisory work. (See 
Table 83.) 

Clerks were employed by 6 counties for 18 high schools at a 
cost of $10,195. The average salary, $566, is much lower than 
that paid to teachers, but the services rendered are indispensable 
to the principals who are relieved of many clerical and routine 
duties. (See Table 84.) 

TABLE 84 

Number of Clerks in County White High Schools, 1931-32 

Average 

No. of Total Annual 



County Clerks Salaries Salary 

Total 18 S10,195 $566 

Allegany 7 4,048 578 

Montgomery 3 2,250 750 

Baltimore 3 1,792 597 

Anne Arundel 1 900 900 

Washington 3 705 235 

Frederick 1 500 500 



CERTIFICATE STATUS IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
The certificate status of principals and teachers in regular 
and senior, in senior- junior, and in junior high schools is given 
in Table XIII, page 291. Of 983 principals and teachers in reg- 
ular and senior high schools 96.4 per cent hold regular principals' 
and high school assistants' certificates. Only 3.6 hold provisional 
certificates or are substitutes. Of 349 principals and teachers in 
senior-junior high schools in five counties, 86.2 per cent hold 
regular principals' or high school assistant certificates, 2.6 have 
provisional certificates or are substitutes and 11.2 per cent hold 
first grade certificates. Of 88 principals and teachers in junior 
high schools in four counties, 64.2 per cent have regular prin- 
cipals' and high school assistant certificates, 4.2 per cent have 
provisional certificates, and 31.6 hold regular first grade certifi- 
cates. (For similar data by individual counties, see Table XIII, 
page 291.) 

THIRTY-FIVE PER CENT OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS ATTEND 
SUMMER SCHOOLS 

Of the teachers employed in junior, junior-senior, regular and 
senior high schools in October, 1932, there were 472 or 35 per 
cent who attended summer school in 1932. Only in the year 1931 
was there a higher percentage in summer school attendance. 
(See Table 85.) 



116 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 85 

White High School Teachers Who Were 
Summer School Attendants 



Year Number . Per Cent 

1932 *472 35.1 

1931 448 36.1 

1930 410 34.3 

1929 367 33.5 

1928 296 28.4 

1927 319 32.7 

1926 281 30.7 

1925 280 32.3 

1924 232 31.0 



* Includes teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools. 

Among the counties the per cent of high school teachers who 
attended summer school in 1932 varied from none in Calvert to 
46 per cent in Harford. Eleven counties had 38 per cent or more 
high school teachers in summer school in 1932 while only two 
had fewer than 25 per cent. (See Table 86.) 



TABLE 86 

Teachers in Maryland County White Junior, Junior-Senior, and Regular Senior 
High Schools Reported by County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants 

in 1932 



County 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1932, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1932 



i Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total. 



Harford 

Montgomery ... 

Howard 

Kent 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Prince George's . 

Carroll 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Washington. . . . 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel. . 

Wicomico 

Calvert 



a6*472 

24 
b45 
11 
11 
10 
17 
19 
bl6 
a55 
12 
abSo 
30 
11 
3 
13 
o37 
ab54 
7 
11 
6*23 
16 
12 



35.1 

46.2 
44.6 
44.0 
44.0 
41.7 
41.5 
40.4 
40.0 
39.3 
38.7 
38.0 
37.0 
34.4 
33.3 
31.7 
31.6 
29.5 
29.2 
28.2 
27.7 
27.1 
24.0 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Columbia University 

Western Maryland College .... 

Duke University 

Pennsylvania State College .... 

University of Virginia 

George Washington University. 
Indiana State Teachers' College 

University of California 

Cornell University 

Harvard University 

University of North Carolina. . 

Temple University 

University of Michigan 

Ohio University 

University of Pennsylvania. . . . 

Rutgers University 

All others 

Travel 



* Includes one who took courses at both Western Maryland and the University of \ irginia. 

o Includes 37 junior high school teachers, distributed as follows: Allegany, 13; Baltimore, 2; Prince 
George's, 2; Washington, 20. 

b Includes 93 teachers in junior-senior high schools, distributed as follows: Allegany, 29; Caroline, 
5; Frederick, 5; Montgomery , 45; Prince George's, 9. 



Summer School. Attendance; Junior and Jr.-Sr. High Schools 117 

One-third of the teachers, 157, attended the University of 
Maryland, while Johns Hopkins and Columbia University each 
attracted 77 teachers. For its first summer session Western 
Maryland College enrolled 27 Maryland county teachers. (See 
Table 86.) 

TEACHER WITHDRAWALS FROM COUOTY WHITE JUNIOR AND 
JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Since October, 1926, when junior high schools were first estab- 
lished in Allegany County, it has been our practice to distribute 
their teachers among elementary and high schools in accordance 
with the way the teachers were reported by the county on the 
salary, certification, and experience sheets. Some years a teacher 
would appear among the high school teachers and other years 
among the elementary teachers. Since the work in junior high 
schools is departmentalized, which results in most of the teachers 
giving instruction to grades 7 and 8, or grades 7, 8 and 9, it was 
decided to eliminate this arbitrary classification, and distribute 
teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools in a distinct 
group. This change seems justified, since the number of teach- 
ers in junior and junior-senior high schools has increased from 
125 in Allegany County in October, 1926, to 334 in Allegany, 
Montgomery, Prince George's, Frederick, and Washington Coun- 
ties in October, 1931. (See Table 87.) 



TABLE 87 



Teachers in County White Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools 



October 


Total 


Alle- 
gany 


Mont- 
gomery 


Prince 
George's 


Wash- 
ington 


Fred- 
erick 


1926 


125 
155 
175 
179 
217 
334 


125 
134 
138 
137 
138 
146 










1927 


21 
37 
42 
51 
96 








1928 








1929 








1930 


28 
33 






1931 


44 


15 





In the past four years the number of resignations from the 
junior and junior-senior high schools has varied between 17 and 
30, which latter was the number of resignations between Oc- 
tober, 1930, and October, 1931. Inefficiency, marriage, and 
teaching positions elsewhere accounted for over three-fourths of 
the withdrawals from the junior and junior-senior high schools 
between October, 1930, and October, 1931. (See Table 88.) 



118 



1932 Report of State I»epartmext of Education" 



TABLE 88 



Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County Junior and Junior-Senior White High Schools* Between October of One 
Year and October of the Follo\ring Year 





Oct.. 1927 


Oct.. 1928 Oct., 1929 


Oct., 


1 Q.30 to 


Cause of Withdrawal 


to 


to 


to 


Oct 


1931 




Oct.. 192S Oct., 1929 Oct., 1930 


Xo. 


Per Cen 


Ineffieiencv 


3 


2 


4 


l(J 


OO A 


Marriage 


3 


5 


5 


4 


26 . 6 


Teaching in Balto. City, 












Another State, or in a 












Private School 


6 


11 


3 


6 


20.0 


Work Other than Teaching. . . 


3 


4 


2 


2 


6.7 


Illness 




1 




2 


6.7 


Pro^-isional Certificate or 












Failure to Attend Summer 












School 








1 


3.3 


Other School Positions in State 


i 




1 


3.3 


Moved Awav 


1 


1 


2 






Death 






1 






Retirement 






1 






Other and Unknown 


1 


•2 


1 


1 


3.3 


Total t 


17 


27 


19 


30 


100.0 


Leave of Absence 


1 


1 


2 






Transfer to Another County. . 


2 


2 




1 




To Elementary. Regular, or 












Senior High School in 












Same Countv 


4 


4 


4 


9 





=^ Teachers -withdrawing from junior or junior-senior high schools only are included in this table. 
For teachers withdrawing from elementan.- schools, see Table 38, page 52, and for those withdrawing 
from regular four year or senior high schools, see Table 91. page 120. 

t Total excludes teachers on leave of absence, or transfers between counties, or teachers transfer- 
ring to elementan.', regxilar or senior high schools in the same county. 



TURNOVER IX JUNIOR AX'D JUXIOR-SEXIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Excluding teachers who transferred from elementary and reg- 
ular high schools to teach in junior and junior-senior high schools 
in the same county, 67, or 20 per cent, of the 334 teachers in 
junior and junior-senior high schools in October, 1931, were new 
to these schools. Of these 67 teachers, 37 were inexperienced 
and 30 were experienced but out of service the preceding year 
or teaching in other states. Between October, 1927, and 1931, 
there was a range in turnover from 17 to 20. It was only in the 
fall of 1926 when the first schools of this ty^e were organized in 
Allegany County that more than 20 per cent of the teachers were 
new to this type of county school. In that year the turnover was 
close to 29 per cent. (See Table 89.) 

During the school year 1931-32, the turnover varied among the 
five counties having junior and junior-senior high schools from 
16 to 30 per cent. It should be noted that Table 90 reflects con- 



Resignations and Tl'rno\'er in Junior and Jr. -Senior High Schools 119 



TABLE 89 

Teacher Turnover in County White Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools 
Between October of One Year and October of the Next Year 











Xumber X'ew to Countv Jimior and 




New to 




Ti 1 Til riT— 


Senior High Schools Wlio Were 




Maryland 












County 


Change 










Junior and 


m 




Experienced 


October 


Junior-Senior 


Xo. of 










.High 


Teaching 


In- 








Schools 


Positions 


experi- 


But Xot in 


And in Maryland 










enced 


Maryland 


County Elemen- 












County Schools 


tary or Regular 












Preceding 


High Schools 




No. 


Per Cent 






Y'ear 


Preceding Year 


1926 


36 


28.8 


+ 125 


1" 


19 


89 


1927 


27 


17.4 


+ 30 


16 


11 


25 


192S 


34 


19.4 


+ 20 


19 


15 


10 


1929 . . . 


30 


16.8 


+ 4 


16 


14 


8 


1930 


43 


19.8 


+ 38 


24 


19 


20 


1931 


67 


20.0 


+ 117 


37 


30 


90 



ditions throughout the school year 1931-32, whereas Table 89 
shows the number new to the counties as a group in October of 
the various years given. (See Tables 89 and 90.) 



TABLE 90 

Number and Per Cent of White Junior and Junior-Senior High School Teachers 
New to Maryland Countv Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools During 
the School Year, 1931-32 



Count} 



New to 
County 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 

t 



Per 
Cent 
t 



Change in 
Number of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1930 
to 

Oct.. 1931 



Xumber New to County Junior and Junior- 
Senior High Schools Who Were 



Experienced 



Inex- 
peri- 
enced 



from 
an- 
other 
State 



in County 
but not 

Teaching 
Year 
Before 



from 
an- 
other 
County 



Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 



From 
Elementary-, 

Regular 
and Senior 
High 
Schools 



Total and Average 

1930- 31 1 54 

1931- 32 I 70 



Washington. . . . 

Frederick 

Montgomery. . . 

Allegany 

Prince George's. 



23.8 
20.8 

15.9 
20.0 
20.6 
21.1 
30.3 



-f38 
+117 

-f44 
+15 
+45 
+8 
+5 



t Excludes transfers from elementary, regtilar and senior high schools in the county shown in last 
column. 



120 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



FEWER TEACHERS RESIGN FROM COUNTY WHITE REGULAR AND 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 147 teachers who resigned from the white county 
regular and senior high schools between October, 1930, and Oc- 
tober, 1931. This total excludes 4 withdrawals because teachers 
were on leave of absence, 27 transfers to another county, and 63 
transfers to elementary, junior, or junior-senior high schools in 
the same county. These last transfers include some teachers re- 
ported as in a regular four-year high school in October, 1930, 
who in October, 1931, were serving in a similar capacity some- 
times in the same school, but at the later date the school was 
designated as a junior-senior high school. Similar data for junior 
and junior-senior high schools are available in Table 88, page 118. 

TABLE 91 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County White Regular and Senior High Schools* Between October of One Year 
and October of the Following Year 





Oct.. 1927 


Oct., 1928 


Oct., 1929 


Oct., 


, 1930 to 


Cause of Withdrawal 


to 


to 


to 


Oct 


., 1931 




Oct.. 1928 


Oct., 1929 


Oct., 1930 


No. 


Per Cent 


Marriage 


41 


44 


43 


36 


24.5 


Teaching in Baltimore City, 












Another State, or in a 












Private School 


37 


53 


50 


33 


22.5 


Inefficiency 


20 


19 


17 


629 


19.7 


Work Other Than Teaching . . . 


19 


19 


17 


16 


10.9 


Pro\'isional Certificate or 












Failure to Attend Summer 












School 


2 


7 


6 


11 


7.0 


Illness 


5 


3 


4 


4 


2.7 


Retirement 


2 


5 


5 


4 


2.7 


Death 


2 




2 


3 


2.0 


Other School Positions in State 


5 


10 


2 


1 


. 7 


Moved Awav 


2 


2 


2 


1 


. 7 


Other and UnknoM-n 


13 


4 


15 


9 


6.1 


Totalt 


148 


166 


163 


147 


100.0 


Leave of Absence 




17 


9 


a4 




Transfer to Another County . . . 


36 


50 


37 


c27 




To Elementary, Junior, or 












Junior-Senior High School in 












Same Countv 


6 


7 


22 


63 





* Teachers withdrawing from regular four-year or senior high schools only are included in this 
Table. For teachers withdrawing from junior or junior-senior high schools, see Table 88, page 118. 
a Includes one who returned. 

b Includes one teaching in Talbot, February, 1932. 

c Includes one who transferred from a Cecil County High School to an Allegany County Ele- 
mentary School. 

t Total excludes teachers on leave of absence or transfers between counties, or to elementary junior 
and junior-senior high schools in the same county. 

Except for withdrawals for inefficiency, provisional certificate, 
or failure to attend summer school, which increased over corre- 



Resignations from and Turnover in Reg. and Senior High Schools 121 



spending figures for preceding years, there were reductions in 
all causes of resignation. Three-fourths of the resignations were 
due to marriage, taking teaching positions outside the county 
school systems, inefficiency, low certificate grade, or failure to 
attend summer school. The increase in transfers to elementary, 
junior, and junior-senior high schools is explained by the estab- 
lishment of two junior high schools in Hagerstown in Washing- 
ton County, of a junior-senior high school at Brunswick in Fred- 
erick County, and of additional schools of the latter type in 
Montgomery County. (See Table 91.) 



TURNOVER LOWER IN COUNTY WHITE REGULAR AND SENIOR 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of teachers new to regular and senior 
high schools of the counties considered as a group were lower in 
October, 1931, than for the five years preceding. There were 190 
teachers or 18.6 per cent new to the group. The turnover the 
year before was 262, which included 25 per cent of the teachers 
employed in regular and senior high schools. The reduction in 
turnover in regular and senior high schools from 1930 to 1931 is 
due not only to the organization of additional junior and junior- 
senior high schools, but also to fewer marriages, to the continu- 
ance in teaching positions of some who married, and to the re- 
duction in openings in fields other than teaching for those desir- 
ous of leaving the teaching profession. (See Table 92.) 

TABLE 92 

Teacher Turnover in County White Regular and Senior High Schools* Between 
October of One Year and October of the Following Year 

Teachers New to Mar3^1and 
County Regular and 
Senior High Schools* 
"\Mio Were 

Experienced 

Teachers But Not in 

New to Maryland Change Marj'land 

County White in County 

Regular and Senior Number of High Schools 

High Schools* Teaching Inex- Preceding 

October No. Per Cent Positions perienced Year 

1926 224 26.3 .... 149 75 

1927 216 24.4 +35 139 77 

1928 203 21.9 +41 132 71 

1929 231 23.6 +50 145 86 

1930 262 25.0 +69 177 85 

1931 190 18.6 -23 140 50 

* Teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools are excluded from this table. They will be found 
in Table 89, page 119. 

Of the 190 teachers new to county regular and senior high 
schools in October, 1931, 140 were inexperienced and 50 were 



122 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



experienced teachers from outside the State or formerly in serv- 
ice in the counties. The number of new experienced teachers 
employed was lower than in any year preceding for which similar 
data are available. 

The 1,024 teachers in service in county regular and senior high 
schools were 23 fewer in number than for the year before. The 
establishment of additional junior and junior-senior high schools 
probably accounts for this reduction. (See Table 92.) 

TABLE 93 



Number and Per Cent of White Regular and Senior High School Teachers* New to 
the High Schools of Each Individual County During the School Year, 1931-32 



County 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Change in 
Number of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1930 
to 

Oct., 1931 


Number New to County High Schools Who Were 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


Experienced 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 


but 
New 

to 
State 


in Counties 
but not 

in 
Ser\'ice 
Preceding 
Year 


From 

an- 
other 
County 


From 
J unior , 
J unior- 
Senior or 
Elemen- 
tary 
School 


Total and 
Average 

1930- 1 

1931- 2 


320 
205 

1 
2 
2 

8 
3 

5 
7 
8 
7 
5 

2 
7 
10 
13 
18 

8 
15 
2 
3 
43 

14 
14 

8 


29.5 
19.7 

2.9 
8.0 
8.7 
10.8 
12.0 

12.5 
14.0 
15.1 
15.6 
16.1 

16.7 
16.7 
16.9 
18.8 
20.2 

22.9 
23.1 
25.0 
27.3 
30.5 

31.8 
33.3 
33.3 


-1-69 
-23 


180 
135 


55 
27 


26 
13 


38 
25 


10 

3 

1 


11 

2 




+ 1 
+1 
-8 
-1 

-1 

+ 1 


1 

2 
2 
2 

4 
4 
5 
6 
3 

2 

5 

10 
13 

5 
5 
1 
1 
28 

9 
12 

8 


1 








Queen Anne's. . . 
Washington*. . . . 












2 


4 






1 

1 
1 
1 






Dorchester 

Wicomico 












2 






Harford 


1 
1 




1 


Cecil 


-3 








1 


1 






Montgomery*. . . 
Worcester 


-37 
+1 
+ 1 

-12 
+7 










1 

3 


1 






Anne Arundel . . . 
Frederick* 








1 
2 


1 
1 

1 
4 


1 
1 




Carroll 


1 

2 




Talbot 




Prince George's* 
Calvert 


-4 


6 






■ 1 






St. Mary's 


-1 

+23 

+5 




1 
7 

1 
1 




1 




7 

4 
1 


1 




Garrett 






Caroline 








Charles 


+4 





















* Teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools are excluded from this table. They are included 
in Table 90, page 119. 



In Table 93, turnover in individual counties is given for the 
school year 1931-32. In the preceding table it was shown for 
the period from October to October. Since teachers who trans- 
fer from county to county are new to the county to which they 
transfer, they are included in the turnover for individual coun- 



Turnover in Reg. and Sr. High Schools; Colleges of New Teachers 123 



ties, but excluded from the turnover for the counties as a group 
given in Table 92. In the individual counties the turnover in 
white regular and senior high schools varied in number from 1 
to 43 and in per cent from 3 to 33.3. (See Table 93.) 

LOCATION OF COLLEGES ATTENDED BY NEWLY 
APPOINTED TEACHERS 

TABLE 94 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperienced 
White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Regidar and Senior High 
Schools : Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teaching Experience in 
Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland Counties, for School Year, 1931-32 



STATE OF 
COLLEGE 
ATTENDED 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel || 


Baltimore || 


1 Calvert || 


Caroline 11 


Carroll || 




Charles 1 1 


Dorchester || 


Frederick 


Garrett | 


Harford 11 


Howard || 


Kent 


>> 

d 

o 
ti 

o 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's || 


aj 

'>> 
u 

a 

X 


CO 
c 
C 

X 


1 Talbot II 


_c 

$ 


Wicomico || 


1 Worcester || 


Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1931-1932 


Total 


172 


*15 


7 


28 


1 


12 


13 


6 


8 


4 


°12 


9 


5 


2 


1 


§12 

tt6 
*3 


t9 
t9 


2 


1 


3 


5 


*8 


4 


5 


Maryland 


114 
31 
29 
15 
12 
8 
5 
3 
3 
1 
7 
13 
11 
6 
5 
5 
3 
3 
2 
9 
1 


*8 
*1 
*3 


5 
4 
1 


16 
1 

i 

5 
3 


1 
1 


9 

3 
3 
3 


10 

8 


2 
1 

i 


6 
1 
5 


4 
1 
1 
2 


t7 
t2 
3 


5 
3 

i 


4 
2 
1 


2 


1 


2 




1 
1 


4 

i 

3 


t5 

t2 
*2 


3 
2 

i 


4 

i 

2 


University of Md 




1 
1 














*1 
*1 








1 






Hood 










1 


1 
























1 








1 


i 




°3 












J. H. U 


















1 


















1 






3 
1 
2 
































St. John's 














































Others 


*2 
*2 
*1 






i 
i 


1 
1 
1 














1 
















*1 
t2 


i 


"i 




2 
1 


i 




3 
*1 
1 
















1 








5 
1 

3 












1 
*1 

*2 
























1 






































*3 
*1 


















2 






































1 






















1 








W^ash., D. C 


1 
























*2 


























1 










1 






















9 Other States 




1 


3 




1 


1 








2 


















*1 






Unknown 






















1 




















































Teachers with Experience in Other' States Employed for School Year, 1931-32 


Total 


50 


*11 




7 




1 


2 






1 


t2 


4 


1 


1 


1 


*7 
'*2 








1 






1 




Pennsylvania 


8 
8 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 


*1 
*2 




1 


















1 




1 


°3 
2 












1 








1 


















1 






New York 




3 












1 


i 




1 












Kentucky 


*2 








1 




























Maryland 














1 


*1 








*1 


1 
*1 
















Tennessee 


*1 
*2 










1 




























Ohio 


















*1 




































2 
1 








1 

t2 
















9 Other States and 

Washington, D. C 


11 


*3 




2 






















*3 























































* Includes teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools. 

t Includes one teacher in a junior or jumor-semor high school. 
° Includes two teachers in junior senior high schools. 
+ Includes four teachers in junior-senior high schools. 

* Includes six teachers in junior high schools. 

§ Includes ten teachers in junior-senior high schools. 



124 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

Of the 172 inexperienced teachers employed in junior, junior- 
senior, regular and senior high schools during the school year 
1931-32, 114 or nearly two-thirds, received their college training 
in Maryland. Western Maryland College trained 31 of these in- 
experienced teachers, the University of Maryland 29, Washing- 
ton College 15, Goucher 12, Hood 8, St. Joseph's 5, Johns Hopkins 
University and Notre Dame, 3 each. The county in which the 
college was located employed the largest number of graduates 
from Western Maryland and the University of Maryland. The 
remaining 58 inexperienced teachers attended colleges in 16 other 
states and the District of Columbia. (See Table 94.) 

Of 50 teachers who taught in Maryland counties in 1931-32 
after teaching one or more years in other states, 4 had received 
their training in Maryland colleges and 46 had taken their col- 
lege work in 16 other states and the District of Columbia. (See 
Table 94.) 

Of the graduates of Maryland colleges and universities in 
June, 1931, who met the State requirements for the certificate 
as high school assistant, 121 were residents of the Maryland 
counties and 48 were from Baltimore City. These figures are 
decreases of 33 and 3 under the corresponding figures for June, 
1930. Of these 1931 graduates, 106 were employed in the Mary- 
land county high schools in October, 1931. This number is 27 
fewer than the number of 1930 graduates who received positions 
in the counties the fall after their graduation. (See Table 95 
and also Table 94.) 

TABLE 95 

Maryland Students Who Completed, in June, 1931, at Colleges Indicated, the Edu- 
cation Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the Number of 
Graduates Who Took Positions in the County High Schools 
in the Fall of 1931 



College 

University of Maryland . . . 

Western Maryland 

Washington 

Goucher 

Notre Dame 

Johns Hopkins University 

Hood :. 

St. Joseph's 



Number of Graduates 
Who Met Requirements 
for Certification from Who Accepted 



Maryland Baltimore County High School 

Counties City Positiong 

47 2 29 

33 6 31 

20 2 15 

1 19 12 

3 9 3 

9 3 

9 .. 8 

8 1 5 



Total 



121 



48 



106 



Colleges of New Teachers; Experience of High School Teachers 125 



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126 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN SENIOR-JUNIOR AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS, AND IN REGULAR AND SENIOR 
HIGH SCHOOLS 

For the 362 teachers employed in senior- junior and junior 
high schools in October, 1932, the median teaching experience 
was 6.3 years. Of these teachers, 210 or 58 per cent were in- 
cluded in the group having had from one to seven years of ex- 
perience inclusive, from 24 to 38 teachers appearing for each of 
these years of experience. Allegany County which has had 
junior-senior high schools longer than any other county shows 
the longest median experience, while Baltimore County which 
organized a junior high school only recently reports the shortest 
median experience for teachers. (See Table 96.) 

For 983 teachers in service in the white regular and senior 
high schools in October, 1932, the median experience was 5.4 
years. There were 127 and 112 teachers with experience of two 
years and one year, respectively. Among the individual coun- 
ties the range in median years of experience in the regular and 
senior high schools ran from 2.4 to 9.3 years. (See Table 96.) 

MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

For the school year 1931-32 the 430 men employed in the last 
four years of high school work in the county white high schools 
comprised 35.7 per cent of the teaching staff. This percentage 
has been exceeded only three times in the last ten years, in 1931, 
1924, and 1923. (See Table 97.) 

TABLE 97 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1932 430 35.7 

1931 416 35.9 

1930 365 34.0 

19^9 348 34.4 

19 28 333 34.3 



Year Number Per Cent 

1927 307 33 . 7 

1926 303 35.0 

1925 283 35 . 1 

1924 271 36.2 

1923 253 36.9 



In the individual counties the proportion of men employed in 
the high schools varied from less than 30 per cent in 3 counties 
to over 40 per cent in 8 counties. It will be noted that the coun- 
ties adjacent to Baltimore and Washington, D. C, have the 
smallest percentage of men teaching in their white high schools. 
(See Table 98.) 



Experience and Sex of High School Teachers; High Schools 127 



TABLE 98 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Men Teaching 


COUNTY 


Men Teachinq 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


430.2 


35.7 




18 


37.4 






Calvert 


3 


37.5 


11.3 


20.9 


Cecil 


17 


37.8 


19 


23.6 


Dorchester 


15 


38.7 


23.5 


27.5 


Caroline 


16 


41.2 


41.3 


31.1 




10 


41.7 


10.7 


31.9 




13 


41.9 


17 


33.0 


Carroll 


35.3 


42.0 


9 


35.6 


Washington 


37 


42.5 


8 


35.9 




19 


46.3 


9 


36.0 




21 


48.5 


42.5 


36.8 


St. Mary's 


4.9 


54.4 


29.7 


37.2 







COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Anne Arundel .... 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Harford 

Howard 

Queen Anne's .... 

Kent 

Allegany 

Frederick 



NUMBER OF APPROVED WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Up to the close of the school year 1931-32 the total number of 
approved high schools decreased by one to 152. The number of 
first group schools (140) decreased by 4, while the number of 
schools classified as second group, which includes those offering 
one year of high school work as well as junior high schools, in- 
creased by 3 to 12. (See Table 99.) 

TABLE 99 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Year and 
County 



Total 



Group 



§1 



§2 



County 



Total 



Group 



Total Counties: 

1932 

1931 

1930 

1929 

1928 

1927 

1926 

1925 

1920 

1932— by Counties 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 



152 
153 
152 
151 
153 
152 
150 
148 

82 



140 
144 
142 
141 
141 
*137 
*136 
*130 

*69 



°12 
9 
10 
10 
12 
tlo 
tl4 
tl8 

tl3 



Ut3 



Charles 

Dorchester . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George' 
Queen Anne's . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 
Wicomico. . . . 
Worcester. . . . 

Baltimore City 

State 



158 



6 
146 



XX2 



'12 



§ First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two teachers. 
They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, an attend- 
ance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County giving a one-year course are 
classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

X Each X represents one junior high school. ° Includes 7 junior high schools. 



128 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

There were two new first group schools established, Kenwood 
on the Philadelphia Road near Raspeburg, Baltimore County, 
and Margaret Brent at Helen in St. Mary's County. The latter 
school replaced two first group schools at Mechanicsville and 
River Springs. The first group schools at Henderson in Caroline 
County and Wolfsville in Frederick County were closed and the 
pupils transported to the nearest high schools. West Friendship 
in Howard County and Randallstown in Baltimore County be- 
came second group and junior high schools respectively. (See 
Table 99.) 

At Cresaptown in Allegany County a junior high school was 
opened and at Hagerstown two new junior high schools were 
constructed thus relieving the Hagerstown High School of the 
first year of work, so that it became a senior high school. A one- 
year school was organized in connection with the Sixth District 
Consolidated School opened in Baltimore County. The second 
group schools at Germantown and Glen Echo-Cabin John in 
Montgomery County and at Darlington in Harford County were 
discontinued. (See Table 99.) 

Allegany had 12 white high schools, Carroll and Prince 
George's, 11 each, Baltimore County 10, Montgomery 9, Wash- 
ington, Harford and Cecil, 8 each, Frederick and Wicomico, 7 
each. St. Mary's had 2 schools, Calvert 3, Anne Arundel, Kent 
and Somerset, 4 each. The remaining eight counties each had 
either 5 or 6 schools. (See Table 99.) 

The distribution of high schools of the various types in the 
individual counties is shown graphically with approximate loca- 
tion on the map appearing as Chart 19. 

SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Of 152 county white high schools in 1931-32 the median school 
had a staff of 6 teachers including the principal. The schools 
varied in staff from four having one teacher (9th grade of junior 
high or second group schools) to one having 37 teachers. Fred- 
erick had the high school with the largest teaching staff in the 
counties. The Hagerstown High School, formerly the largest, 
was reduced in teaching staff when it became a senior high 
school, as a result of the organization of two new junior high 
schools for the school year 1931-32. Only 8 county high schools 
had 25 or more teachers. (See Table 100.) 



130 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 100 



Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County White High Schools, 
Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Number of Teacbers* 


Total No. Schools 


1 Allegany 11 


Anne Arundel || 


1 Baltimore || 


1 Calvert || 


Caroline || 


1 Carroll 11 


1 Cecil II 


Charles || 


Dorchester || 


Frederick || 


j Garrett jj 


1 Harford || 


Howard || 


Kent 


Montgomery || 


Prince George's || 


Queen Anne's || 


1 St. Mary's || 


Somerset 1 1 


Talbot II 


c 

o 

"5 

i 


Wicomico || 


Worcester || 


Total 


152 

4 
12 
13 
29 
18 
15 
9 
6 
8 
6 
4 
4 


12 
a2 


4 


10 
1 


3 


5 


11 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


6 
1 

1 

2 


4 


9 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


s 


7 


5 


1 


2 


2 






1 

2 
1 

i 


i 

2 

i 
1 


1 
1 

2 


1 
1 
1 


1 

2 
2 


1 

2 
1 
2 


1 

i 
1 


1 
1 

2 


1 

i 

3 
2 
1 


i 

3 


i 
1 


1 
1 


1 

2 
1 


3 
dl 

1 
el 

1 


2 
2 
1 
1 


i 
1 
1 


3 


1 
1 

2 


i 

1 


1 

c2 


4 


1 


1 


2 


5 


6 






1 


2 
3 
2 


7 














1 








1 


8 
















1 




1 






g 


2 
61 




1 




2 




1 


1 




1 






1 








10 


1 














11 








1 
























1 
1 




12 










1 






























13 


1 

3 
























1 












14 






1 






















1 










1 








15 






































16 


2 
4 
4 
























1 






1 
1 
1 


















17 


1 


1 


1 


































18 






1 






1 




1 
























19 


































20 


2 

1 
1 

3 

1 
1 
1 


1 




1 










































25 


























1 
















26 


1 


1 


1 








































28 






































1 




35 


1 






































36 




































1 






37 




















1 























* Midpoint of interval. 

a Includes the ninth grades of Cresaptown and Midland Junior High Schools. 

b Includes the ninth grade of Greene St. Junior High School. 

c Includes the eighth and ninth grades of Randallstown Junior High School. 

d Includes the ninth grade of South Potomac Junior High School. 

e Includes the ninth grade of Woodland Way Junior High School. 

SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The county white high schools ranged in size from one with 
but 15 pupils to one of nearly 1,000 pupils belonging on the 
average. The median county high school fell in the group hav- 
ing from 101 to 125 pupils belonging. Only 8 county high schools 
had more than 600 pupils belonging on the average. The Catons- 
ville and Hagerstown schools had the largest average enrollment, 
Frederick being smaller than either of these two schools in pupil 
population. (See Table 101.) 



White High Schools by Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment 181 



TABLE 101 



Size of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Total No. Schools 


c 

< 


Anne Arundel || 


c 

•3 


> 

O 


o 
c 

O 


"3 

o 


O 


go 

eS 

6 


4) 

c 
Q 


1 

c 

&H 


6 


1 


1 

1 


c 

o 

\^ 


Montgomery || 


JB 

"nj 
M 

O 
4) 
O 

w 
c 


JD 

s 
a 
< 

3 

o* 


St. Mary's 11 


Somerset || 


Eh 


c 

o 

_c 


o 
_o 

c 
w 


1 Worcester II 




152 

1 

2 
7 
13 
27 
19 
19 
9 
9 
7 
3 
7 
2 
4 
2 
2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 


12 

al 
bl 
1 

2 
1 


4 


10 

1 


3 


5 


11 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


6 


4 


9 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 




























1 


































1 

3 








2 

2 
1 

i 


1 

1 
1 








1 


• - 
2 
2 




1 
1 

2 






1 
1 


1 

di 
1 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


2 
1 

2 
3 


1 

2 


1 

2 


1 

2 


1 

1 

3 


1 
1 
1 
2 
1 


1 

2 


1 

2 
3 








2 
2 


t 
1 

1 


i 






2 


1 




1 


1 

2 
1 


1 
1 


i 




1 


2 


i 


151- 175 










1 
1 


2 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1 
















1 


1 








201- 225 










1 




1 














1 

el 
/I 




OOC OCA 


2 




1 




1 






















1 
























1 






















1 














1 








1 


1 


301- 325 


















1 










1 












OOC OCA 


cl 










1 
































351- 375 


























2 




















i 


i 


1 








































401- 425 












1 




1 


1 
























426- 450 




































451- 475 




1 










































476- 500 










































501- 525 


2 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 

2 


1 


1 


1 










































626- 650 


























1 
















701- 725 






































1 




726- 750 


1 










































751^ 775 




1 










































926- 950 














1 




























976-1000 






1 


































1 















n Includes the ninth grade of Cresaptown Junior High School. 

b Includes the ninth grade of Midland .Junior High .*>chool. 

c Includes the ninth grade of Greene St. Junior IJigh School. 

d Includes the eighth and ninth grades of Randallstown Junior High School. 

e Includes the ninth grade of South Potomac Junior High School. 

/ Includes the ninth grade of Woodland Way Junior High .School. 

RATIO OF PUPILS TO TEACHERS IN W HITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

For the school year 1931-32 the average number belonging per 
teacher in the county white high schools was 22.3 pupils, an in- 
crease of .3 over 1931. The range in ratio of pupils to teachers 
among the individual counties was from 16.4 to 29.6. All except 
8 of the counties had a higher ratio in 1932 than in 1931. This 
considerable variation is explained by such factors as size of 
section, number of special subjects available to pupils, and num- 
ber of free periods allowed teachers. (See Chart 20.) 



132 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 
CHART 20 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1930 1931 1932 
Co. Average 21.6 21.9 



St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Harford 

CecU 

Aiuie Arundel 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

Pr. George's 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Garrett 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Worcester 

Howard 

Carroll 



20.0 
27.9 
25.6 
21.9 
22.9 
24.3 
24.0 
20.3 
19.9 
22.0 
20.6 
22.4 
21.3 
19.9 
20.0 
19.7 
20.0 
20.2 
19.1 
20.9 
17.5 
17.2 
16.2 



State 



23.3 
27.2 
27.5 
23.7 
23.5 
25.1 
23.7 
21.4 
19.9 
21.0 
21.7 
21.5 
20.3 
20.3 
20.4 
E1.6 
19.4 
20.7 
18.5 
21.1 
18.7 
16.8 
17.1 



Balto. City* 24.9 25.3 



22.5 22.8 





* Senior high schools only. 
For ccunties arranged alphabetic? 



for 1932 data, see Table XV, page 293. 



AVERAGE SALARY PER HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 

In 1931-32 the average salary per white high school teacher 
and principal was $1,571, an increase of $3 over the average sal- 
ary for the preceding year. With the exception of the increase 
from 1929 to 1930 this is the smallest increase recorded over a 
fifteen-year period. (See Table 102.) 

In the individual counties the average salary per teacher and 
principal ranged from $1,401 to $1,845. Ten of the counties re- 



Pupils and Salary per Teacher in White High Schools 133 



TABLE 102 

Average Salary Per County White High School Teacher, 1932-1917 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


i CcXl XlillLllil^ O U.1IC kJ\J 


White 




White 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1932 


$1,571 
1,568 
1,558 
1,557 
1,544 
1,534 
1,517 
1,485 


1924 ' 


$1,477 
1,436 
1,345 
1,289 
1,017 
908 
841 
798 


1931 


1923 


1930 


1922 


1929 


1921 


1928 


1920 


1927 


1919 


1926 


1918 


1925 


1917 







ported higher salaries than for 1931, due chiefly to additional 
experience and additional regular instead of provisional certifi- 
cates. 

The average salary per high school teacher and principal in 
Baltimore City, $2,334, was $167 less than for the preceding 
year. Most of this decrease is explained by the 6V2 per cent 
contribution to the City Treasury required of each Baltimore 
City teacher beginning January 1, 1932. The reduction was in- 
creased to 10 per cent in January, 1933. (See Chart 21.) 

Distribution of Salaries in October, 1932 

In October, 1932, the median salary for 337 assistant teachers 
in junior and junior-senior high schools was $1,350 covering a 
range for full-time teachers from $1,000 to $2,750. The median 
salary for a principal employed in October, 1932, in a junior or 
junior-senior high school was $2,700. (See Table 103.) 

A distribution of the salaries of 860 teachers in the regular 
and senior high schools indicates that the median salary is $1,350, 
the same as for teachers in the junior and junior-senior high 
schools. The range of salaries of full-time teachers ran from 
$1,000 to $2,800. The highest salaries in general are paid to 
teachers of vocational agriculture, whose salaries are on a 12- 
month basis and are subsidized from federal funds. Whenever 
travel between two or more schools is required of these teachers 
the expense of such travel is paid from the salary received. The 
median salary for the 123 principals of regular and senior high 
schools was $2,200 in October, 1932, the salaries ranging from 
$1,500 to $3,700. (See Table 103.) 

Approximately 43 per cent of the 1,197 teachers employed in 
junior, junior-senior, regular, and senior high schools are receiv- 
ing more than $1,350, the maximum amount provided for in the 
State minimum salary schedule. (See Table 103.) 



134 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 21 



AVERAGE SALARI PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1929 
Co.Av. $1557 



1930 1931 1932 
$1558 $1568 




Balto. 
City* 



State 1827 



* Senior high schools only. 
For counties arranged alphabetically for 1932 data, see Table XVI, page 294. 

The salaries of regular high school teachers according to the 
minimum schedule range from $1,150 to $1,350 according to 
years of experience. For principals the salaries vary from $1,550 
to $2,350 depending on years of experience and size of school. 
According to the legislation enacted in Chapter 224 of the laws 
of 1933, there will be reductions over a two-year period of 10 



Salaries of Teachers in White High Schools 



135 



TABLE 103 



Distribution of Salaries of White Junior and Junior-Senior and of Regular and 
Senior High School Teachers in Service, October, 1932 



ASSISTANT TEACHERS 


PRINCIPALS 












No. of 




No. of 




No. of 




No. of 




Prin- 




Prin- 


Salary 


Teachers 


Salar}' 


Teachers 


Salary 


cipals 


Salary 


cipals 


JUNIOR AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 


$950 or less* 1 


$1,600 


12 


$2,150 


2 






1,000 


1 


1,650 




2,200 


1 






1,050 


3 


1,700 


15 


2,300 


1 






1,100 


1 


1,750 


4 


2,400 


1 






1,150 


10 


1,800 


16 


2,500 


7 






1,200 


28 


1,850 


3 


2,600 








1,250 


64 


1,900 


2 


2,700 


1 






1,300 


36 


1,950 


2 


2,800 


1 






1,350 


34 


2,000 


5 


2,900 


2 






1,400 


52 


2,050 


1 


3,050 


4 






1,450 


12 


2,100 


2 


3,200 


2 






1,500 


25 




3,500 


2 






1,550 


7 


2.750 


1 


3,600 


1 






Total 




337 


Total 






25 


Median 




$1,350 


Median 






$2,700 















REGULAR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



$950 or less 


* 13 


$1,700 


24 




$1,500 


1 


$2,450 


1 


1,000 


2 


1,750 


4 




1,550 


2 


2,500 


10 


1,050 


3 


1,800 


22 




1,700 


1 


2,550 


1 


1,100 




1,850 


11 




1,750 


7 


2,600 


1 


1,150 


44 


1,900 


5 




1,800 


1 


2,650 


1 


1,200 


144 


1,950 


6 




1,850 


4 


2,700 


3 


1,250 


104 


2,000 


46 




1,950 


16 


2,800 


3 


1,300 


95 


2,050 


3 




2,000 


12 


2,900 


1 


1,350 


100 


2,100 


4 




2,050 


5 


3,000 


5 


1,400 


50 


2,150 


3 




2,100 


4 


3,050 


1 


1,450 


19 


2,200 


6 




2,150 


4 


3,200 


1 


1,500 


74 


2,400 


5 




2,200 


6 


3,350 


1 


1,550 


36 


2,600 


3 




2,250 


10 


3,500 


3 


1,600 


21 


2,800 


1 




2,300 


4 


3,600 


1 


1,650 


12 






2,350 


4 


3,700 


1 












2,400 


8 




Total 






860 




Total 






123 


Median 






$1,350 




Median 






$2,200 















*A11 part-time teachers receiving salaries of less than $950. 



per cent in salaries under $1,200, of 11 per cent in salaries from 
$1,200 to $1,799, and of 12 per cent in salaries from $1,800 to 
$2,399, and during this time no increases will be paid to teachers 
and principals because of additional experience. 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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High Schools Since 1920; Cost per White High School Pupil 137 



GROWTH IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF, 

AND SALARIES 

A comparison of the county high school enrollment, number 
of teachers, and salary expenditures in the State for the years 
1920, 1925, 1930, 1931, and 1932, indicates tremendous growth 
in secondary education in every county. (See Table 104.) 

In 1932 there were 28,547 pupils enrolled for whom 1,204 
teachers were employed at a salary cost of approximately $1,- 
891,000, while in 1920 there were 9,333- pupils on roll, a staff of 
482 teachers, and salary expenditures of $490,000. The high 
school enrollment in six counties, Calvert, Frederick, Howard, 
Montgomery, Somerset, and Talbot, decreased slightly from 1931 
to 1932. Although the high school enrollment in Cecil, Dor- 
chester, and St. Mary's increased slightly from 1931 to 1932, 
these counties decreased the number of teachers and salary ex- 
penditures in 1932. (See Table 104.) 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL POPIL 

Each white high school pupil's cost for current expenses, ex- 
clusive of general control and fixed charges, decreased from 
$98.54 in 1931 to $94.78 in 1932. Costs in the individual counties 
ranged from $79 to $121. The costs in 8 counties were higher 
in 1932 than for the preceding year. In Baltimore City the 
cost per senior high school pupil decreased from $127 to $115. 
Until 1932 no county exceeded the Baltimore City cost per senior 
high school pupil. In 1932, however, Carroll, Calvert, and Gar- 
rett spent more per high school pupil than Baltimore City. (See 
Chart 22 and Table 105.) 

The expense for the individual items which make up the cur- 
rent expense budget is given in detail in Table 105. The cost per 
pupil for salaries of teachers, principals, and county high school 
supervisors was $70.48, which was $1.04 lower than for the 
preceding year. (See Ta^Ze 105.) 

In the counties as a group, $5.99 per high school pupil was 
spent for books and supplies and ''other costs of instruction," a 
decrease of 72 cents under 1931. Costs for operation amounted 
to $6.20 per pupil belonging, 46 cents below the year preceding, 
and for maintenance to $2.65 for each pupil belonging, $1.51 
under the year 1931. The cost for each high school pupil be- 
longing for auxiliary agencies, which includes transportation, 
health, and library activities, was $9.46, three cents less than the 
year before. (See Table 105.) 



138 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 22 



County 


1929 


Co . Average 


$ 96 


Carroll 


110 


Calvert 


108 


Garrett 


X-LO 


Montgomery 


111 


Charles 


91 


St. Mary's 


83 


Worcester 


112 


Queen Anne' 


s no 


Kent 


94 


Howard 


107 


Talbot 


99 


Anne Arund«l 100 


Dorchester 


99 


Caroline 


84 


Somerset 


97 


Pr. George' 


s 91 


Allegany 


104 


Baltimore 


93 


Cecil 


99 


Washington 


81 


Wicomico 


83 


Harford 


86 


Frederick 


84 


Balto. City* 127 


State 


105 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 

50 1931 1932 




Senior high schools only. 



Salary Cost per Pupil by Counties 

The salary cost per pupil among the individual counties ran 
from $88.97 in Carroll, where many special teachers were em- 
ployed and small classes prevailed to $47.87 in St. Mary's, where 



Cost per White High School Pupil 



139 



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140 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



the classes were large and no special teachers were employed. 
Although the salary costs were lower for the counties as a group, 
increases in salary costs were found in 11 counties. The most 
marked decrease appeared in St. Mary's County where the sal- 
ary cost per pupil was reduced by $13. (See Table 105.) 

Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost per Pupil 
Sixteen counties received reimbursement from the Federal 
Government for one-half the salaries of the teachers of vocational 
education. In Howard, Garrett, and Queen Anne's the federal aid 
per pupil including all county pupils amounted to $9.91, $8.47, 
and $7.01, respectively. (See Table 106.) 

TABLE 106 

Comparison of 1932 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and Exclusive 
of Federal Aid, for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



1931 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil 



Rank Among 23 Counties Federal 





Including 


Excluding 


Including Excluding 


Aid Pel 


County 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


H. S. 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Pupil 


Average for 23 Counties 


$70.48 


$68.12 






$2.36 




85.02 


82.32 


3 


2 


2.70 


Howard 


86.45 


76.54 


2 


4 


9.91 


Worcester 


76.58 


75.20 


6 


5 


1.38 


Charles 


77.92 


73.57 


5 


6 


4.35 




74.20 


72.28 


9 


7 


1.92 


Anne Arundel 


73.10 


71.68 


10 


8 


1.42 


Queen Anne's 


75.63 


68.62 


7 


10 


7.01 


Prince George's 


71.34 


68.53 


11 


11 


2.81 


Dorchester 


70.52 


68.23 


12 


12 


2.29 


Allegany 


68.70 


66.71 


14 


13 


1.99 


Somerset 


67.74 


66.20 


15 


14 


1.54 


Garrett 


74.24 


65.77 


8 


16 


8.47 


Frederick 


67.08 


64.28 


17 


18 


2.80 




67.67 


63.72 


16 


19 


3.95 


Baltimore 


64.32 


62.82 


20 


20 


1.50 




63.69 


59.86 


21 


21 


3.83 



The inclusion or exclusion of federal aid v^ould affect only 
slightly the ranking in salary cost per pupil of the six counties* 
having the highest salary cost per pupil. The greatest effect of 
federal aid on rank appears in Garrett, which would stand six- 
teenth in salary cost per pupil without federal aid, while it is 
eighth when federal aid is included. (See Table 106.) 

The expenditures for salaries of teachers of vocational agri- 
culture, home economics, and industries are paid from county, 
state, and federal funds. The federal and State vocational funds 



Carroll and Talbot did not have vocational work. 



Cost per White High School Pvpil Analyzed 



141 



represent specific aid paid toward the salaries of these teachers. 
The amounts shown as county funds and other State aid make 
up the difference between these amounts and the total salaries. 
"Other State aid" includes amounts allowed through State high 
school aid, and in the equalization fund counties, an allowance 
made in the State Equalization Fund. The counties are ranked 
in Table 107 according to the total salary expenditure for each 
type of day vocational work. 

The following counties added vocational work in 1931-32 : 
Charles — agriculture and home economics at Glasva and Pomon- 
key (the colored high school) ; Harford — agriculture and home 
economics at Dublin ; Howard — home economics at Lisbon ; Queen 
Anne's — home economics at Centreville and agriculture at 
Church Hill and Stevensville. Queen Anne's dropped home eco- 
nomics from Church Hill, while Prince George's dropped it from 
Mt. Rainier and Bladensburg. Worcester dropped agriculture 
from Stockton. Work on a part-time cooperative basis was or- 
ganized at Hagerstown in Washington County. (See Table 107.) 

Cost for Books, Supplies and Other Costs of Instruction 

The average cost per white high school pupil for instruction 
other than salaries ranged among the individual counties from 
$2.19 for Howard to $10.12 in Allegany. Six counties spent 
under $4 for this purpose, while 5 spent S7 or more. From the 
State fund for free textbooks and supplies 87 cents was avail- 
able for each pupil. In addition counties sharing in the Equal- 
ization Fund received aid from the State for books and other 
materials of instruction. Six counties reported higher instruc- 
tional costs in 1932 than for the preceding vear. (See columns 
2 and 9, Table 105, page 139.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance Decrease 

Cost per high school pupil for operation, i. e., cleaning and 
heating of buildings, was lower in 1932 than for the preceding 
year in all but 5 counties. Costs among the individual counties 
ran from $4.02 in Frederick to $9.21 in Worcester, the highest 
county paying more than twice as much as the lowest county for 
operation of high school buildings. (See columns 3 and 10, 
Table 105.) 

Although maintenance costs per high school pupil which cover 
repairs to buildings, repairs and replacement of equipment, and 
rent decreased by $1.51 to $2.65, ten of the counties increased 
their expenses for these purposes in 1932. In the individual 
counties maintenance costs per high school pupil ranged from 
$.81 in Baltimore County to $10.04 in Kent. (See columns 4 and 
11, Table 105.) 



142 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 107 



Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland County Day Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 


Expenditures for Salaries of County 
Vocational Teachers from 


En- 
roll- 
ment 


County 
Funds 
and Other 
State Aid 


State 
Vocational 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Agriculture 














\\ niie 
















$ 3,770.51 


$ 418.96 


$ 4,189.47 


$ 8,378 


94 


1 AQ 




3 , 689 . 98 


410.00 


4,099.98 


8,199 


96 


lOi 




2,812.44 


312.48 


3,124.92 


6,249 


84 


00 




2,687.64 


298.61 


2,986.25 


5,972 


50 






1 , 962 . 00 


218.00 


2 , 180 . 00 


4,360 


00 


191 




1 , 937 . 25 


215.25 


2, 152.50 


4,305 


00 


oy 




1 , 935 . 00 


215.00 


2,150.00 


4,300 


00 


Oo 


1,911.00 


212.33 


2,123.34 


4,246 


67 






1,817.96 


202.00 


2,019.96 


4,039 


92 


DO 




1 ftQ4 A1 
X , Uot: . Ul 


±0 < . J-O 


1 Q71 7Q 


3,743 


57 


so 


T't'itipp CrPnT*0"p's: 


1,539.01 


171.00 


1,710.00 


3,420 


01 


39 


Worcester 


933 . 75 


103.75 


1,037.50 


2,075 


00 


48 


Somerset 


918.00 


102.00 


1,020.00 


2.040 


00 


58 


Charles 


904.50 


100.50 


1,005.00 


2.010 


00 


34 


Anne Arundel 


855.00 


95.00 


950.00 


1,900 


00 


23 


Colored 














CaroHne 


425 . 62 


47.29 


472.92 


945 


83 


49 


Charles 


202.50 


22.50 


225.00 


450 


00 


34 


Prince George's 


188.99 


21.00 


209 . 99 


419 


98 


24 




$30,175.76 


$ 3,352.85 


$33,528.61 


$ 67,057 


22 


1 994. 


xlGME HjCONOMICS 














vv niie 
















$ 2,970.00 


$ 330 . 00 


$ 3,300.00 


$ 6.600 


00 


208 




2,054.25 


228 . 25 


2,282.50 


4,565 


00 


OA 




1 , 523 . 26 


169.24 


1,692.50 


3,385 


00 




Prince George's 




1 =iQ 00 

loo . yJyJ 


1 i^QO 00 
1 , Oijyj . yjyj 


3,180 


00 


loo 


1,190.27 


132.26 


1,322.50 


2,645 


03 


90 


Allegany 


1,161.00 


129.00 


1,290.00 


2,580 


00 


103 


Charles 


857.56 


95.29 


952.85 


1,905 


70 


62 


Anne Arundel 


675.00 


75.00 


750.00 


1,500 


00 


24 


Montgomery 


534.60 


59.40 


594.00 


1, 188 


00 


20 


Caroline 


529.80 


58.87 


588.66 


1,177 


33 


24 


Colored 














Caroline 


450.00 


50.00 


500.00 


1,000 


00 


72 


Charles 


237 . 60 


26.40 


264.00 


528 


00 


52 




$13,614.34 


$ 1,512.71 


$15,127.01 


$ 30,254 


06 


QQ9 


1 A U U k3 1 rClliiS) 














All-Day Classes 














Washington 


$ 3,401.91 


$ 3/8.00 


$ 3,7/9.88 


$ 7,559 


79 


82 


Baltimore 


9 QQQ 97 




3 332 50 


6,665 


00 


92 


Prince George's 


1 , 642 . 50 


182.50 


1,825.00 


3.650 


00 


49 


Montgomery 


1,215.00 


135.00 


1 , 350 . 00 


2,700 


00 


42 


Frederick 


1,012.50 


112.50 


1,125.00 


2.250 


00 




Allegany 


810.00 


90.00 


900.00 


1,800 


00 


33 


Caroline 


787 . 50 


87.50 


875.00 


1.750 


00 


46 


Ti-wfol AU "r*mr 


$11,868.68 


$ 1,318.73 


$13,187.38 


$ 26,374.79 


415 


Part-Time 

Washington 

Alleganv 


$ 1,619.97 
1,242.00 


$ 180.00 
138.00 


$ 1,799.94 
1,380.00 


$ 3.599.91 
2,760.00 


16 
12 


Total Part-Time.... 


$ 2.861.97 


$ 318.00 


$ 3,179.94 


$ 6,359 


91 


28 


$14,730.65 


$ 1,636.73 


$16,367.32 


$ 32,734 


70 


443 


Grand Total 


$58 . 520 . 75 


$ 6.502.29 


$65,022.94 


$130,045.98 


2,659 



Aid for Vocational Work; Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 143 



Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

"Auxiliary agencies" include such items as transportation, 
libraries, and health activities. Since the funds required for 
transportation of pupils constitute 91 per cent of the total spent 
for auxiliary agencies, the county policy regarding transporta- 
tion is a most important consideration in fixing the cost of 
auxiliary agencies. Nearly half the counties had increases in 
cost per pupil for auxiliary agencies in 1932. The counties varied 
in per pupil expenditures for auxiliary agencies from $.56 to 
$45.88. (See columns 5 and 12, Table 105, page 139.) 

The counties are arranged in Table 108 according to their rank 
in expenditure per pupil belonging for auxiliary agencies. 

Transportation Provided for 9,019 County High School Pupils 
In 1932 there v^ere 9,019 pupils transported to county white 
high schools at a cost of $227,478, an increase of approximately 
1,300 pupils and $13,250 over corresponding figures for 1931. 

TABLE 108 

Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1932 



County 



Total and Average 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Charles . 

Kent 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Howard 

Montgomery. . . 
Washington .... 

Allegany 

Prince George's. 

Frederick 

Harford 



Transportation 



9,019 

284 
176 
568 
321 
273 
282 
412 
288 
558 
411 
440 
276 
701 
1,080 
445 
300 
152 
529 
496 
407 
354 
180 



5-5 
2^ 



$227,478 

11,962 
6,707 
22,269 
8,229 
7.739 
10.058 
11.626 
6.467 
14,561 
9,855 
9,865 
7,346 
15,032 
21,021 
9,600 
7,730 
3,329 
7,193 
10,450 
11,609 
7,861 
6,606 
363 



$25 

42 
38 
39 
26 
28 
36 
28 
22 
26 
24 
22 
27 
21 
19 
22 
26 
22 
14 
21 
29 
22 
37 
4 



Libraries 



$6,697 
40 



119 
245 
257 

20 
144 
559 
387 
150 

56 
103 
649 
500 
373 
348 



812 
,151 
315 
20 
147 
302 



Amount per 



$44 

20 



20 
49 
64 
5 
24 
112 
97 
30 
11 
17 
59 
50 
53 
43 



90 
144 
26 
2 
21 
38 



$5.56 
4.44 



2.75 
10.20 
10.26 
.65 
3.71 
25.07 
7.16 
3.66 
1.46 
3.09 
7.72 
3.76 
7.75 
7.73 



10.08 
13.21 
2.73 
.23 
1.85 
5.87 



Health and 
Physical 
Education 



$14,526 



34 



75 



750 
=11,865 



822 
239 
482 
200 



$ .54 

.02 



11 



.07 



10 



.54 
•=3.24 



.54 
.11 
.17 
.11 



* Expenditures for teachers of physical education on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. 



144 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



For the first time in 1932 Harford paid a small part of the cost 
of transporting pupils to high school, 86 pupils receiving this 
aid. Although all except 3 counties increased the number of 
white high school pupils transported at public expense, expenses 
for high school transportation decreased in 8 counties, 5 of which 
increased the number transported. The number of high school 
pupils transported at public expense varied from 1,080 in Balti- 
more County to 86 in Harford. (See Table 108.) 

Expenditures for transportation of pupils to high school 
ranged from more than $20,000 in Garrett and Baltimore Coun- 
ties to under $7,000 in 5 counties. The amount spent by the 
public for transporting pupils to high schools was supplemented 
by the parents of the children in 8 counties. (See Table 108.) 

The average cost per white high school pupil transported de- 
creased from $28 in 1931 to $25 in 1932. Among the individual 
counties the costs varied from $42 to under $20 in Harford, 
Montgomery, and Baltimore Counties. The two last-named 
counties own a number of school busses. Increases in cost per 
high school pupil transported over corresponding figures for the 
preceding year were found in 5 counties. A member of the staff 
of the State Department of Education in studying many phases 
of the transportation program in individual counties is finding 
out the details of the transportation policies used with the pur- 
pose of making available to all counties efficient programs found 
in a particular county. (See Table 108.) 

Since expenditures for transportation foiTQ so large a part of 
auxiliary agencies, the two main factors deteraiining the rank- 
ing of a county in the cost of its transportation program, namely, 
cost to public per pupil transported and per cent of white high 
school pupils transported are given in Tables 108 and 109. 



TABLE 109 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County W hite High School Pupils Transported to 
Maryland County High Schools at Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



Total and Average 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Charles 

Garrett 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Kent 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Anne .\rundel .... 



9,019 

284 
176 
321 
568 
288 
440 
411 
273 
701 
412 
558 



32.0 



100. 
85. 
68. 
60. 
56. 
54. 
51.7 
51.3 
48.5 
48.4 
44.6 



Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Howard 

Montgomery. . . 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Washington . . . . 
Prince George's 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Harford 



282 
276 
445 
152 
529 
,080 
300 
496 
354 
407 
180 
86 



Transportation and Libraries in County White High Schools 145 



The 9,019 pupils transported to county white high schools 
comprised 32 per cent of the total white high school enrollment. 
The counties varied in the per cent of high school pupils trans- 
ported at partial or total public expense from 100 per cent in St. 
Mary's to under 10 per cent in Frederick and Harford. There 
are many factors which govern the number and per cent of 
pupils who require transportation. Denseness of population and 
the number of small high schools maintained are probably the 
chief factors in determining the per cent of pupils transported. 
It will be noted that the order in which counties are listed in 
Tables 108 and 109 is very similar. (See Table 109.) 

County Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Expenditures from county funds for libraries in white high 
schools totalled $6,697, which was an average of $44 per school 
and $5.56 per white high school teacher. Amounts raised by 
teachers, pupils, or organizations in the schools are excluded from 
these figures. The total expenditure for high school libraries 
was about $1,700 less in 1932 than in 1931. Calvert and Howard 
w^ere the only counties which invested no funds in high school 
libraries in 1932, and 4 counties. Prince George's, Somerset, St. 
Mary's, and Caroline, spent less than $100, while Washington 
devoted over $1,151 to library books in white high schools. Five 
counties. Queen Anne's, Washington, Kent, Charles, and Mont- 
gomery, spent $10 or more per high school teacher for library 
books. (See Table 108, page 143.) 

cooperation from the MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMISSION* 

The county white high schools borrowed 4,562 books from the 
Maryland Public Library Commission with offices at 517 North 
Charles Street in Baltimore. This number was 1,326 more than 
the corresponding number of volumes borrowed the year before. 
The counties reporting the largest increases in the use of these 
books from 1931 to 1932 were Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, 
Charles, Garrett, Howard, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. 
Mary's, Wicomico, and Worcester. (See Table 110.) 

Travelling school libraries are collections of books loaned for 
a period of four months, at the end of which time they may be 
returned and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for 
four more months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by 
parcel post ; thirty-five in those sent by express. The cost of 
transportation must be met and guarantee of reimbursement for 
lost or damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individ- 
ual needs or professional reading of teachers. These are loaned 



* Data supplied by Adelene J. Pratt, Director of Public Libraries. 



146 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 110 

Service of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to County White 
High Schools, School Year, 1931-1932 



County 



Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 



Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 



Number of 



Schools 
Suppled 



Teachers 
Supplied 



Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 



Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 



Number of 



Schools 
Supplied 



Teachers 
Supplied 



Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 



Total . 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



4,562 

al4 
bclO 
1,931 
129 
430 
106 
48 
&c226 
c46 
c2 
335 
c6464 
186 
1 

106 
184 

35 



31 



48 



105 



43 
4 
10 

3 



bc2 
cl 
c 

3 
cbS 
2 



bc5 
cl 



bc7 
cl 



4 

cb4 
2 



10 

cbl2 
5 



49 

a5 

feci 
5 
1 
6 
1 
3 

fec2 
c3 
cl 
2 

fec4 
3 
1 
1 
2 



54 

o5 

feci 
9 
1 
7 
1 
3 

fec2 
c3 
cl 
2 

bc4 
3 
1 
1 
2 



be 
d 

cl80 
63 



189 

ab 
feci 
39 

2 
47 

1 
15 
bc5 
c8 
cl 

4 

feclO 
13 
1 
1 

2 



12 



cl8 
4 



o Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. In addition , 
the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools and supplied other 
county schools as indicated above. 

fe Limited library service given to schools by county library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no outside 
help. 

to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to a public 
library. 

At their request, the Director of Public School Libraries as- 
sisted the following high schools to organize their libraries dur- 
ing 1931-32 : Towson, Catonsville, Randallstown and Kenwood in 
Baltimore County, North East in Cecil County, Annapolis in 
Anne Arundel County, and Pocomoke in Worcester County. 

A principal of a high school in Calvert County attended the 
library Institute held at Hood College in the summer of 1932 
under the auspices of the Commission. 



Expenditures for Health and Physical Education for White 
High School Pupils 

A total of $14,526 or 54 cents per pupil was spent for health 
or physical education activities in the white high schools of 11 



Libraries; Physical Education; Capital Outlay; Supervision 147 



counties. More than 80 per cent of the total amount was used 
in Baltimore County for salaries of instructors furnished by the 
Playground Athletic League for the physical education program. 
The cost per pupil belonging in Baltimore County for this pur- 
pose was $3.24. Carroll and Montgomery each spent 54 cents 
per pupil for the school health program carried on by the nurse. 
(See Tahle 108, page 143.) 

For examinations of boys and girls in five counties made by 
the Playground Athletic League see Tahle 158, page 208. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Capital outlay for the county white high schools totalled $915,- 
623, a decrease of $170,832 under 1931. The aggregate invest- 
ment since 1920 in school buildings used by county white high 
school pupils has been nearly $8,500,000. The constantly mount- 
ing high school enrollment during this period has required new 
construction in every county to house the pupils adequately. (See 
Table 111.) 

In 1932 capital outlay for the new high school buildings at 
Annapolis and Glen Burnie in Anne Arundel amounted to nearly 
$444,000. Carroll was the only other county in which the capital 
outlay for high school buildings exceeded $100,000 in 1932. Since 
1920 Baltimore County has invested $1,773,000 in buildings for 
white high school pupils and the corresponding total in Allegany 
is $1,135,000. At the opposite extreme, Kent and Queen Anne's 
have a capital outlay for high school buildings of $14,000 and 
$17,000, respectively, for the period from 1920 to 1932. (See 
Table 111.) 

The average capital outlay per high school pupil belonging was 
$34.12 in 1932 compared with $42.77 in 1931. The capital outlay 
per pupil varied in the individual counties from $370 to less than 
$1 in 5 counties. (See columns 7 and 14, Tahle 105, page 139.) 

SUPERVISION OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

Each of the three State high school supervisors has responsi- 
bility for supervising the high schools in the Western, Central, 
and Eastern part of the State. These supervisors work directly 
with the 945 principals and teachers of the languages, mathe- 
matics, social studies, science, and commercial subjects, and to 
a limited extent only with the teachers of agriculture, home eco- 
nomics, industrial arts, music, and physical education. Each of 
the latter subjects has a special supervisor on the staff of the 
State Department of Education. (See Table 112.) 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



i lis 



lis 



islii 

3" 



WW 



~mmmmmmmmmmm 

§ I^S^^o^co ^2^^ ^^^^ s-^s I 



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Capital Outlay and Supervision in County White High Schools 149 



TABLE 112 
Supervision of High Schools 



Section 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 
Public High 
Schools 


Number of Teachers 


Academic 


Commercial 


Western 


5 
8 
10 


42 
56 
54 


280.9 
288.8 
278.7 


31.2 
37.6 
28.0 


Central 


Eastern 





To supplement the work of the State high school supervisors, 
three of the largest counties, Baltimore, Allegany and Mont- 
gomery, employed county high school supervisors. One of the 
high school principals in Anne Arundel County spends part of 
his time each week in supervising the other high schools in the 
county. In these counties and the remaining counties without 
county high school supervisors, the high school principals must 
give the guidance and leadership their teachers need through con- 
structive classroom visits and conferences and well organized 
faculty meetings. 

The general topic of the annual regional conferences of prin- 
cipals held by the State high school supervisors in five sections 
of the State in the spring of 1932 was 'The Evolution of State 
High School Supervision in Maryland." 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED PUPILS 



COLORED COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ENROLL 26,558 

The county colored elementary schools enrolled 26,558 pupils 
during 1931-32, fewer by 122 than were enrolled the preceding 
year. However, there were slight increases in enrollment over 
the preceding year in seven counties. Prince George's, Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, and Allegany were the only counties in 
which there were larger colored enrollments in 1932 than in 
1923. (See Table 113.) 



TABLE 113 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, Excluding Duplicates, 
for Years Ending July 31, 1932, 1931 and 1923 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1932 



1931 



1923 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1932 



1931 



1923 



Total Counties . 

Prince George's 
Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Talbot 



t26,558 

2,886 
2,875 
1,974 
1.758 
1,750 
1,631 
1,532 
1,450 
1,406 
1,155 
1,150 
1,008 



t26,680 

2,810 
2,828 
2,084 
1.792 
1,752 
1,598 
1.542 
1,466 
1,413 
1,184 
1,195 
1,107 



t3 1,070 



2,781 
2,853 
1,942 
2.255 
898 
803 
088 
675 
947 
405 
343 
373 



Kent 

Frederick 

CaroHne 

Queen Anne's. 

Harford 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington . . . 
Allegany 

Baltimore City 

State 



915 
899 
869 
798 
771 
623 
460 
368 
312 
273 

t22,656 

t49,214 



861 
899 
903 
801 
748 
599 
464 
346 
335 
283 

t21 , 129 

t47,809 



1,188 
1,150 
1,188 
1,093 
916 
848 
548 
440 
377 
267 

tl5.675 

t46,745 



t Total excludes duplicates. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 279. 

The enrollment of 22,656 pupils in the colored elementary 
schools of Baltimore City showed an increase of 1,527 pupils 
over the number reported in 1931, and a gain of 6,981 since 1923. 
The consistent increase in enrollment in Baltimore City and de- 
crease in the counties tend to indicate very clearly the trend in 
migration of colored population from rural to city sections. (See 
Table 113.) 

There were 583 elementary and 75 secondary pupils enrolled 
in 9 Catholic parochial schools in the Maryland counties, while 
Baltimore City enrolled in its Catholic schools 1,234 colored 
pupils, 18 of whom were doing high school work. In addition, 
there were 53 colored pupils enrolled in private non-Catholic 
schools in the counties, and 60 pupils receiving instruction in a 
Lutheran school in Baltimore City. (See Tables III to V, pages 
280 to 283.) 

150 



Colored Elementary School Enrollment; Length of Session 151 



LENGTH OF SCHOOL SESSION DURING 1931-32 

The dates of opening the colored schools in the counties in 
the fall of 1931 extended from September 1 to October 1. The 
closing dates showed a greater variation, from May 6 to June 
24. In every county, except Somerset and Wicomico, the session 
was longer in the colored high schools than in the elementary 
schools. The average school session in the colored elementary 
schools in the Maryland counties was 168.1 days, slightly higher 
than that shown in 1931. With the Baltimore City colored schools 
open 190 days, the State colored schools as a whole averaged 
178.4 days. (See Table 114.) 

TABLE 114 

Length of Session in Colored Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



School Yearl931-32 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



Average Days in Session 



COUNTY 



Colored 

High 
Schools 



Colored 
Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City. . 



9/3 
9/9 
9/8 
9/1 
9/21 
9/7 
9/3 
9/28 
9/21 
9/1 
9/14 
9/28 
°9/28 
9/8 
9/8 
9/29 
9/28 
9/14 

no/1 

9/1 

9/14 

9/14 

9/8 



6/17 
*5/13 
6/24 
4/29 
5/20 
6/10 
6/10 
5/31 
t5/27 
t5/6 
§5/31 
5/31 
§5/27 
5/13 
5/31 
5/31 
5/31 
5/13 
§6/3 
6/10 
5/13 
5/13 

6/17 



County Average . 



Allegany 

Baltimore 

Washington. . . . 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Prince George's. 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Montgomery. . . 

Howard 

Talbot 

Charles 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Anne Arundel . . 
Calvert 



172.9 
194.4 



187.2 
187.9 
186.3 
175.1 
179.8 
171.0 
184.0 
165.1 



181.0 
183.1 
164.1 
164.0 
163.0 
162.6 



Baltimore City. 
State Average . 



185.0 
162.1 
182.5 
160.1 

190.0 

182.1 



168.1 

194.0 
193.9 
186.9 
186.6 
179.5 
173.7 
172.0 
166.6 
165.2 
164.9 
164.7 
164.5 
164.1 
164.0 
163.7 
162.9 
162.8 
162.8 
162.4 
162.4 
161.9 
153.7 

190.0 

178.4 



' High school, 9/9. S High school, 9/14. § High school, 6/10. 

* High school, 6/17. t High school, 6/3. 

For length of session for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, page 286. 

Calvert was the only county in which the colored elementary 
schools were open fewer than 160 days, the minimum number re- 
quired by law. Two counties, Allegany and Baltimore, kept 
their colored schools open approximately 194 days. (See Table 
114.) 

In 1932 only 12 colored schools were open fewer than 160 days, 
the minimum number of days required for colored schools, com- 



152 1932 Eeport of State Department of Education 



pared with 34 schools which had too short sessions in 1931. 
Wicomico, Anne Arundel, and Calvert were the only counties 
which had more schools open too few days in 1932 than in the 
preceding year. One school in Calvert was open fewer than 140 
days. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 



Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer than the Number 
of Days Required by Law, by Year and by County, for 1932 





County Colored Schools 




Colored 


Schools Open 




Open Less 


Than- 




IN 1932 Less Than . 




160 


140 




160 


140 




Year Days 


Days 


County 


Days 


Days 


1932 


12 


1 
1 
3 
4 


Dorchester 


1 


l" 


1931 


34 




1 


1930 


41 




2 


1929 


53 




3 






Calvert 


5 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE fflGHER 

That the per cent of attendance in the colored elementary 
schools has been constantly increasing since 1923 is a definite 
proof that the colored schools have gained in efficiency and hold- 
ing power. The average per cent of attendance in 1932 was 86.3, 
an increase of .7 over 1931 and of over 10 per cent over 1923. 
The range in per cent of attendance ran from 72.7 in Calvert to 
90 or more in Washington, Allegany, and Wicomico. The per- 
centage of attendance in Baltimore City, 87.9, brought the aver- • 
age for the entire State to 87.1, just .6 higher than for the pre- 
ceding year. (See Table 116.) 

TABLE 116 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in, 
June 1932, 1931, 1930, and 1923 



County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1923 


County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1923 


County Average . . 


. 86 .3 


85. 


6 


84. 


.5 


76. 


2 


Baltimore 


86 


.9 


85, 


.9 


85 


.9 


75 


4 
















Anne Arundel . , . . 


86 


.3 


85 


.8 


85 


.3 


71 


2 




90.7 


89 


5 


90 


.8 


84 


.8 


Caroline 


86 


.3 


86 


.1 


85 


2 


76 


^4 


Allegany 


90.3 


87 


.0 


89 


.1 


87 


.4 


CarroU 


85 


.9 


84 


.0 


76 


•~> 







Washington 


90.0 


90 


,8 


89 


.0 


81 


, 7 




85 


.4 


84 


,6 


86 


.0 


85 


.1 


Frederick 


89.8 


90 


.8 


89 


.3 


84 


.6 




, 84 


.9 


81 


,8 


81 


.4 


62 


9 


Talbot 


89.4 


88 


. 7 


88 


.8 


84 


.3 




83 




82 


,4 


82 


2 


74 


,2 


Queen Anne's. ... 


89.1 


86 


.8 


83 


.3 


73 


.1 


Charles 


81 


.0 


81 


,3 


75 


. 5 


66 


S 




89.1 


88, 


. 7 


85 


.3 


79 


.9 


Howard 


81 


.0 


82 


5 


80 


5 


71 





Cecil 


88.5 


85 


,8 


83 


.8 
9 


74 


.4 


Calvert 


72 


.7 


74 


2 


72 


,0 


65 


3 


Montgomery 


88.5 


89. 


1 


86. 


80, 


8 


















Somerset 


88.5 


88. 




87, 


.9 


80. 


5 


Baltimore Citj-. . 


87 


.9 


87, 


5 


87 


4 


87 





Kent 


88.1 


86. 


5 


85. 


1 


73. 


4 




















Prince George's. . . 


. 87.2 


85. 


6 


85 


.0 


76 


4 


State Average . 


87 


.1 


86 


5 


85 


,8 


79 


,9 



For counties arranged alphabetically for 1932, see Table VII. page 285. 



Short Sessions and Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Schools 153 

The monthly enrollment in the county colored elementary 
schools reached its maximum in February with a total of 25,447 
pupils, and in the county colored high schools in November, aver- 
aging 2,398 pupils. The highest percentages of attendance for 
both colored elementary and high schools were recorded in Sep- 
tember and June. However, very few counties had their colored 
schools open in June. The lowest per cent of attendance in the 
colored schools was found in March, due to the unusually stormy 
weather. (See Table 117.) 

TABLE 117 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1932 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 




17,251 


1,959 


94.3 


94.0 


October 


24,249 


2,351 


90.1 


92.8 




25,190 


2,398 


88.2 


92.8 


December 


25,313 


2,351 


83.7 


90.5 


Januarv 


25,430 


2,309 


85.9 


92.0 


Febriiarv 


25,447 


2,278 


85.3 


91.3 


March 


25.193 


2,220 


79.0 


87.6 


April 


24.934 


2,171 


86.5 


92.0 


Mav 


23,707 


2,081 


88.0 


93.7 


June 


*2,906 


t817 


91.6 


95.7 


Average for Year 


24.782 


2,253 


86.3 


91.9 



* Elementary schools were open in June in Allegany, Baltimore, Carroll and Cecil Counties only, 
t High schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Cecil, Dorchester, Frederick, 
Harford, Kent and Talbot Counties only. 



Fewer Pupils Present Under 100 and 120 Days 

There were 3,807 colored elementary pupils, 14.8 per cent, who 
in 1932 attended school fewer than 100 days. There were 535 
fewer pupils than attended school under 100 days in 1931 or a 
decrease in per cent of 1.9. The 6,139 colored pupils present 
under 120 days in 1932 represented 23.8 per cent of the colored 
elementary school enrollment, a decrease of 3.3 per cent under 
that reported for the preceding year. (See Table 118.) 

All but 3 counties showed decreases in the per cent of colored 
children attending school fewer than 120 days under the report 
for 1931. Calvert had 47 per cent of its colored school pupils 
present less than 5 months and over 60 per cent in school less 
than 6 months of the eight-month school session. (See Table 
118.) 



154 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 118 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 
120 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Number Present Per Cent Present 

Year and County 

Under Under Under Under 

100 Days 120 Days 100 Days 120 Days 

Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 



1932 3,807 6,139 14.8 23.8 

1931 4,342 7,039 16.7 27.1 

1930 4,937 7,842 19.3 30.6 

1929 5,987 9,045 22.9 34.6 

1928 6,610 9,563 24.8 35.9 

1927 7,643 10,836 29.0 41.1 

1926 8,078 11,295 29.5 41.3 

1925 9,463 13,195 33.2 46.3 



Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 140 Days by County 1931-32 



Washington 12 

Allegany 12 

Cecil 27 

Baltimore 184 

Harford 74 

Frederick 74 

Carroll..., 44 

Wicomico 152 

Kent 78 

Prince George's 276 

Somerset 193 

Talbot 126 

Montgomery : 235 

St. Mary's 146 

Queen Anne's 119 

Caroline 123 

Anne Arundel 445 

Dorchester 226 

Worcester 253 

Howard 119 

Charles 359 

Calvert 530 



21 


4.2 


7.3 


20 


4.5 


7.5 


46 


6.4 


10.8 


253 


9.8 


13.5 


111 


10.0 


15.0 


146 


8.4 


16.6 


60 


12.2 


16.6 


244 


11.1 


17.8 


158 


9.0 


18.2 


512 


10.0 


18.5 


344 


11.5 


20.4 


204 


12.7 


20.5 


374 


14.0 


22.2 


282 


13.0 


25.2 


193 


15.8 


25.6 


213 


15.2 


26.3 


738 


16.0 


26.5 


373 


16.6 


27.3 


407 


17.3 


27.9 


200 


20.0 


33.6 


547 


22.9 


34.8 


693 


46.9 


61.4 



FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

In 1932 there were 1,891 colored elementary pupils who were 
late entrants because of employment, negligence, and indiffer- 
ence, 6.9 per cent of the enrollment. The consistent decrease in 
number and per cent of late entrants since 1926 for these causes 
is commendable, the percentage in 1932 being 2.1 per cent lower 



Colored El. Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days ; Late Entrants 155 



than in 1931. Negligence or indifference continues to be the chief 
cause to which teachers attribute late entrance. (See Table 119.) 

TABLE 119 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or Neglect, for 
School Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Year and 
County 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


14 Years J^j}'' 

or More, r^^^i^"^ 

T7.„ 1 J Indiner- 

Employedl ^^^^ 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



Late Extkaxts by Year 



1932 


1,891 
2,505 
3,148 
3,280 
4,739 
5,204 
5,393 


6.9 
9.0 
11.4 
11.6 
16.5 
17.8 
18.1 


1.6 
3.1 
4.5 
5.1 
6.5 
7.9 
8.3 


4.5 
5.0 
5.8 
5.3 
7.8 
7.5 
6.9 


.8 
.9 
1.1 
1.2 

2.2 
2.4 
2.9 








1931 








1930 








1929 








1928 








1927 








1926 

















Late Entrants by County, 1932 





3 


1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


5 


1 


Cecil 


8 


1 


7 




4 


1 


1 


.2 


3 


4 


5 


Somerset 


42 


2 


4 


1 


1 




8 


.5 


7 


1 


9 


Wicomico 


36 


2 


5 


1 





1 


5 




5 


10 


3 


Kent 


25 


2 


7 


1 


6 


1 





.1 


12 


3 


4 


Baltimore 


61 


3 







4 


2 


1 


. 5 


2 


13 


10 




30 


3 


3 


1 


6 


1 


3 


.4 


11 


8 


8 


Worcester 


54 


3 


4 


1 


4 


1 


2 


.8 


9 


6 


14 


Talbot 


37 


3 


5 


1 


5 


2 







10 


12 


2 


Washington .... 


11 


3 


5 


2 


2 


1 





.3 


17 


2 


7 


Frederick 


34 


3 


7 


1 


7 


1 


4 


.6 


13 


9 


13 


St. Mar>-'s 


48 


4 


1 


1 





2 


6 


.5 


4 


14 


11 


Carroll 


16 


4 


2 


2 


6 


1 


3 


.3 


20 


7 


6 


Prince George's. 


172 


5 


8 


1 


3 


3 


7 


.8 


8 


16 


17 


Harford 


49 


6 


3 


2 


3 


3 


5 


.5 


18 


15 


12 


Montgomery. . . 


132 


7 


4 


2 




4 


5 


.8 


15 


18 


18 


Queen Anne's. . . 


63 


7 


7 


3 


I 


1 


7 


2.1 


22 


11 


21 


Anne Arundel. . . 


253 


8 


6 


1 





6 


8 


.8 


6 


20 


15 


Dorchester 


133 


9 


2 


3 





4 


4 


1.8 


21 


17 


19 


Howard 


63 


10 





2 


5 


6 


7 


.8 


19 


19 


16 


Calvert 


207 


17 


4 


1 


9 


13 


5 


2.0 


14 


21 


20 


Charles 


414 


24 


7 


2 


2 


20 


3 


2.2 


16 


22 


22 



In the colored elementary schools of two counties the percent- 
age of late entrants for employment, negligence, and indifference 
exceeded 10 per cent, Charles County reporting almost 25 per 
cent. Allegany had no late entrants due to employment, and 
Somerset and Talbot reported no late entrants because of illegal 
employment. Five counties had a slightly higher percentage of 
late entrants in 1932 than for the previous year. (See Table 
119.) 



156 



1932 Report of State Depaktment of Education 



DECREASE IX WITHDRAWALS FROM SCHOOL 

The total number of withdrawals for removal, transfer, com- 
mitment to institutions, or death was 1,719 pupils, 6.3 per cent 
of the total enrollment. Although withdrawals for these causes 
will probably always form a fairly constant part of the enroll- 
ment, there has, nevertheless, been a gradual decrease since 1925. 
Percentages for these withdrawals ranged from under 3 per cent 
in Allegany to over 10 per cent in Caroline. (See Table 120.) 

TABLE 120 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending July 31, 1932 



YEAR AND 
COUNTY 


Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 


WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 


Number 


Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Poverty 


Other 
Causes 


Withdrawals by Year 


1932 


1,719 


6.3 


1,146 


4.2 


1.2 


1.0 


.6 


1.0 


.4 


1931 


1,883 


6.8 


1,405 


5.0 


2.2 


.9 


.6 


1.0 


.3 


1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1,717 


6.2 


2.9 


1.0 


.8 


1.2 


.3 


1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7.6 


3.7 


1.1 


.9 


1.5 


.4 


1928 


2,130 


7.4 


2,231 


7.8 


4.1 


1.0 


1.1 


1.2 


.4 


1927 


2,340 


8.0 


2,489 


8.5 


4.3 


1.2 


1.1 


1.5 


.4 


1926 


2,446 


8.2 


2,697 


9.9 


4.9 


1.0 


1.5 


1.9 


.6 


1925 


2,459 


8.6 


3,515 


12.3 


6.4 


1.1 


1.7 


2.6 


.5 



Withdr.vwals by County, 1932 





7 


2.6 


5 


1.8 






.4 


1.4 




Dorchester. . . . 


83 


5.7 


33 


2.3 


.8 


.6 


.6 


.1 


•->' 


Carroll 


20 


5.3 


9 


2.4 


.3 


1.3 


.5 




.3 


Prince George's. 


201 


6.8 


81 


2.7 


.9 


.7 


.7 


.4 




122 


6.1 


65 


3.2 


.7 


.9 


.4 


.8 


.4 


Kent 


64 


6.9 


31 


3.3 


1.6 


.5 


.7 


.4 


.1 


Anne Arundel. . 


164 


5.6 


99 


3.4 


1.0 


1.1 


.5 


.7 


.1 


Montgomery. . . 


89 


5.0 


61 


3.4 


.8 


1.1 


.6 


.4 


.5 


Frederick 


44 


4.8 


32 


3.5 


.7 


1.6 


.8 


.3 


.1 


Washington. . . . 


28 


8.9 


11 


3.5 


1.3 


1.3 


.3 


.6 




Wicomico 


97 


6.6 


52 


3.5 


.8 


1.3 


.4 


.7 


.3 


St. Mary's 


59 


5.0 


43 


3.7 


1.6 


.7 


.4 


.9 


.1 


Somerset 


98 


5.5 


71 


4.0 


1.2 


.8 


.9 


1.1 




Cecil 


42 


9.1 


19 


4.1 


.5 


1.7 


.4 


1.5 






92 


10.2 


38 


4.2 


1.2 


1.4 


.8 


.7 


.1 


Talbot 


69 


6.5 


47 


4.4 


1.1 


1.4 


.7 


.6 


.6 


Worcester 


126 


7.9 


75 


4.7 


1.8 


.8 


.4 


1.5 


2 


Qupon Anne's. . 


63 


7.7 


41 


5.0 


2.6 


1.1 


.2 


1.1 






38 


6.0 


35 


5.5 


2.5 


.9 


.5 


1.4 


.2 




44 


5.6 


45 


5.7 


.9 


2.3 


.5 


1.6 


.4 


Charles 


106 


6.3 


114 


6.8 


1.0 


1.0 


.2 


4.6 




Calvert 


63 


5.3 


139 


11.7 


3.8 


1.0 


.7 


1.5 


4.7 



Colored Elementary School Withdrawals; Grade Enrollment 157 



Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, com- 
mitment to institutions, or death numbered 1,146 pupils, or 4.2 
per cent of the total colored elementar^^ school enrollment, a de- 
crease of .8 per cent under the 5 per cent recorded in 1931. This 
group consists of 1.2 per cent withdrawn for employment, 1 per 
cent who withdrew because of mental or physical incapacity, 1 
per cent for poverty, .6 per cent over or under the compulsory 
attendance age, and .4 per cent withdrawn for other causes. The 
withdrawals due to some lack of efficiency in the school system 
or lacking of holding power of the schools have been materially 
reduced since 1925, when a percentage of 12.3 was reported. The 
decrease of 8.1 per cent since then is most gratifying. However, 
much still remains to be done to improve health and social con- 
ditions which have a bearing on school attendance. (See Table 
120.) 

The percentage of withdrawals for causes other than removal, 
transfer, commitment to institutions, or death varied in the in- 
dividual counties from under 3 per cent in Allegany, Dorchester, 
Carroll, and Prince George's to almost 12 per cent in Calvert. 
(See Table 120.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 
TABLE 121 



Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years Ending in 
June, 1929, 1931 and 1932, and Year Beginning October, 1921 



GRADE 


Number in Each Grade, 
1932 


Number in Each Grade 


Change 
1921 to 
1932 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1931 


1929 


1921 


1 


2,793 


2,504 


5,297 


5,648 


5,918 


9.804 


*4,507 


2 


2,023 


1,932 


3,955 


4,098 


4,255 


4.237 


*282 


3 


2,031 


1,975 


4,006 


3,935 


3.934 


3,741 


265 


4 


1,985 


1.866 


3,851 


3,883 


3,790 


3.126 


725 


5 


1,667 


1,681 


3,348 


3 , 272 


3.269 


2.011 


1,337 


6 


1,386 


1.461 


2,847 


2,723 


2.663 


1,348 


1,499 


7 


1,111 


1.348 


2,459 


2,394 


2.272 


859 


1,600 


S 


19 


16 


35 


29 


56 


170 


*135 


I 


496 


572 


1,068 


989 


795 


. 168 


900 


II 


266 


379 


645 


584 


413 


98 


547 


Ill 


170 


245 


415 


387 


240 


51 


364 


IV 


137 


190 


327 


222 


135 


6 


321 


Grand Total . . . 


14,084 


14.169 


28,253 


28.164 


27.740 


25,619 


2,634 



* Decrease. 



The colored school enrollment in the first, second, and fourth 
grades was lower in 1932 than in 1931. The highest enrollment 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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307 
221 

no 

57 
55 
247 
197 
113 

121 

96 
126 
265 
399 

115 
174 

25!) 
169 
33 

214 
212 

3,398 
3,398 


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Grade Enrollment; Colored Elementary School Graduates 159 



in 1932 was found in the first grade (5,297) and the next highest 
in the third grade (4,006). There was a difference of 741 be- 
tween the high school enrollment of 1,068 in the first year and 327 
in the fourth year. (See Table 121.) 

A comparison of grade enrollment for 1921 with 1932 shows 
that the first and second grades were the only ones which had 
decreases in enrollment, the decrease in the first grade number- 
ing 4,507 pupils and in the second grade 282 pupils. The great- 
est increases in enrollment were found in the first year of the 
high school, although every grade above the third showed con- 
siderable increase over 1921. (See Table 121.) 

For enrollment by grade in each county, see Table 122. 

GRADUATES FROM COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The 1,969 graduates from colored elementary schools com- 
prised 7.6 per cent of the total elementary enrollment in 1932, the 
same percentage that was reported in 1931, but an increase of 4.3 
per cent since 1923. The 835 boy graduates included 6.4 per cent 
of the boys enrolled in elementary schools, and the 1,134 girl 
graduates comprised 8.9 per cent of the girls enrolled. (See 
Table 123.) 



TABLE 123 
Colored County Elementary School Graduates 







Number 






Per Cent* 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1932 


835 


1,134 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1931 


884 


1,101 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1930 


728 


993 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1929 


733 


1.077 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1928 


542 


984 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1927 


542 


909 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1926 


483 


820 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1925 


487 


705 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1924 


427 


706 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1923 


350 


637 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment, and death. 



In the individual counties the percentage of boys enrolled who 
graduated ranged from slightly more than 2 per cent in Calvert 
and Anne Arundel to 10.2 per cent in Frederick. For girls the 
percentages varied from approximately 2 per cent in Carroll to 
over 10 per cent in 8 counties. In all but 4 counties the per- 
centage of girls enrolled who graduated exceeded that reported 
for boys. (See Chart 23.) 



160 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 23 



County 

Jotel and 
Co . Average 

Allegany 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
1932 

Number 

Eoys Girls ■HPer Cent Boys V///\ Per Cent Girls 



835 



Frederick 
Wicomico 
Howard 
Kent 
Ceroline 
V/orcester 
Somerset 
Cecil 

Dorchester 
Baltimore 
Pr. Geo. 

Talbot 
Queen Anne's 

46 



12 
44 

63 
28 
35 
25 
51 
69 
13 



65 
105 
23 



riontgomery 
Harford 
Charles 
Washington 
Carroll 
St. Mary's 
Anne Arundel 
Calvert 



30 
46 
13 
16 

23 
32 
12 




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26 
70 
6 
4 



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74 
27 



FAILURES IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
In 1932 in the colored elementary schools there were 4,960 
non-promotions, 19.2 per cent of the total enrollment, an in- 
crease of .1 per cent over the 19.1 reported in 1931, but a reduc- 



Colored Elementary School Graduates and Non-Promotions 161 



tion of 15.5 per cent since 1923. Although the number and per 
cent of failures for boys, 2,977 and 22.9 per cent, respectively, 
represent .6 more in per cent than corresponding figures for 
1931, there was nevertheless an appreciable decrease under the 
percentage reported in 1923. Of the girls, 1,983 or 15.5 per cent 
who failed to be promoted in 1932 showed a reduction under 
2,022 non-promotions or 15.8 per cent in 1931. (See Table 124.) 

TABLE 124 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary SchoolS:^ 



Year 




Number 






Per Cent 




Ending in 














June 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1932 


2,977 


1,983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1930 


3,311 


2,343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1929 


3,230 


2.361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1928 


3,647 


2.657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1926 


4,359 


3.334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9.277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment, and death. 



In the counties the percentage of non-promotions for boys 
ranged from under 15 per cent in Washington and Carroll to 
more than 40 per cent in Calvert. The percentage of failures 
for girls varied from 9.7 and 10.5 per cent in Dorchester and 
Carroll, respectively, to 30.1 per cent in Calvert. In all the 
counties the number and per cent of non-promotions for boys 
exceeded those reported for girls. In 1932, 10 counties showed 
decreases in the number and per cent of non-promotions under 
corresponding figures for 1931 for both boys and girls, one 
county for boys only and two counties for girls only. (See 
Chart 24.) 

Most of the causes for non-promotions were attributed by 
teachers to unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest on 
the part of both pupils and parents. Teachers also reported that 
irregular attendance and personal illness of pupils were im- 
portant factors in causing retardation. 

The percentage of failures in 1932 was highest in the first 
grade and lowest in the fifth grade for both boys and girls. 
Slight increases in the percentage of failure over corresponding 
figures for the preceding year were found in the second, third, 
sixth, and seventh grades for boys and in the fifth and seventh 
grades for girls. The high percentage of retarded pupils in the 



162 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 24 



NUMBER AUD PER CFHT OF COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY PUPILS NOT PROMOTED 
1932 

County Number 

Boys Girls ■■Per Cent Boy, 
Total and 2977 
Co. Average 1983 

Washington 
Carroll 
Cecil , 
Dorchester 
Worcester 



Wicomico 
Howard 

Caroline 
Talbot 

Queen Anne*s 

Charles 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Kent 

Somerset 

Pr. Geo. 



17 
26 
31 
126 
148 
139 
61 
84 
105 
86 
168 
85 
160 
77 
101 
197 
316 
221 



86 \\^,%V///////A 
37 



51 \\Zj\ Y///////A 
62 ^79 



57 115,? Y////////////A 



Baltimore 
Anne Arundel ^^'^ 
185 



St. Mary's 
Allegany 
Calvert 



45 
234 



93 118.2 /////////////////A 
21 



^3 Per Cent Girla 







173 



first grade is partly due to irregular attendance caused by con- 
tagious diseases and to the immaturity of children who in order 
to attack the work of the first grade with success need a mental 
level of six years. (See Chart 25.) 



Colored El. School Non-Promotions; Approved High Schools 163 

CHART 25 



1932 NGN PROMOnONS BY GRADES 
CODNri COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Number 
Grade Boys Girls 



Per Cent Boys 



T777^ Per Cent Girls 





904 


675 


2 


396 


261 


3 


385 


234 


4 


421 


239 


5 


295 


191 


6 


288 


173 


7 


284 


205 


8 


4 


5 




51. 5 y//////////////////////////////////////////A 



INCREASE IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS AND THEIR POPULATION 

TABLE 125 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



County 



Total Counties: 

1932 

1931 

1930 

1929 

1928 

1927 

1926 

1925 

1920 

1932 by counties: 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 



Total 



Group 



23 
21 
17 
14 
14 
*13 
*12 
*11 



County 



Total 



Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Group 



24 



J2 



X First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
t«achers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, 
an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

• Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

For individual schools see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319. 



164 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Of 26 colored high schools in the Maryland counties in 1932, 
23 were first group schools. The high schools in Calvert and 
Carroll Counties, classified as second group schools in 1931, be- 
came first group schools in 1932. A third year of work was 
added to the two-year course offered at Prince Frederick. Since 
Baltimore County continued its practice of paying Baltimore 
City for instructing its qualified colored elementary school gradu- 
ates in the colored senior- junior high school in Baltimore City, 
Howard and St. Mary's are the only counties which offer no op- 
portunities for high school work to their colored population. (See 
Table 125 and Chart 19, page 129.) 

The development of the county colored high schools brought 
the enrollment in 1932 to 2,489, the average number belonging 
to 2,253 and the average attendance to 2,069. (See Table 126.) 

TABLE 126 

Enrollment, Attendance, Average Number Belonging and Graduates in Approved 
Colored County High Schools of Maryland ; School Years Ending in 
June, 1932 to 1921, Inclusive 







Average 




Four- Year 


Year Ending 


Enrollment 


Number 


Average 


High School 


July 31 




Belonging 


Attendance 


Graduates 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


1930 


1,953 


1.725 


1,609 


169 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


. 1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1922 


368 


* 


292 


5 


1921 


251 


* 


189 





* Average number belonging not available before 1923. 

For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI. pages 314 to 319. 



There were 288 graduates from the four-year colored county- 
high schools in 1932, 96 more than were graduated in 1931. (See 
Table 126 and also Table 130, page 168.) 

By comparing the colored high school enrollment, teaching 
staff and salary expenditures in 1932 with corresponding figures 
in 1920, 1925, 1930, and 1931, the great strides made in second- 
ary education for colored pupils are clearly discernible. In 1932 
the county colored high schools enrolled 2,489 pupils with 90 
teachers in charge at a salary cost of $77,260, while the cor- 
responding figures in 1920 were 187 pupils on roll, for whom 13 



Development of County Colored High Schools 



165 



s 



M *3 

^ CO 



O iC c 
If o cc o 



o C-. cc o oo Tf o r-. X 



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05 ect^^fc— cocccc; 



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XtO 

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lOCO CO Tj<Tj<C 

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o ccr^c^i«c>i co-<i<-*c^c<: ec^coi—o r^coo>o 



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C-. CO ■<}< c; CO c; 

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<<;occ coc^a ^sJ^icx .^^^^ 



166 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

teachers were employed at a salary cost of $9,610. Similar fig- 
ures for 1925 included an enrollment of 862, a staff of 43 teach- 
ers, and $33,587 spent for salaries. In the twelve-year period 
since 1920 the enrollment has increased thirteen times, there are 
seven times as many teachers and the salaries have increased to 
more than 8 times the amount expended twelve years ago. Every 
county which has established a colored high school shares in this 
notable growth in high school opportunities. (See Table 127.) 

The ratio between the number belonging in high school and 
the number belonging in high and elementary schools combined 
may be used as a valuable measure of the importance of the high 
school in the school program. In 1932 there were 8.3 per cent 
of the county colored children in high school, an increase of .8 
over 7.5 per cent for 1931. With 9.9 the corresponding per cent 
for Baltimore City, the per cent for the State was 9.1. Since the 
pupils from Baltimore County who attend the Douglass Senior- 
Junior High School in Baltimore City are included in the Balti- 
more City figures, the per cent for the counties appears slightly 
lower and that for Baltimore City a little higher than they ac- 
tually are. (See Table 128.) 

TABLE 128 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number Belonging 
in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School Years Ending in 
June 1932, 1931, 1930 and 1924 



County 1932 1931 1930 1924 



Countv Average , . 


8 


.3 


7.5 


6 


.6 


2 


.0 


Allegany 


21 


.0 


22.2 


17 


.8 


11 


.9 


Caroline 


18 


,0 


10.8 


7 


.8 


2 


3 


Wicomico 


16 


.0 


15.3 


13 


.3 


6 


.0 


Washington 


12 


.0 


12.6 


12 


.0 






Dorchester 


11 


.6 


10.1 


7 


.7 


4. 


.7 


Talbot 


11 


.3 


12.8 


12 


.6 


3 


.0 


Kent 


10. 


8 


8.7 


9. 


3 


3. 





Somerset 


10 


.7 


9.8 


9 


.9 


1 


.6 


Worcester 


10 


3 


8.3 


8. 











9 


.7 


8.9 


10 


.4 


6' 


,7 



County 1932 1931 1930 1924 

Prince George's 9.0 8.5 6.9 1.5 

Cecil 7.6 8.7 8.8 

Anne Arundel 7.0 6.1 6.3 2.5 

Charles 6.8 6.7 5,0 1.8 

Carroll 6.7 5.9 4.9 4.0 

Montgomery 6.4 6.4 5.4 

Calvert 5.7 4.1 2.4 

Harford 5.1 4.2 

Queen Anne's 4.2 4.3 3.4 2.0 

Baltimore City *9.9 *10.1 *10.0 9.2 

State 9.1 8.7 8.2 4.7 



■* Includes Baltimore County pupils attending high school in Baltimore City, whose tuition is paid 
by the Baltimore County Board of Education. 

The per cent of the total colored enrollment in high school in 
the counties varied from in St. Mary's and Howard, and under 
6 per cent in Calvert and Harford, where the colored high schools 
have only recently been established, and 4 per cent in Queen 
Anne's, which does not have a four-year organization, to 21 per 
cent in Allegany. All but 4 counties, where the decreases were 
slight, showed a larger proportion of their colored pupils in high 
schools in 1932 than in 1931. (See Table 128.) 



% IN Colored High Schools ; % of Attendance ; High School Grads. 167 

Attendance in Colored High Schools 

The per cent of attendance in the county colored high schools 
in 1932 was a decrease of .1 per cent under the corresponding 
figure of 92 per cent reported in 1931. Since the percentage of 
attendance in Baltimore City increased .1 per cent to 91.2 in 
1932, the average for the State remained 91.5 per cent. The per- 
centage of attendance in the colored high schools of individual 
counties ranged from 88.3 to 94.4. In six counties the percent- 
age of attendance fell below 90 per cent. (See Table 129.) 

TABLE 129 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, for School Years Ending in 
June 1932, 1931, 1930, and 1923 



County 1932 1931 1930 1923 

County Average 91.9 92.0 93.3 89.3 

Worcester 94.4 92.3 93.3 

Wicomico 94.2 94.6 94.1 90.5 

Kent 93.9 93.5 95.5 86.3 

Frederick 93.7 94.9 94.0 90.5 

Anne Arundel 93.6 95.4 94.7 88.9 

Dorchester 93.0 85.5 94.6 87.4 

Prince George's 92 . 5 93 . 4 94 . 4 

Montgomery 92.3 92.6 88.4 

Washington 92.2 93.0 94.2 

Cecil 90.6 92.8 94.0 



County 1932 1931 1930 1923 

Harford 90.4 90.6 

Carroll 90.4 92.6 86.1 

Allegany 90.3 94.1 95.6 93.5 

Queen Anne's 89.7 87.4 87.2 

Talbot 89.4 91.9 93.8 87.3 

Caroline 89.1 90.4 92.2 85.6 

Somerset 89.0 89.6 91.3 

Charles 88.9 90.6 91.9 88.4 

Calvert 88.3 85.6 90.7 

Baltimore City 91.2 91.1 91.3 88.8 

State Average 91.5 91.5 92.0 88.9 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 285. 
For individual schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319. 

More Graduates from Four- Year High Schools 

The 288 graduates from the county colored high schools in 
1932 included 124 boys and 164 girls, an increase of 47 boys and 
49 girls over corresponding figures in 1931. All except 6 coun- 
ties reported a larger number of high school graduates in 1932 
than in 1931, the total increases varying from 1 in Dorchester to 
30 in Prince George's. The colored high school in Harford 
County which added a fourth year to its program in the fall of 
1931 graduated 10 pupils. (See Table 130.) 

THE COLORED HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM OF STUDIES 

The academic course was the only one given in 19 of the 26 
county colored high schools in 1932, and the general course in 5 
of the county high schools. The Caroline Colored High School 
offered both the academic and vocational courses and the Pomon- 
key High School offered its pupils both the academic and gen- 
eral courses. (See Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319.) 

Courses in English, social studies, mathematics and science 
were offered in every county colored high school. In 1931-32 
practically every colored high school pupil took English, 99 per 
cent were enrolled in classes in the social studies, 96 per cent 



168 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 130 

1932 Colored County Four- Year High School Graduates and Those Who Entered 
Bowie Normal School in September, 1932 



County 



1932 Four- Year 
Graduates 



Junior Enrollment 
Bo-^-ie Normal School 
1932 



Boys 

Worcester 

Harford 5 

Anne Arundel 12 

Montgomery'- 6 

Frederick 5 

Prince George's 15 

Kent 3 

Somerset 12 

Talbot 10 

Dorchester 14 

Wicomico 22 

Charles 2 

Caroline 8 

Allegany 2 

Cecil 5 

Washington 2 

Carroll 1 

Total 124 

Per Cent 

Baltimore City 

Stover College 

Washington, D. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Graduates of Preceding Y^ears: 

Anne Arundel 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Bowie Normal 

Experienced Teachers 

Baltimore City 

Washington, D. C 



Girls 
8 
5 
12 
15 
6 
32 
10 
14 
13 
4 
26 
11 
2 
4 



164 



Bov; 



Girls 
3 



2 


1 


4 


3 


1 


3 


2 




2 


6 




2 


3 


1 




3 


2 






5 




1 


16 


28 


12.9 


17.1 


2 


4 




1 


2 


3 




1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


*i 


*1 


1 


3 




1 



♦ Admitted to the senior class. 
For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319. 



took a course in mathematics, and 82 per cent received instruc- 
tion in science. All of the pupils enrolled in 20 county colored 
high schools were given instruction in the social studies and in 
15 schools all were enrolled in mathematics classes. Latin, which 
was available in the high schools in 10 counties, was taken by 
181 boys and 283 girls, and French, a part of the curriculum in 
4 counties, attracted 46 boys and 59 girls. (See Table XXXVII, 
pages 325 to 330.) 

Instruction in industrial arts was offered in 11 counties to 38 
per cent of the boys enrolled, and general home economics was 
taught in 13 counties to 55 per cent of the girls enrolled. Caro- 



High School Grads. and Normal School Entrants; Courses Offered 169 

line and Charles offered its colored high school girls courses in 
vocational home economics, and Caroline, Charles, and Prince 
George's each had a class in vocational agriculture. Courses in 
music were given to 389 boys and 477 girls in the high schools 
of 6 counties, and 2 counties offered work in physical education 
to 76 boys and 120 girls. (See Table XXXVII, pages 320 to 325, 
and Table 107, page 142.) 

The State Supervisor of Home Economics cooperated with the 
State Supervisor of Colored Schools in establishing centers for 
home economics education, improving equipment, selecting 
teachers, conducting teachers' meetings and promoting improve- 
ment in the instruction offered. The units of home economics 
emphasized were food study, meal preparation and service, nu- 
trition; clothing selection and construction; home nursing and 
child care ; home decoration and home management. 

OCCUPATIONS FOLLOWED BY 1931 COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL 

GRADUATES 

Fewer 1931 high school graduates enrolled in institutions of 
higher learning in 1931-32 than was the case for 1930 graduates. 
Of the 77 boys graduated in June, 1931, 15 were enrolled in 
liberal arts colleges and 14 entered state normal schools, which 
means that 38 per cent of the boys continued their education the 
j^ear after graduation, compared with 46 per cent in 1930-31. 
Of the 115 girls graduated, 13 were enrolled in liberal arts col- 
leges, business colleges or domestic science courses, 19 entered 
normal schools, and 4 enrolled in hospitals as nurses. These 36 
girls comprised 31 per cent of the 1931 girl graduates. This 
figure is 13 per cent lower than the 49 per cent shown for the 
preceding year. In addition to those who continued their educa- 
tion during 1931-32, 18 boys and 60 girls were either staying or 
working at home, and 7 girls were married. The occupations of 
30 boys and 12 girls were either unknown or unclassified. 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

The 25,083 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored 
schools included 19,850 in the elementary schools, 3,274 in the 
junior high schools, (grades 7-9), and 1,592 in the senior high 
schools. The schools were open for 190 days with 91.4 per cent 
of attendance in the senior high schools, 91.1 per cent in the 
junior high schools, and 87.7 per cent in the elementary schools. 
In addition to the regular elementary and secondary schools, the 
vocational school enrolled 220 boys and 147 girls. Classes in 
trades and industries, such as carpentry, shoe repairing, auto 
mechanics and tailoring, were available for the boys, while dress- 
making, personal hygiene and cookery were offered for the girls. 



170 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

There were 182 colored pupils enrolled in 8 special classes for 
the physically handicapped and 273 pupils in 12 centers for the 
mentally handicapped. (See Table 33, page 46.) 

Instruction in summer schools in 1932 was provided in 5 Bal- 
timore City schools for 2,235 children for whom 38 teachers were 
employed. Of the 1,902 pupils on roll at the end of the six weeks' 
summer school term, 1,732 had taken review work and 170 work 
in the grade above the one they had been in the preceding sem- 
ester. (See Table 160, page 210.) 

In addition to the day schools, Baltimore City continued its 
night school classes for adults, thus enabling many deprived of 
opportunities when they were young to derive the benefits of an 
elementary or secondary education. The colored evening school 
enrollment included 1,461 in elementary classes, 350 enrolled in 
high school courses, and 952 receiving training in commercial, 
industrial and home economics work. (See Table 161, page 211.) 

Anne Arundel was the only county in the State which offered 
evening school work to its colored population. This consisted of 
evening continuation classes conducted at the Stanton High 
School for cooks, waiters, and waitresses at the Naval Academy. 
Instruction was given in cooking, sewing, and related subjects 
of English, mathematics, and science. (See Table 162, page 213.) 

TRAINING OF THE COLORED TEACHERS 

The effectiveness of a school system depends primarily on the 
fitness and training of the members of its teaching staff. Al- 
though the success of inexperienced teachers cannot be deter- 
mined until their abilities have been tested, it is nevertheless 
possible to insure that all vacancies are filled with teachers who 
have been well-trained for their profession at accredited state 
normal schools and colleges. Experienced teachers keep in 
touch with recent developments in educational theory and meth- 
ods by attending summer school. 

The minimum requirements for a first grade certificate in 
Maryland, the only certificate issued to a prospective elementary 
school teacher, are graduation from a two-year normal school, 
or the equivalent, and attendance at summer school once in every 
four years for the renewal of the certificate after it has been 
issued. Of the 718 teachers employed in the colored elementary 
schools in October, 1932, 695 or 96.7 per cent held regular first 
grade certificates, an increase of 2.2 per cent over the 94.5 per 
cent who met the requirements for certification in October, 1931. 
This figure compares very favorably with the proportion of 
trained teachers in the white elementary schools, 97.1 per cent 
(page 48), a difference of only .4 per cent. The number of 
colored teachers holding second and third grade certificates in 



Baltimore City; Teacher Training; Summer School Attendance 171 



October, 1932, was reduced to 20 and 3, respectively. Every 
colored teacher employed in the elementary schools in 9 counties 
met the requirements for first grade certification, and in no 
county did the proportion of first grade teachers fall below 91 
per cent. (See Table XIV, page 292.) 

Of the 93 teachers employed in the colored high school in Oc- 
tober, 1932, there were only 7 who held provisional certificates, 
and 1 substitute. (See Table XIV, page 292.) 

ATTENDANCE AT SUMMER SCHOOL 

The 245 summer school attendants in 1932 included 30.2 per 
cent of the county colored teaching staff in service in October, 
1932. This was a decrease of 3.2 per cent under the 33.4 per 
cent reported as summer school attendants in 1931. The per- 
centage of summer school attendants varied from 14.7 per cent 
in St. Mary's to 50 per cent or more in Talbot, Harford, Alle- 
gany, and Washington. Increases in the per cent attending sum- 
mer school over 1931 were found in 8 counties. (See Table 131.) 

TABLE 131 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1932, Reported by County 
Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1932 



Countv 



Teachers Employed 

Oct., 1932, Who 
Attended Summer 
School, 1932 



Number 


Per Cent 


ct24o 


30.2 


7 


53.8 


5 


50.0 


13 


50.0 


al8 


50.0 


22 


43.1 


12 


42.9 


6 


37.5 


tl6 


34.8 


15 


33.3 


15 


31.9 


15 


30.0 


9 


29.0 


4 


28.6 


12 


28.6 


22 


26.8 


6 


22.2 


612 


21.8 


al8 


21.4 


6 


18.2 


4 


17.4 


3 


16.7 


5 


14.7 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of County- 
Colored 
Teachers 



Total 

Washington. . , 

Allegany 

Harford 

Talbot 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Cecil 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Montgomery . . . 
Dorchester .... 

Carohne 

CarroU 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Queen Anne's . . 

Howard 

St. Mary's 



Total 

Hampton Institute 

Morgan College 

Virginia State Teachers' College 

Columbia University 

St. Paul Normal School 

University of Pennsylvania 

Howard University 

University of Pittsburgh 

Temple University 

Pennsylvania State Teachers' College 
Shippensburg State Normal School. . 

Petersburg State College 

Indiana State Teachers' College 

All Others 



ct245 

defllO 
65 
dl2H 
10 
7 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 

2 
13 



t Excludes a super%-isor. 

a Includes one who took a twelve-weeks' course. 
b Includes two who took a twelve-weeks' course, 
c Includes four who took a twelve-weeks' course. 

d Includes one who took courses at both Hampton Institute and Virginia State Teachers' College. 
e Includes three who took courses at both Hampton Institute and Petersburg State College. 



172 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Hampton Institute ranked first with 110 Maryland county col- 
ored teachers in attendance at summer school. Morgan College 
drew 65, and Virginia State Teachers' College ranked third with 
13 Maryland county colored teachers enrolled. Four of the 
teachers attended summer school for 12 weeks. In addition to 
the teachers reported as summer school attendants, the colored 
supervisor in Charles County took courses at Hampton Institute. 
(See Table 131.) 

FEWER TEACHERS RESIGN FROM COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

TABLE 132 

Estimated Causes for Resignation of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools from June, 1931, to June, 1932, with Comparative 
Figures for the Year Preceding 





Elementary School 


High School 


Causes of Resignation 


1931 


1932 


1931 


1932 




Number 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Number 


Inefficiency 


74 


41 


35.3 


9 


8 


Marriage 


12 


tl6 


13.8 


2 


2 






13 


11.2 




5 


Illness 


19 


12 


10.3 


1 


2 


Teaching in Baltimore City or 












Supervising in Counties 


1 


9 


7.8 


1 


1 


Teaching in Another State 


17 


6 


5.2 




1 


Retirement 


2 


5 


4.3 




Death 


7 


3 


2.6 






Dropped for low certificate or 












failure to attend summer school . . 


9 


3 


2.6 


2 


1 


Work other than teaching 


12 


1 


.9 




1 


Moved away 


1 






Other and unknown 


16 


t7 


6.0 


1 








Total 


170 


116 


100.0 


16 


21 


Leave of absence 


12 


7 




1 




Transfer to another county 


27 


24 




6 


1 













t Includes one who returned in middle of year. 



There was a very great reduction in the number of colored 
elementary teachers who resigned or were dismissed from the 
colored elementary schools between June, 1931, and June, 1932, 
and corresponding figures for the preceding year. Considering 
the counties as a group, and omitting teachers on leave of ab- 
sence and transfers between counties only 116 teachers left the 
county colored elementary schools as against 170 the year before. 
This decrease in the number of vacancies to be filled should be 
encouraging to the colored supervisors, since it makes it possible 
to carry the improvement of instruction forward from the point 



Resignations and Turnover of County Colored Teachers 173 

where it left off the year before rather than to start in from the 
beginning with an entirely new staff. (See Table 132.) 

There are probably a number of explanations for the reduc- 
tion in resignations. Of these the two most important are un- 
doubtedly the economic depression with the consequent dearth of 
opportunities in fields other than teaching, and the availability 
of more graduates from the Bowie Normal School who take posi- 
tions and remain in the counties, Maryland being their home 
State. 

Inefficiency still continues to be the chief cause of dismissal 
of county colored elementary teachers, over one-third of those 
who withdrew having been requested to leave for this reason. 
Marriage, voluntary resignations, and illness account for an* 
other third of the resignations. Fifteen teachers left to teach 
in Baltimore, to take over supervisory work in the counties, or 
to teach in other states. There were 7 county colored elementary 
teachers away on leave of absence and 24 who transferred from 
one county to another. (See Table 132.) 

In the high schools there was an increase from 16 to 21 in the 
number of resignations and dismissals. Of the latter number, 8 
were dismissals because of inefficiency, while 5 were voluntary 
resignations. (See Table 132.) 

Turnover in County Colored Elementary Schools Lower 

Since there were fewer vacancies to be filled, the number of 
teachers new to the colored elementary schools in each county 
dropped from 228 or 30 per cent of the teaching positions in 
1930-31 to 139 or 19 per cent in 1931-32. The figures just given 
include the turnover due to transfer between counties as well as 
vacancies arising from leave of absence. This lowering in the 
turnover affected chiefly the number of inexperienced teachers 
employed, there being 85 for the year 1931-32 versus 154 for the 
preceding year. (See Table 133.) 

All except five of the counties had a decrease in turnover under 
the number and per cent new to the county colored elementary 
schools the year before. For 1931-32, the turnover ranged 
among the counties from 7 to 42 per cent, while the correspond- 
ing extremes for the preceding* vear were 10 and 71 per cent. 
(See Table 133.) 

Turnover in Colored High Schools Greater 

There were 36 teachers new to the county colored high schools 
in which they taught in 1931-32 in contrast with 32 for the pre- 
ceding year. These figures represented a turnover of 40 and 37 
per cent, respectively, for the later and earlier year. Several 
counties had no turnover, while others had from 3 to 6 teachers 



174 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



new to the staff in the colored high schools. In seven coun- 
ties from 50 to 75 per cent of the staff serving in the colored 
high schools were new to the county in 1931-32. This large turn- 
over is to be accounted for in part by the determined effort made 
by the State Supervisor of Colored Schools to have every teacher 
certificated for the subjects in which instruction was given. 
(See Table 133.) 

TABLE 133 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties, 
October, 1931, Through June, 1932, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced 
and From Other Counties 



New to County 



Elementary 



County 



Total and Av., 1931 
Total and Av., 1932 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Prince George's. . . . 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico* 

Kent 

CaroUne 

Calvert 

Howard 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's 

CarroU 

Worcester 

Washington 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



228 


30 





139 


18 


6 


1 


7 


1 


5 


10 





5 


11 


4 


9 


12 


5 


3 


12 


5 


6 


13 





6 


14 


3 


12 


15 


4 


1 


16 


7 


5 


16 


7 


6 


18 


8 


7 


18 


9 


7 


18 


9 


6 


20 





5 


20 


8 


6 


23 


1 


5 


26 


3 


15 


28 


3 


6 


30 





4 


30 


8 


14 


35 





5 


41 


7 



High 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



32: 37.2 
36 39.6 



25.0 
37.5 
50.0 



75.0 
46.2 



25.0 
42.9 



5 50 .0 
II 25.0 
3 42.9 

50.0 



66.7 
SO^O 
60,0 



Change 

in 
No. of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1930 
to 

Oct., 1931 



New to County, Who Were 



-13 

c+3 

-1 

-2 
+1 

+2 
a+1 



a +2 
6+3 



+1 

a -2 
-1 

6+3 



-1 



Inexperi- 
enced 



§176 
§113 



2 
3 

=**6 
*4 

2 

=♦12 
1 

3 

**6 

3 



Experi- 
enced 
but 
New 

to 
State 



***14 
^***10 



Experi- 
enced 
in Md. 
Counties 
but not 
Teaching 
in 

1930-31 



From 
Other 
Counties 



* Each asterisk represents one high school teacher. 

§ Includes 22 high school teachers for 1931 and 28 for 1932. 

t Includes 6 high school teachers. 

a Includes one additional high school teacher. 

6 Includes two additional high school teachers. 

c Includes 9 additional high school teachers. 



Normal Schools and Colleges Attended by 
Newly Appointed Colored Teachers 

There were 85 inexperienced colored teachers employed in 
county elementary schools in the school year 1931-32. Only 
slightly more than 50 per cent of this number were graduates 
of Maryland teacher training schools, 33 having been trained at 



TuRNO\'ER; Prof. Preparation of New County Colored Teachers 175 



Bowie and 12 in Baltimore City. The remaining 50 per cent re- 
ceived their training in normal schools outside the State of Mary- 
land. Cheyney Normal School supplied 10 teachers, Miner 
Normal School trained 8 teachers, 6 graduates were appointed 
from Hampton Institute and also from Westchester State Teach- 
ers' College, and the remaining 10 inexperienced teachers re- 
ceived training in schools in Ohio, New Jersey, Illinois, Virginia, 
and 3 other states. All 5 of the experienced teachers employed 
in the colored elementary schools in 1931-32 were graduates of 
normal schools outside of Maryland. (See Table 134.) 

TABLE 134 



Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were New 
To Maryland Counties During the School Year 1931-32 



School or College 
Attended 


Elementary 
Teachers 
Who were 


School or College 
Attended 


High School 
Teachers 
Who were 


In- 
experi- 
enced 


Experi- 
enced 
But New 
in 
Mary- 
land 
1931-32 


In- 
experi- 
enced 


Experi- 
enced 
But New 
in 
Mary- 
land 
1931-32 


Total 


85 

33 

12 
10 

8 
6 
6 
2 

2 
1 

2 
3 


5 


Total 


28 

12 
7 
3 

1 


5 


Bowie Normal School, Md 


Morgan College, Balto., ]Md. . 

Hampton Institute, Va 

Wilberforce University, Ohio. . 
Virginia Union Univ., 

Richmond, Va 

Howard Univ., Wash., D. C. . . 
Lincoln Univ., Pa 


Coppin Normal School, 

Balto., Md 




1 


Cheyney Normal School, Pa . . . 
Miner Normal School, 

Washington, D. C 

Hampton Institute, Va 


2 
1 


2 
1 


State T. C, West Chester, Pa. . 
Dayton Jr. T. C, Ohio 


Hunter College, N. Y 






Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pa 




Newark State Normal School, 
N. J 




Va. State College for Negroes 
Unknown 


1 


Virginia Schools 

Illinois Schools 

Schools in Three Other States . . 


1 
1 







Of the 28 inexperienced high school teachers appointed during 
the year 1931-32, 12 were graduates of Morgan College, 7 re- 
ceived training at Hampton Institute, 3 received degrees from 
Wilberforce University, and the remaining 6 attended colleges in 
Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, and Washington, D. C. (See 
Table 134.) 

EXPERIENCE OF COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The median experience of county colored teachers employed in 
October, 1932, was 4.5 years, .6 higher than the median in 1931. 
The constant increase in the median years of experience shown 
since 1929 indicates the reduction in turnover apparent over the 



176 



1932 



Report of State Department of Education 





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Experience and Sex of County Colored Teachers 



177 



same period of time. The median years of experience in the in- 
dividual counties ranged from 2.4 years in 3 counties to 8.5 years 
in 2 counties. (See Table 135.) 



MEN TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

The 126 men employed in the county colored schools in 1931-32 
comprised 15.4 per cent of the teaching staff, an increase of 1 
per cent over corresponding figures for the preceding year, but 
a decrease of 2.9 per cent since 1923. (See Table 136.) 



TABLE 136 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County Colored Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1932 126 15.4 

1931 118 14.4 

1930 106 13.2 

1929 104 13.0 

1928 93 11.8 



Year Number Per Cent 

1927 107 13.8 

1926 108 14.0 

1925 126 16.5 

1924 129 16.9 

1923 135 18.3 



In the individual counties the number and per cent of men 
employed in the colored schools varied from less than 10 per cent 
in 4 counties, 10 per cent to 20 per cent in 11 counties, 20 per 
cent to 27 per cent in 6 counties, and 46 per cent in 1 county. 
The men are usually employed as elementary school principals 
and in the high schools. (See Table 137.) 



TABLE 137 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County Colored Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Men Te.\ching 



Number 


Per Cent 


3 


14.2 


2 


14.3 


5.2 


15.7 


5 


16.3 


8.4 


16.5 


2 


20.0 


9 


21.4 


9 


23.1 


12 


24.3 


11.5 


25.0 


7 


26.4 


7 


46.1 



Total and Average. 



Howard 

Calvert 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Prince George's. 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Anne Arundel . . 
Kent 



126.1 



15.4 



1 
4 
4 

8.6 
4 
2 
7 

10.2 
4.2 



3.8 
8.5 
8.7 
10.1 
11.4 
12.5 
12.5 
13.0 
13.2 



Queen Anne's 
Washington . . 
Frederick .... 

Caroline 

Baltimore . . . 
Allegany. . . . 
Worcester . . . 

Talbot 

Dorchester. . 
Wicomico. . . 

Harford 

Carroll 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table X, page 288. 



178 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average number of pupils belonging per teacher in colored 
elementary schools increased from 33.3 in 1931 to 34.0 in 1932. 
Increases in average size of class appeared in all but 7 counties, 
the most marked decrease being found in Washington County. 
The average class in the Baltimore City elementary schools, ex- 
clusive of pupils in the junior high and vocational schools, in- 
cluded 36.3 pupils, 1.2 more than the corresponding figure for 



CHART 26 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELaiENIARI SCHOOLS 



County 1950 
Co. Average 33.0 




Ealto. City 35.1 35.1 



State 



* Excludes 27.2 for junior high and 19 for vocational schools. 
For counties arranged alphabetically for 1932 data, see Table XV, page 293. 



Pupils Belonging and Average Sal.ary per Colored Teacher 179 



the preceding year. For the State the average number belonging 
per teacher was 34.9 colored pupils. (See Chart 26.) 

As in former years the attendance in some county colored 
schools justified the employment of at least one additional 
teacher. In most cases the understaffing of these schools was 
due chiefly to lack of classrooms. 

High Schools 

There were 25 pupils per teacher in the average county colored 
high school in 1932, a slightly smaller number than was reported 
for the preceding year. In the individual counties the pupils 
per high school teacher varied from 30 or more in 4 counties to 
13 or less in 2 counties. The ratio of pupils to teachers in Balti- 
more City was 26.8, and for the entire State, 25.7. (See Table 
XV, page 293, and Table XXXV, page 313.) 

SALARIES OF COLORED TEACHERS 

The average salary per teacher employed in county colored 
elementary schools in 1932 was $653, an increase of $10 over 
the average salary paid in 1931. The steady increase in teachers* 
salaries is due chiefly to the higher proportion of teachers who 
met the requirements for first grade certification, and the larger 
number of teachers with more than three years of experience. 
(See Table 138.) 

TABLE 138 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1932-1917 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1932 S6o3 

1931 643 

1930 635 

1929 621 

1928 602 

1927 586 

1926 563 

1925 546 



Year Ending Average 
June 30 Salary 

1924 $532 

1923 513 

1922 455 

1921 442 

1920 359 

1919 283 

1918 279 

1917 228 



Average Salary in 1931-32 

There was considerable variation in the average salary per 
colored elementary teacher in the counties. Allegany and Balti- 
more, which pay the highest salaries in the State, have a much 
higher salary schedule than the other counties, and like Wash- 
ington, Prince George's, and Cecil, which rank next, have a 
longer school session than that required by law. The other 



180 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



counties which, in general, adhere to the minimum State salary 
schedule and keep open only for the 160 days required by law 
vary only m the proportion of trained and experienced teachers 
employed. The average salary paid elementary teachers ranged 
from $536 in Somerset to $1,227 in Allegany. The average sal- 
ary m Baltimore City was reduced from $1,779 in 1931 to $1 713 
m 1932 because of the 6.5 per cent contribution each teacher in 

CHART 27 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELB11ENTAR.Y SCHOOLS 



County 


1929 


1930 


1931 


Co, Average 


$ 621 $ 635 $ 643 


Allegany 


1197 


1220 


1102 


Baltimore 


1175 


1181 


1186 


Vi'ashington 


787 


817 


808 


Pr» George ' s 


704 


710 


719 


Cecil 


716 


697 


699 


Harford 


620 


651 


692 


Anne Arundel 


615 


637 


652 


Montgomery 


573 


627 


642 


Kent 


585 


571 


577 


Carroll 


604 


581 


626 


Vvicomico 


562 


567 


572 


Frederick 


554 


567 


572 


Calvert 


546 


565 


569 


Queen Anne's 


532 


535 


552 


Howard 


562 


567 


552 


Dorchester 


499 


525 


545 


Charles 


528 


543 


554 


V.'orc ester 


516 


530 


552 


St. Mary's 


516 


533 


548 


Talbot 


536 


544 


545 


Caroline 


524 


557 


555 


Somerset 


516 


517 


524 


Balto. Cit>' 


1740 


1720 


1779 


State 


1030 


1052 


1095 




♦ Excludes $2,019 for junior high and $1,817 for vocational teachers in 1932. 
Per counties arranged alphabetically for 1932 data, see Table XVI, page 294. 



Salaries of Colored Teachers 



181 



Baltimore City beginning January 1, 1932, was required to make 
to the City Treasury. Beginning in January, 1933, the reduction 
in Baltimore City was increased to 10 per cent. (See Chart 27.) 

In 1932 the average salary for a colored high school teacher 
was $856 ranging from $700 in Worcester to $1,589 in Allegany. 
As in the elementary schools, salaries in the individual counties 
depend on the salary schedule in effect, the length of the school 
session, and the proportion of trained and experienced teachers 
employed in the school system. (See Tables XVI and XXXV, 
pages 294 and 313.) 

Distribution of Salaries Paid in October, 1932 

The median salary paid to a county colored elementary school 
teacher in October, 1932, remained $600, the same as in 1931. 
Of the 718 teachers, 322 receive salaries of $520 and $560, 13 
teachers receive less than $520, the minimum salary paid to a 
teacher with 1 to 3 years of experience holding a regular first 
grade certificate, and 20 have salaries exceeding $1,200 in Oc- 
tober, 1932. The minimum salary schedule will be reduced by 
10 per cent beginning in October, 1933. (See Table 139.) 



TABLE 139 

Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland Counties, 

October, 1932 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Salary No. Salary No. 

Under $520.. 13 $1,120.... 6 

$ 520 216 1,160.... 5 

560 106 1,200... 13 

600 87 1,240... 4 

640 28 1,280... 2 

680 88 1,320... 3 

720 51 1,360... 1 

760 26 1,400.... 6 

800 8 

840 35 

880 1 1,550.... 1 

920 3 1,700... 3 

9Q0 2 

1,000!!!"'" 4 Total 718 

1,040 6 

1,080 Median. . . $600 



HIGH SCHOOLS 



Salary No. Salary No. 

Under $600.. 1 SI. 240.... 1 

$ 640 17 1,280 

680 3 1.320 

720 13 1,360 

760 12 1.400.... 2 

800 13 1,440 

840 2 1,480 

880 4 1,520.... 3 

920 2 

960 6 

1.000 5 

1,040 1 

1,080 1 

1,120 2 Total 93 

1.160 2 

1.200 3 Median. . . $800 



Salaries of county colored high school teachers in October, 

1932, varied from $600 to $1,520 with a median salary of $800, 
the same amount as in October, 1931. The minimum salary 
schedule will be reduced by 10 per cent beginning in October, 

1933. (See Table 139.) 



182 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

COST PER COLORED PUPIL FOR CURRENT EXPENSES 
Cost per Colored Elementary School Pupil 

The average cost per colored elementary school pupil for cur- 
rent expenses was reduced 12 cents from $25.09 in 1931 to $24.97 
in 1932. Since salary expenditures represent the largest pro- 
portion of the school current expense budgets, those counties 

CHART 28 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEIiiENIARI SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



Count7 
Co. Average 



1931 1932 
$ 25 




Baltimore Ci 
State 



t Excludes junior high, $92, vocational, $158. 
For expenditures see Table XXXIV, page 312, and for counties arranged alphabetically, 
see Table 169, page 225. 



Cost per Colored Pupil; Transportation 



183 



which pay the highest salaries naturally rank highest in per pupil 
cost. Length of school session and size of class are also im- 
portant factors in determining the current expense cost per 
pupil. A study of Chart 28 indicates that Baltimore and Alle- 
gany, in which a high salary schedule and long school session 
are in effect, Washington, Prince George's, and Cecil with long 
school sessions, and Carroll and Harford, where the classes are 
small, appear at the top of the chart. Decreases in cost per pupil 
were found in all but 7 counties, but in these seven counties the 
increases in general were slight. (See Chart 28 and compare 
with Charts 26 and 27.) 

Cost per Colored High School Pupil 

The average cost per pupil for current expenditures in the 
county colored high schools was $48.58 in 1932, an increase of 
$1.27 over corresponding figures for the preceding year. In- 
creases in the individual counties from 1931 to 1932 ranged from 
a few cents to over $30. Cost per high school pupil belonging 
ranged from $27.90 in Worcester to $93.83 in Allegany. (See 
Table 169, page 225, Table XXXV, page 313, and for individual 
schools. Table XXXVI, pages 314 to 319.) 

Baltimore County paid $7,525.50 for the tuition of 25 tenth 
and eleventh grade and 44 eighth and ninth grade pupils who 
attended the colored senior- junior high school in Baltimore City, 
the charge being $150 per senior high school pupil and $95 per 
junior high school pupil. Since the pupils go from the seventh 
grade in Baltimore County to the eighth grade in Baltimore City 
and the County Board of Education is committed to only four 
years of high school, any pupil who wishes to graduate must at- 
tend the twelfth grade in Baltimore City at his own expense. 
Only 4 pupils in 1932 enrolled in the twelfth grade at their 
parents* expense. 

TRANSPORTATION AT PUBLIC EXPENSE 

In 1932 transportation at public expense to 38 county colored 
schools in 17 counties was provided for 730 elementary and 477 
high school pupils. The total expenditures for transportation to 
colored elementary schools amounted to $15,419 and to colored 
high schools to $11,886, of which amounts $1,762.50 was paid by 
the Rosenwald Fund. Caroline County received aid for 3 routes 
from the Rosenwald Fund amounting to $712.50, Kent estab- 
lished 4 routes with the aid of $640 from this Fund, and Queen 
Anne's and Calvert received contributions of $300 and $110, re- 
spectively for 1 route each. With the aid secured from the 
Rosenwald Fund, Caroline increased the number of pupils trans- 
ported from 145 in 1931 to 230 in 1932, and Calvert transported 
61 more pupils than had been transported the preceding year. 



184 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Kent which had provided no transportation at public expense for 
its colored pupils in 1931 was able to transport 62 pupils in 1932. 
The average cost to the public and Rosenwald Fund per pupil 
transported to colored elementary schools was $23, and for each 
colored high school pupil transported was $25. 

There were 4.3 per cent of all county colored pupils trans- 
ported to school at public expense in 1932, including the 71 pupils 
transported to the Bowie Normal Demonstration School, the per- 
centages for the 17 counties which provided transportation vary- 
ing considerably. (See Table 175, page 232.) 

COLORED SCHOOL LIBRARIES 
Aid from Rosenwald Fund 

In order to stimulate expenditures for libraries in colored 
schools, those in charge of the Rosenwald Fund have arranged to 
provide well chosen school libraries of 75, 105 or 155 volumes, 
the cost ($75-$120) to be shared equally by the Rosenwald Fund, 
the county, and the school. Since 1927-28 the Rosenwald Fund 
has furnished aid for libraries for 34 colored schools in 16 coun- 
ties, 2 schools receiving this aid in 1931-32. (See Table 140.) 

TABLE 140 

Names of Schools Receiving Libraries Through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



County 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Prince George's 



St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 



1931-32 
Camp Parole 



Cambridge 



1930-31 

Annapolis 
Mt. Hope 



Lincoln 

Havre de Grace 



Princess Anne 
Salisbury 



1929-30 



Chestertown 
Takoma Park 



Hollywood 
Crisfield 



1928-29 



Brown's Woods 
Prince Frederick 



Westminster 
Elkton 



Rockville 
Brentwood 
Berwyn 
Highland Park 
Abell 

Princess Anne 



Nanticoke 
Salisbury 



1927-28 



Federalsburg 



Pomonkey 

Frederick 
Bel Air 
Coleman 
Sandy Spring 
Marlboro 



East on 

St. Michaels' 

Sharptown 



Cooperation from Maryland Library Commission 

The Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission reported 
that in 1931-32 187 volumes went to 12 teachers in 11 colored 
high and elementary schools in 6 counties. This is the first year 
that the colored schools have taken advantage of this service by 
which they can supplement the limited library facilities available 
in the schools and also obtain recreational reading matter. 
Traveling libraries are collections of books which are loaned by 
the Maryland Public Library Commission for a period of four 
months at which time they may be returned and exchanged for 



Transportation ; Libraries ; Capital Outlay for Colored Schools 185 

another collection, or renewed for four more months. The books 
are selected with respect to the grades for which they are in- 
tended. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post ; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. (See Table 141.) • 



TABLE 141 

Service of Maryland Library Commission to County Colored Schools 
School Year, 1931-32 



County 


Total 
No. of 
Volunries 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Total 

Anne Arundel. . . 
Carroll 


cl87 

35 
111 

a4 
627 

al 

a9 


2 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 


3 

1 

2 


c9 


clO 


c23 


3 
al 
63 
al 
al 


4 
al 
63 
al 
al 


10 
al 
69 
al 

a2 


Charles 








Prince George's. . 
Queen Anne's . . . 





















a Colored high school. 

6 Ten volumes in four packages went to the principal of the colored high school, leaving five packages 
of 17 books which went to two teachers in two elementary schools. 

c Includes 24 volumes in 8 packages which went to four teachers in four high schools. 



For the purpose of meeting special requirements such as school 
essays, debates, or individual needs and professional reading for 
the teachers, collections of from one to ten books are loaned for 
one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access 
to a public library. 

Those borrowing books from the Maryland Public Library 
Commission, 517 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland, of 
which Miss Adelene J. Pratt is State Director, must fill out the 
necessary blanks, have them signed by three guarantors, and in- 
dicate the grades and subjects for which the books are desired. 
They must pay the transportation costs and guarantee reim- 
bursement for books defaced or lost. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY AND REIMBURSEMENT FROM 
ROSENWALD FUND 

In 1932, capital outlay for county colored schools amounted to 
$118,211, a decrease of $5,111 under the amount in 1931, but 
more than was spent in any year since 1920, with the exception 
of 1931, 1928, 1923. In the twelve-year period from 1920 to 1932, 
capital outlay totalled $1,122,414, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and 
Prince George's having made the largest investments in school 
buildings and equipment for colored children. (See Table 142.) 



186 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Capital Outlay and Rosenwald Aid for Colored Schools 



187 



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188 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Rosenwald Aid for Building 

In addition to giving aid for financing transportation and 
libraries for colored children, the chief function of the Rosen- 
wald Fund for many years has been aid in the construction of 
school buildings for negroes. Reimbursement from the Rosen- 
wald Fund amounted to $8,400 in 1932 for the building of 23 
classrooms in 3 counties. Every county in the State, except 
Garrett and Allegany, has at some time received aid from this 
Fund. Since 1919 the Rosenwald Fund has made available $114,- 
000 to stimulate the construction of 376 classrooms. (See 
Table 143.) 

HEALTH, CLEANLINESS AND NEATNESS 

National Negro Health Week 

For the third consecutive year, Kent County has won first 
place in the rural population class in the National Negro Health 
Week Campaign and has been awarded a gold seal certificate of 
special merit. Through Dr. Roscoe C. Brown, certificates of 
merit for participation in the Negro Health Week activities of 
1932 have also been awarded to Anne Arundel, Calvert and Mont- 
gomery Counties, with gold seals attached; Wetipquin, in Wico- 
mico County, with blue seal; Queenstown in Queen Anne's 
County and Silver Spring in Montgomery, with red seals. All 
of the counties to which awards were made this year have had 
similar recognition for their activities in a previous year. 

Cleanliness and Neatness Improvement Contest 

As a follow-up of Negro Health Week, a cleanliness and neat- 
ness improvement contest, held in the elementary colored schools 
in Queen Anne's County, in May, was sponsored by the State and 
County Departments of Health and the State and County De- 
partments of Education. The contest was undertaken in re- 
sponse to the offer of special awards to the schools showing the 
greatest improvement, by Dr. H. Maceo Williams, a colored 
physician of Baltimore City. 

The records kept by the teachers covered the following : 

Personal Habits of the Pupils — Face, hair, teeth, hands, dress, hand- 
kerchief. 

Exterior of the School Buildings — Playgrounds, toilets, wood pile. 
Interior — Walls, floors, desks, stove, ventilation, water buckets, per- 
sonal drinking cups and towels. 

Inspections of the schools were made at the beginning and at 
the close of the contest by the County Health Officer, Dr. J. A. 
McCallum, who reported much interest on the part of the chil- 
dren and a marked improvement in their appearance and in the 
condition of the school buildings and grounds. 



Health, Cleanliness Contest; Colored School Property Value 189 



On Dr. McCallum's recommendation, the school at Burrisville, 
which had the highest percentage of improvement, was given 
first place and those at Starr, Chester, and Corsica Neck, second, 
third and fourth places, respectively. The school at Stevensville 
was given honorable mention for its standing throughout the 
school year. The winning schools were awarded "Health Cru- 
sader" posters. 

Similar contests were held in the colored schools in Dorchester 
and St. Mary's Counties in 1931. 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED CHILDREN 

CHART 29 







VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY DI USE 
PER COLORED PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 


County- 


1930 


1931 


1932 


Co . Average 


$ 47 


1 51 




Alio cf& 


165 


170 






117 


130 




Baltimore 


114 


135 


140 ^^^^^^^^^^^B 


Wicoraico 


62 


86 


It HH^^^^H 


Frederick 


57 


58 




Montgoinery 


63 


57 




Pr. George's 


59 


59 




Carroll 


46 


39 




Harford 


49 


46 




Talbot 


42 


41 




Caroline 


25 


43 




Charles 


38 


36 




Cecil 


40 


39 




Howard 


30 


29 




Anne Arundel 


39 


37 




Calvert 


23 


27 




Queen Anne's 


21 


20 




V/orcester 


24 


25 




Dorchester 


26 


26 




Somerset 


18 


22 




St. Mary's 


19 


20 




Kent 


22 


22 












Balto. City 


197 


208 


217 I 








Total State 


114 


122 













For value of school property, see Table 180, page 238, 



190 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



School property used by colored pupils during 1931-32 was 
valued at $1,389,710 in the counties and $5,170,546 in Baltimore 
City, the total valuation of colored school property in the State 
amounting to $6,560,256. All except 4 counties showed increases 
in valuation of school property over that reported in 1931, the 
most marked increases being found in Charles, Frederick, and 
Montgomery. (See Table 180, page 238.) 

The value of school property per colored pupil belonging in 
1932 was $52 in the counties, $217 in Baltimore City, and $129 
for the State as a whole. Value of property per colored pupil 
in the counties ranged from $19 in Kent to $140 or more in 3 
counties. The per pupil value remained the same as in 1931 or 
increased in all but 4 counties, which showed slight decreases 
in valuation. (See Chart 29.) 

SIZE OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

There were 499 colored elementary schools in the Maryland 
counties in 1931-32, of which 345 had one teacher, 115 had two 
teachers, and 39 had three or more teachers. The largest ele- 
mentary school in the counties was one of 12 teachers located in 
Anne Arundel. Allegany County had only 2 colored elementary 
schools, while Prince George's had 44. (See Table 144.) 

TABLE 144 



Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


1 St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester || 


Total . . 


499 


2 


40 


28 


19 


17 


11 


10 


33 


41 


21 


18 


14 


24 


32 


44 


17 


27 


29 


22 


6 


19 


25 


1 or lees 
1.1-2 
2.1-3 


345 
115 

25 


1 


20 
17 
2 


16 
8 


14 
4 
1 


13 
1 

3 


9 
2 


6 
4 


26 
5 
2 


38 
2 
1 


14 

5 
2 


14 

3 


11 

2 
1 


21 
2 
1 


23 
7 
2 


21 
20 
2 


14 

3 


19 
8 


15 
11 
1 


16 
3 
2 


5 


12 
4 
1 


17 
4 
4 


3.1-4 


4 






i 












i 














1 




4.1- 6 


5 






3 




























2 








5.1- 6 


2 


1 




























1 
















6.1- 7 


1 




































1 






7.1-8 














































8.1- 9 


1 










































1 




11.1-12 


1 




1 




















































1 































Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 

Of 727 teachers employed in colored elementary schools in 
1932, 344 gave instruction in one-teacher schools. This number 
comprised 47.3 per cent of the total teaching staff, a reduction of 
.4 per cent under the corresponding figure for 1931. The num- 
ber of colored elementary teachers employed in one-teacher 
schools is 78 less than in 1920. (See Table 145.) 



Colored School Property Value; Size of Colored El. Schools 191 

TABLE 145 



Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1932-1920 





Colored Elementary Teachers 


^chool 1 ear Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


Per Cent 




727 


344 


47.3 




739 


353 


47.7 


1930 


733 


363 


49.5 




734 


372 


50.7 


1928 


734 


378 


51.5 


1927 


725 


382 


52.7 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1924 


728 


395 


54.4 


1923 


712 


403 


56.6 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1920 


683 


422 


61.8 



In the individual counties the number and proportion of teach- 
ers employed in one-teacher schools varied from 1, or 14.3 per 
cent, in Allegany, to 37, or 82.2 per cent in Dorchester. Seven 
counties had from 1 to 4 fewer teachers employed in one-teacher 
schools in 1932 than in the previous year. (See Table 146.) 



TABLE 146 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary Schools 
in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County Number 

Total and Average 344 

Allegany 1 

Prince George's 21 

Anne Arundel 21 

Somerset 15 

Baltimore 16 

Wicomico 12 

Cecil 6 

Washington 5 

Frederick 13 

Worcester 17 



Per Cent 
47.3 



14.3 
28.9 
29.6 
30.0 
31.4 
33.3 
42.9 
43.1 
44.2 
45.9 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County 



Number 



Per Cent 



Talbot 16 

Montgomery 23 

Caroline 13 

St. Mar>-'s 19 

Calvert 14 

Harford 14 

Howard 11 

Charles 26 

Carroll 9 

Queen Anne's 14 

Kent 21 

Dorchester 37 



50.0 
53 5 
54.2 
54.3 
58.1 
59.6 
61.1 
61.9 
69.2 
70.0 
75.0 
82.2 



Staff and Enrollment in Colored High Schools 

The 26 county colored high schools in Maryland employed 
from 1 to 7 teachers, and enrolled from 25 to 225 pupils. The 



192 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



largest high school in the State at Annapolis employed 7.2 teach- 
ers for 203 pupils. The high school at Salisbury enrolled 182 
pupils for whom 7 teachers were employed, and the third largest 
high school in Maryland located at Denton had an enrollment of 
172 pupils, with 6.7 teachers. (See Table 147.) 



TABLE 147 

Size of Teaching StaflF and Size of Enrollment in Colored High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



No. of 


























>> 


_0Q 
bC 














Teachers 


Total 




T3 
C 






















t> 

o 


c 






c 

o 






Average 


Number 
High 


>> 
c 


Aru 




G 








leste 


rick 


T3 




itgom( 


O 


c 

<; 


02 




U) 

_c 


o 
u 

S 


ceeter 


No. 


Schools 


c3 
bC 






"o 


"o 
u 






"o 




3 




O 


c 

OJ 


V 


o 


IS 


o 


Belonging 






Ann 






u 

S3 


'o 


a 


b. 

o 


-2 




c 


o 


'C 


OJ 
3 


s 

o 






o 


o 






< 


O 


o 


O 




O 


Q 




K 












H 









SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF 



All Schools . . 


26 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1* 


2 
7 
6 
6 
2 




























1 










1 

2 


2 






1 




1 


1 






















i 


3 


1 










1 






1 
1 
1 




2 


4 












1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






5 


















1 








6 




































7 


3 




1 




1 




























1 

































SIZE OF ENROLLMENT 



25 


5 

7 
3 
5 










1 






























26- 40 










1 








1 








1 




1 


1 






41- 50 


























1 

2 


51- 75 


1 




1 




















1 
1 
1 




1 






1 


76-100 












1 








1 




101-125 














1 






1 


1 




1 








126-150 




























151-175 


? 

1 








1 








1 
























176-200 
































1 




201-225 




1 





































































* Mid point of interval. 



For average number of pupils belonging ner teacher in colored 
high schools, see Table XV, page 293, and Table XXXV, page 313. 



THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 

During the year 1931-32, there were 5,751 colored boys and 
6,447 colored girls from the Maryland counties who entered the 
preliminary and final badge tests under the auspices of the Play- 
ground Athletic League. Of this number 17 per cent of the 
boys and 34 per cent of the girls successfully met the require- 
ments for bronze, silver, gold, or super-gold badges. In only 5 
counties did fewer boys enter the contests in 1932 than in 1931, 



Size of Colored High Schools ; Physical Ed. for the Colored 19b 



but Howard was the only county in which more boys won badges 
than in the preceding year. Corresponding figures for girls 
show increases in the number of entries in all but 8 counties, but 
increases in the number of winners in only 9 counties. (See 
Table 148 and Table XX, page 298.) 



TABLE 148 



Number of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests in 1931 and 1932 





BOYS 


GIRLS 


COUNTY 


1932 


1931 


1932 


1931 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Total 


5,751 


965 


5,293 


1,610 


6,447 


2,220 


5,944 


2,030 


Anne Arujidel 


553 


211 


485 


161 


637 


229 


584 


182 


Baltimore 


371 


89 


368 


106 


425 


124 


430 


164 


Calvert 


143 


18 


169 


45 


191 


76 


219 


79 




293 


15 


288 


111 


317 


120 


336 


122 




132 


25 


110 


45 


121 


61 


103 


44 


Cecil 


105 


9 


107 


22 


128 


32 


134 


36 


Charles 


384 


18 


358 


80 


448 


112 


392 


120 


Dorchester 


301 


60 


263 


109 


335 


132 


294 


84 




341 


21 


291 


83 


361 


68 


309 


73 


Harford 


258 


29 


229 


72 


220 


33 


230 


77 


Howard 


107 


13 


98 




118 


51 


126 




Kent 


172 


46 


161 


61 


208 


102 


201 


103 


Montgomery 


465 


55 


478 


174 


467 


127 


439 


156 


Prince George's 


594 


110 


576 


150 


645 


219 


605 


197 


Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 


181 


14 


179 


56 


197 


53 


218 


67 


197 


6 


215 


65 


223 


48 


228 


108 


Somerset 


197 


58 


207 


61 


342 


156 


219 


90 


Talbot 


196 


37 


163 


41 


217 


124 


175 


88 




486 


90 


369 


126 


531 


214 


480 


142 




275 


41 


179 


42 


316 


139 


222 


98 



Allegany and Washington were the only counties which did not 
have entrants from their colored schools in the State-wide ath- 



TABLE 149 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Schools Which Had Entrants in 
County Meets During Years 1931 and 1932 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 



County Number Per Cent 

1932 1931 1932 1931 

Total and Average . 487 496 92.8 92.9 

Caroline 18 18 100.0 100.0 

Carroll 12 12 100.0 100.0 

Harford 19 18 100.0 94.7 

Howard 14 14 100.0 93.3 

Kent 25 23 100.0 92.0 

Queen Anne's 18 18 100 .0 100 .0 

St. Mary's 27 27 100.0 100.0 

Talbot 24 23 100.0 95.8 

Wicomico 21 21 100.0 100.0 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 



County Number Per Cent 





1932 


1931 


1932 


1931 


Anne Arundel . . . 


40 


41 


97 


8 


100 





Charles 


33 


33 


97 


1 


97 


1 


Worcester 


27 


26 


96 


4 


92 


9 


Prince George's. 


45 


43 


95 


7 


91 


5 


Frederick 


21 


19 


95 


5 


86 


4 


Cecil 


10 


12 


90 


9 


92 


3 


Montgomery. . . . 


30 


33 


90 


9 


94 


3 


Dorchester 


38 


41 


90 


5 


95 


3 


Calvert 


18 


21 


90 





100 





Somerset 


25 


28 


80 


6 


90 


3 


Baltimore 


22 


25 


78 


6 


73 


3 



194 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



letic meets in 1931-32. The entrants participated in track and 
field events, dodge, speed and volley ball, and run-and-catch and 
flag relays. The meets included entrants from 487 colored 
schools. Every school in 10 counties was represented at the 
meets and in only 2 counties did fewer than 90 per cent of the 
schools participate in the events. (See Table 149 and Table 
XXI, page 299.) 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 



CHART 30 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIOMS IN COUIJTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1931 and 1952 

County Number 

1931 1932 

Total and 
Co. Average 573 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Q, Anne's 

A, Arundel 

Harford 

St. Mary's 

Pr. Geo. 

Somerset 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Kent 

Wicomico 
Talbot 
Dorchester 
Cecil 
Howard 
Worcester 
Carroll 
Allegany 
Frederick 
Calvert 
Washington 




Colored P. T. A.'s; Financing School Organizations; Supervision 195 

There were 385 parent-teacher associations organized in 76.7 
per cent of the county colored schools in 1932. Baltimore, Caro- 
line, and Queen Anne's had parent-teacher associations in every- 
one of their colored schools, and Washington was the only county 
in which not one parent-teacher association had been established. 
(See Chart 30.) 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM FUNDS FROM 
SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONS 

For the 6 counties which sent in reports on extra-curricular 
activities in the colored schools, the total gross receipts amounted 
to $9,619. Expenses for the various activities totalled $1,132, 
leaving $8,487 in net receipts to be spent for school purposes. 
Parties and dances given by organizations in the schools, sales, 
and plays, etc., furnished the chief sources of receipts. (See 
Tables 150 and 151.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 
The State Supervisor of Colored Schools is responsible for the 
supervision of all the county colored schools. He spends most 
of his time in the field visiting schools with the county super- 
visors of colored schools, and working with the high school prin- 
cipals and teachers. The Supervisor of Colored Schools has con- 
tinued his practice of former years of keeping in contact with 
the graduating classes of Cheyney, Hampton, and Miner Normal 
School, from which schools a large percentage of our inexperi- 
enced teachers are graduates. He visited the Bowie Normal 
School a number of times during the school year to study in de- 
tail the practice teaching and to offer suggestions for improving 
the instruction, based on noting elements of strength or weak- 
ness displayed by Bowie graduates in actual school situations. 
Much of his time at the office is spent in interviewing prospective 
county teachers, in order to make desirable nominations of col- 
ored teachers to the county superintendents. The major portion 
of the salary and traveling expenses of the State Supervisor of 
Colored Schools is paid by the General Education Board. 

Each of 16 counties received $750 from the State as reim- 
bursement toward the salary of a full time colored supervisor. 
Five of the supervisors employed were women and 11 were men. 
In 7 counties, the supervisors devoted some time to instruction 
in home economics or manual training in the high school. The 
attendance officers in Cecil, Howard, and Somerset Counties spent 
part of their time in supervising the colored schools, and the As- 
sistant Superintendent of Schools in Baltimore County had the 
supervision of the colored schools as part of his duties. In Al- 
legany and Washington, whatever supervision the colored schools 
had was given by the white elementary school supervisors and 
the county superintendent. 



196 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 





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Receipts and Expenditures of Other than County Funds 



197 



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198 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



In addition to visits to each supervisor and conferences with 
the high school principals and teachers individually and in groups 
in their own counties, the State Supervisor of Colored Schools 
early in the school year held a meeting at which all the super- 
visors were present, and another for all of the high school prin- 
cipals and teachers, for the purpose of setting up plans for the 
year. 

BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 

The Enrollment 

During the school year 1931-32 there were 112 students en- 
rolled at the Bowie Normal School. The normal school principal 
accompanied by the girls' quartette, which gave short musical 
programs, spoke to the graduating classes and to the assemblies 
in every county colored high school during 1931-32 to encourage 
the enrollment at the normal school of graduates having good 
scholarship standing, character, and personality. The high school 
principal, teachers, and county supervisor took an interest in fol- 
lowing up those who evinced a desire to enroll at Bowie. As a 
result, in the fall of 1932 the enrollment was 121, of whom 70 
were juniors and 51 seniors. (See Table 152.) 

TABLE 152 

Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie Normal School 



Enrollment Summer 

Year Total Juniors Seniors Graduates School 

Fall of 1932 121 70 51 

1932 112 56 56 54 

1931 113 59 54 41 

1930 119 46 73 56 

1929 128 76 52 46 36 

1928 *109 55 54 50 53 

1927 *80 58 22 22 81 

1926 *36 24 12 12 80 

1925 *26 16 10 10 103 

1924 *11 11 .. 67 



* Excludes high school enrollment. 

A careful study of the high school standing of the entrants 
for 1932 shows improvement in the personality and scholarship 
rating. The per cent of students who entered with full stand- 
ing, which means that they met the requirement of an average 
of **B" in the last two years of their high school work, increased 
from 25 in 1931 to 28 in 1932. 

The distribution of the juniors, according to the ranking of 
principals, shows 33 per cent in the upper third, 54 per cent in 
the middle third, and 13 per cent in the lower third of their high 
school classes. These percentages are an improvement over cor- 
responding figures for the year preceding in that 10 per cent 



Supervision; Bowie Normal School 



199 



fewer are found in the lower third of the class and 10 per cent 
more in the middle third. 

The Graduates 

Of the 54 graduates of Bowie in 1932, 48 are teaching in the 
counties of Maryland, 30 of these having positions in their home 
counties. (See Table 153.) 



TABLE 153 

Home and Teaching County of Bowie Graduates of 1932 



County 



Home 
County 



Total 54 



Teaching 
County 

48 



Anne Arundel 13 6 

Baltimore 1 

Calvert 1 1 

Caroline h4i a 4 

Carroll 61 

Cecil 2 1 

Charles 5 c6 

Dorchester 2 2 

Frederick hS 2 

Harford 2 1 

o Includes one from Anne Arundel. 
b Includes one from Cecil. 
c Includes one from Baltimore City. 
d Includes one from Harford. 



Countj- 



Home 
County 



Teaching 
County 

aadS 
el 
1 
1 



Howard 

Kent h2 

Prince George's h2 

Queen Anne's 1 

Somerset hi 

St. Mary's 2 ceeo 

Talbot 3 aeo 

Washington hi 

Wicomico 1 a/3 

Worcester 1 cm ego 

Baltimore City 2 

e Includes one from Frederick. 

/ Includes one from Kent. 

g Includes one from Baltimore County. 

h One not appointed. 



The Faculty and Practice Centers 

In the fall of 1932 the professional staff of the normal school 
included 15 persons, — the principal, 7 instructors, 2 teachers in 
the demonstration school, a librarian, a secretary registrar, a 
stenographer, a house manager who gives instruction in in- 
dustrial arts, and a nurse-housekeeper. Nine cooperative prac- 
tice centers are in use in three two-teacher and three one-teacher 
schools. Each normal school student is given 160 clock hours of 
practice teaching during the two-year course. 

Expenditures and Cost per Student 

The current expenses of the Bowie Normal School for 1931-32 
aggregated $47,790, of which $25,269 was used for instruction, 
and $22,521 for the dormitory. From the original appropria- 
tion of $56,089, there was turned back to the State $7,490. This 
saving was made possible by careful scrutiny of every requisition 
and the purchase of only those supplies which were absolutely 
necessary. 

The total instruction cost per student was $261, $6 of which 
was paid by each student, and the remaining $255 by the State. 
Of the average enrollment of 97 students, all but 3 lived in the 
dormitory. The total dormitory expense per pupil amounted to 



200 1932 Report of State Department op Education 

$240, an average payment of $139 being received from each 
student, leaving the cost to the State $101. The combined cost to 
the State for instruction and dormitory per student amounted to 
$356. This was a reduction of $97 under the cost per pupil in 
1931, almost equally divided between instruction and dormitory 
cost. (See Table 154.) 

TABLE 154 

Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School, 1931-32 

Instruction Dormitory 

EXPENDITURES 

Administration 

Salaries $ 2,100.00 $ 1,577.08 

Other than Salaries 427 . 57 451 . 21 

Instruction 

Salaries 15,287.84 

Other than Salaries 2 , 649 . 37 

Operation and ^Maintenance 

Salaries and Wages 1 , 568 . 12 *6 , 747 . 40 

Other than Salaries 3 . 236 . 27 t5 , 537 . 30 

Food 18,208.02 

Totals $25,269.17 $22,521.01 

RECEIPTS 

From Students for 

Board and Lodging $10 , 513 . 69 

Value of Service Rendered 842.91 

Laundry, Breakage Fees 1 , 031 . 72 

Health, Dental, Medical Service 334 . 07 

Athletic Fees 216.00 

Uniforms 310.00 

Registration and Activnties 351.31 

Total Receipts from Students $ 567.31 $13,032.39 

i'otal Cost to State $24 , 701 . 86 $ 9 , 488 . 62 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students 97 94 

Average Total Cost per Student $ 260.51 $ 239.59 

Average Payment per Student 5.85 138.64 

Average Cost to State per Student 254 . 66 100 . 94 

Total Cost to State per Student $355 . 60 

* Includes $842.91 for allowances to students for work rendered. 

t Excludes $810.07 deducted for food and materials paid for by students. 

Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie Normal School property as of Sep- 
tember 30, 1932, totalling $201,641, was distributed as follows: 
Land, $9,440; buildings, $147,677; live-stock, $140; campus im- 
provement, $1,911 ; equipment, $42,473. 

FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 
During 1931-32 there were 24 men and 100 women enrolled 
in Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in Baltimore 
City. The average net roll of 110 was a decrease of 23 students 
under that of 1931. The faculty included the principal, 4 as- 
sistants, and a clerk. The current expenses for the school 
amounted to $17,606, making the average instruction cost per 
student $160. 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND COUNTIES* 



The director of the Playground Athletic Leagrie, acting as 
State Supervisor of Physical Education, plans and cooperates 
with the State Department of Education and county superin- 
tendents of schools in carrying out the program for physical 
education in the counties of Maryland. One of the outstanding 
characteristics of the Maryland plan is the large proportion of 
pupils above grade 3 who participate in the physical education 
program. 

TABLE 155 

Participation in County Meets for White Boys and Girls, 1932 



COUNTY 



Badge 
Tests 



Boys 



Girls 



Games 



Track and 
Field 



Boys 



Girls 



Bovs 



Girls 



Totals 



Allegany 

Rural 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

IVIontgomery . . . 
Prince George's 

Rural. . . . . 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total, 1932 



,218 
184 
856 
949 
103 
373 
582 
331 
227 
465 
989 
291 
472 
267 
239 
784 
822 



271 
189 
199 
342 
915 
593 
225 



1,406 
228 
1,209 
2,527 
259 
688 
946 
683 
430 
649i 
1.403 
427 
744 
420 
377 
1,166 
1,171 



11.886 



424 
296 
401 
547 
981 
903i 
377| 



520 
128 
438 
911 
126 
217 
592 
334 
209 
250 
518 
224 
399 
189 
215 
526 
488, 
177 
217 
152 
186 
221 
437i 
262, 
191! 



424 
121 
320 
749 
134 
235 
497 
331 
183 
241 
444 
190 
381 
182 
201 



626 
157 
621 

7io: 

126' 
276j 
4471 
3331 
252 
270i 

323; 

246| 
315! 
263| 
209 



559;tl.049j 
3881 412| 
182: 98 
206| 



179 
200 

233; 
3671 
299 
209 



217: 
213: 
2011 
223' 
472 
266 
207' 



18.662 



8.127 



864 
243 
627 
1 . 104 

199 
394 
749' 
349; 
399: 
382' 
465i 
314 
405 
265 
237 
t840! 
550 
261' 
295 
2461 
245' 
293: 
435 
429 
304 



5,058 
1,061 
4,071 
6,950 

947 
2.183 
3,813 
2.361 
1.700 
2.257 
4.142 
1.692 
2.716 
1.586 
1.478 
4.924 
3.831 

718 
1 . 630 
1.275 
1 . 432 
1.859 
3.607 
2.752 
1.513 



7.455 8.532 10.894^65.556 



Tome Institute 

Towson Normal School. 



45 
391 



CONSOLATION DODGE 

Anne Arundel 70 130 

Baltimore 120 240 

Frederick 80 140 

Washington 90 100 

* Data furnished by Dr. William Burdick, State Supervisor of Physical Education and 
Director of the Playground Athletic League, 

201 



202 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Participation in Spring County Meets 

In 1932 there were 65,556 individual participations in the 
badge tests, games, track and field events which are scheduled 
in connection with every spring county meet. This was an in- 
crease of 4,752 over the corresponding number in 1931. These 
figures represent gross participation and include duplicates, since 
any one individual who was included for a badge test may also 
have appeared and been counted for one game, one track, and one 
field event. All of the counties except four had a greater num- 
ber of individual participations in 1932 than for the preceding 
year. (See Table 155.) 

Although the number of white schools which entered pupils 
for events at the county meets decreased from 1,017 in 1931 to 
961 in 1932, the percentage of schools which entered pupils in- 
creased from 81.4 to 83.8. This apparent discrepancy between 
number and per cent is explained by the decrease in the total 
number of county schools due to consolidation. Five counties 
had entries from every white school, and fifteen counties had 
entries from over 90 per cent of the white schools. All except 
eight of the counties had a higher percentage of schools which 
participated in 1932 than in 1931. (See Table 156.) 

TABLE 156 

Number and Per Cent of County Schools for White Pupils Which Had Entries in 
County Meets During the School Years 1931-32 and 1930-31 

SCHOOLS ENTERED SCHOOLS ENTERED 

County Number Per Cent County Number Per Cent 





1932 


1931 


1932 


1931 




1932 


1931 


1932 


1931 


Total and Average 


961 


1,017 


83.8 


81.4 


Anne Arundel 


35 


34 


94.6 


91.9 












30 


31 


93.8 


93.9 


Calvert 


19 


24 


100.0 


100.0 




55 


68 


93.2 


97.1 


Cecil 


54 


51 


100.0 


91.1 




66 


65 


93.0 


86.7 




16 


17 


100.0 


100.0 




24 


27 


88.9 


96.4 


Talbot 


22 


24 


100.0 


100.0 


Kent 


26 


32 


86.7 


94.1 


Wicomico 


48 


54 


100.0 


98.2 


Baltimore 


76 


79 


84.4 


83.2 


Queen Anne's .... 


28 


31 


96.6 


100.0 




65 


67 


82.3 


80.7 


St. Mary's 


25 


26 


96.2 


92.9 


Harford 


47 


53 


77.0 


77.9 


Carroll 


67 


85 


95.7 


98.8 


Worcester 


24 


24 


75.0 


64.9 


Dorchester 


44 


44 


95.7 


93.6 




59 


55 


59.0 


53.4 




62 


66 


95.4 


95.7 


Garrett 


32 


23 


33.7 


20.9 




37 


37 


94.9 


94.9 













In most of the counties the superintendents attend the meets 
to show their interest and to encourage participation in the meets. 
It gives the superintendents an opportunity to meet large num- 
bers of parents of the children who attend their schools. 

Badge Tests 

The county schools enrolled 43,450 white boys above grade 3. 
Of these boys 17,623, or 41 per cent, in the opinion of their 
teachers successfully passed the badge tests on their school 



Spring County Meets; Badge Tests 



203 



grounds, which permitted them to enroll for the badge tests at 
the meet. According to Table 155, page 201, there were 11,886 
boys who were counted at the meets as entering the badge tests, 
two-thirds of those who had passed them at their schools, and 
of these 4,691 won their badges. Of those who entered the meet, 
therefore, 40 per cent won their badges, although the percent- 
age of the county enrollment of boys above grade 3 which won 
badges was only 10.8 per cent. (See Chart 31 and Table XVII, 
page 295.) 

The badge tests on the school premises attracted over one- 
half of the boys enrolled above grade 3 in eight counties while 
at the opposite extreme less than one-third of the boys in three 
counties tried them. Baltimore County which carries on a regu- 
lar physical education program throughout the year does not 
have the same need as other counties for concentrating on the 
badge test program in the spring. (See Chart 31 and Table 
XVII, page 295.) 

The badge tests are different for boys and girls, since it is the 
policy of the physical education leaders in Maryland to plan 
activities adapted to the special physique and interests of the 
two sexes. Of the 43,779 girls above grade 3 enrolled in the 
county public schools, 24,020 or 55 per cent tried out the badge 
tests for girls at their schools. According to Table 155 at the 
county meets 18,662 of these girls who had passed or 78 per 
cent entered for the badge tests, and of these 8,694 or 54.9 per 
cent won their badges. The percentage of the county enrollment 
of girls above grade 3 which won badges was 19.9. (See Chart 
32 and Table XVII, page 295.) 

In seven counties three-fourths or more of the girls above 
grade 3 tried out and passed the tests for badges at their schools 
and in only three counties was the percentage who successfully 
passed the tests at their schools less than 50 per cent. (See 
Chart 32 and Table XVII, page 295.) 

The emphasis in the badge tests is on individual attainment 
of physical skills. This is desired before pupils are permitted 
to enter the group activities of the physical education program. 
The games and track and field events set up opportunities for co- 
operation of individuals when they work together on teams as 
representatives of schools or groups with which they are identi- 
fied. It is this phase of the physical education program that 
develops fine character exhibited in good behavior and self 
control. 

Team Games 

There were 31,081 white boys and girls entered on 2,142 teams 
in the State-wide athletic program of games. Circle dodge ball 



204 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 
CHART 31 



PER CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLET BADGE TESTS, 1932, BASED ON 1931-32 ENROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



County 



Number 
Ehrolled 
Total and 
Average 45,450 



St. M. 
Dorch. 
Q. A. 

Caroline 
Hovfard 
Carroll 
Kent 
Calvert 
A. A. 
Charles 
Talbot 
Wicomico 
Fred. 
Pr. Geo. 
Mont. 
CecU 
Somerset 
Worcester 1,012- 
Harford 1,670 
Allegany 5,067 
Wash. 4,236 
Garrett 1,673 
Balto. 6,4^9 



Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Howard 



417 
1,194 
666 
984 
753 
2,042 
656 
302 
2,404 
652 
876 
1,562 
3,106 
2,908 
2,541 
1,453 
947 



Per Cent 



Number 
filtered Won 

17,623 4,691 



Won 



altered 



40.6 



288 
729 
386 
551 
420 
1,059 
338 
152 
1,196 
322 
418 
744 
1,380 
1,288 
1,120 
605 
375 
384 
627 
1,760 
1,314 



21 
746 
121 



83 
131 

71 
144 
136 
322 

74 

44 
206 

73 
148 
172 
343 
246 
442 
130 
106 

104 IEEE 

232 



69.1 



11.0 


61.1 


10.7 


68.0 1 


14.6 1 


56.0 1 


17.9 


1 55.8 1 


15.fi 


51.9 1 


n,, 


1 51.5 1 


1 146 1 


56.3 1 


Km 49.8 1 




1 49.4 1 




1 47.7 1 




■m 44.4 1 


EBL 44..^ 1 


1 17.4 ____ 


1 44.1 1 


m 41,6 i 




39.6 1 




L. INDOOR MEET 



4 
197 
3 



See Table XVII, page 295. 



outranked all other games in popularity, having had 11,196 boys 
and girls as entrants on 812 teams. Of these teams 179 were 
mixed. Speed ball, hov^ever, showed greater gains than any 
other game reported, the number of teams and boys entered 
having increased by nearly two-thirds. There were 7,028 en- 



Badge Tests; Team Games 
CHART 32 



205 



PER CENT OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARY AKD FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1932, BASED ON 1931-32 EimOLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



Nijmber 
Enrolled 
Total and 
Average 43,779 



St. M. 

Howard 
Calvert 
Q. A. 
Charles 
Kent 
Talbot 
Dorch. 
Wicomico 
Caroline 
Cecil 
A. A. 
Fred. 
Carroll 
Pr. Geo. 
Somerset 
Mont. 
Balto. 
Harford 
Worcester 914 
Allegan7 5,074 
Garrett 1,478 
Wash. 4,366 



414 
699 
375 
702 
626 
694 
904 
1,261 
1,736 
1,056 
1,405 
2,656 
5,078 
2,059 
2,877 
988 
2,541 
6,286 
1,752 



Niunber 
filtered 

24,020 

542 

560 

500 

548 

486 

522 

678 

875 
1,176 

701 

862 
1,545 
1,797 
1,200 
1,618 

555 
1,406 
5,383 

901 

474 
1,971 

564 
1,558 



93 
181 
118 
175 
216 
167 
187 
258 
455 
525 
500 
598 
759 
509 
602 
181 
509 
1,422 
267 
115 
633 
142 
530 



Per Cent 



Won 



Entered 




82.6 



80.1 



80.0 



78.0 



77.6 



75.2 



75.0 



30.5 M 


69.4 1 


■SSI 


31.2 


67.7 1 



21.4 


1 61.4 1 


■KSm 60.9 


24.0 


58.4 1 


24.7 


58.3 1 


20.9 


1 56.2 1 


18.3 1 


56.0 1 


20.0 


55.3 1 


^^SH 53.8 




52.0 1 



51.9 



58.8 I 
38.2 \ 
55.7 I 



See Table XVII, page 295. 

trants on 491 speed ball teams. Soccer, baseball and boys' bas- 
ketball showed little change in status for the counties as a whole 
from the preceding year. Every county except Carroll had soc- 
cer teams, representing a total of 123 high schools. Each county 
winner played the neighboring winner, until the Western Shore 
series was won by Glen Bumie of Anne Arundel County, which 
was the winner over Chesapeake City of Cecil County, the cham- 
pion team of the Eastern Shore. All counties, except Carroll, 



206 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Baltimore, Frederick, and Garrett, participated in the baseball 
tournament sponsored by the Evening Sun. All counties, except 
Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, St. Mary's, and Queen Anne's, 
had at least one boys' basketball team. The need for indoor 
gymnasiums probably prevented the playing of basketball in the 
counties which had no basketball teams. (See Table XVIII, 
page 296.) 

Outside of dodge ball, the girls showed the greatest support of 
and interest in volley ball, hit ball, field ball, touchdown pass and 
basketball, in the order named. Every county except Carroll and 
Montgomery had field ball teams at the fourth State-wide tourna- 
ment, in which 2,310 girls from 113 high schools participated. 
Basketball was played by girls in fifteen counties. Since an in- 
door gymnasium is required for practice during the winter 
months, basketball is, of course, limited to the localities having 
the necessary facilities. (See Table 157, and Table XVIII, 
page 296.) 

TABLE 157 



Number of County High Schools from which Girls Entered Games, Relavs, 
Carnivals and Badge Tests, Year Ending June 30, 1932 





Ball Games 


Relays 




Badge 


Tests 












cn 
m 




















COUNTY 








f2 




o 

o3 














o 










own 




O 
73 


<u 












c « 












>> 


C 
03 


'o 

(S 


> 


N 






O 


II 






"a; 




3 

O 




fl 
3 


-1-3 




c 
o 

u 






a; 
a 

3 






m 




K 


H 


> 




O 


6 


« 




O 


CK 




Total Counties 


54 


113 


114 


75 


128 


123 


86 


18 


134 


140 


139 


134 


*141 


Allegany 


7 


6 


5 


3 


8 


7 


4 


. . . . 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 






3 


3 


2 


3 
6 


4 


2 




4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Baltimore 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


8 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


Calvert 


2 


3 


2 




3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 








5 


• • "4 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Carroll 






10 


10 


11 


11 


8 




10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


Cecil 




8 


7 


3 


8 


7 


4 




8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


Charles 




5 


3 


3 


5 


4 


4 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




3 


4 


4 


2 


6 


6 


5 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 




6 


7 


7 


3 


5 


6 


3 




7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


Garrett 


3 


6 


5 


3 


5 


6 


3 




6 


6 


6 


5 


6 






8 


7 


4 


8 


7 


2 




8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




2 


5 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




1 


3 


3 


2 


4 


4 


2 




4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Montgomery 


7 




8 




6 


6 


7 




5 


8 


9 


9 


9 


Prince George's 


2 


9 


7 


5 


10 


6 


6 




10 


10 


9 


7 


10 






5 


5 


3 


5 


5 


4 




4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


St. Mary's 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3 




4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


Talbot 


5 


6 


5 


2 


6 


6 


3 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Washington 


4 


6 


4 


4 


5 


4 


2 




5 


6 


6 


6 


6 




1 


7 


5 


4 


4 


5 


3 




7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


Worcester 


3 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


3 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 



* Excludes Junior High and One- Year High Schools. 



Physical Education Activities 



207 



Track, Field and Relay Events 

In addition to team games, the P. A. L. program includes run- 
ning and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, 
broad jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who 
make up a team which brings success to the school or county 
represented. In Maryland the number of events in which any 
one participant may enter is limited to one running event for 
girls and one running and one field event for boys. It is thus 
impossible for a few good athletes to win the track meet for their 
school. All children who have attained even average ability in 
the events are needed to bring final success to their own schools. 
(See Tables XVIII and XIX, pages 296 to 297.) 

From Table 157 it will be seen that the majority of the high 
schools had girls represented in the team games and relays. 
Space for playing basketball and holding carnivals was not avail- 
able in all of the counties. 

Girls' Winter Carnivals 

Besides these tournaments and athletic meets a girls' carnival 
was held in the State Armory at Salisbury in Wicomico County. 
There were 1,181 entrants. In addition, 4,785 girls representing 
Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Howard Counties and Baltimore 
City took part in the Winter Carnival at the Fifth Regiment 
Armory at Baltimore. (See Table 157.) 

The Spring Athletic Meets 

The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field events 
took place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The 
winners of the county meets came to Baltimore to compete for 
the State-wide championships. The girls were entertained at 
the State Normal School at Towson and a majority of the boys 
were cared for in the homes of members of the City Parent- 
Teachers' Associations. The Y. M. C. A. took care of the boys 
not assigned to homes. The county winning the greatest number 
of points was awarded the Sun trophy. In 1932 this award went 
to Baltimore County. The dodgeball championship was won by 
Allegany County athletes from Greene Street Junior High 
School, Cumberland, and the championship in volley ball was 
won by Montgomery County representatives from Bethesda- 
Chevy Chase Senior-Junior High. 

Medical Inspection of High School Pupils 

The two physicians of the Playground Athletic League exam- 
ined 6,367 white high school boys and girls in five counties, and 
107 colored boys and girls in Montgomery County. They found 
9 per cent of the white boys and 11 per cent of the white girls 
examined without physical defects. Pupils and parents of pupils 
with defects were advised to have them corrected by their reg- 
ular family physicians. (See Table 158.) 



208 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 158 

Boys and Girls in Five Counties Examined by Physicians of Playground Athletic 
League, Found Defective and Not Defective, 1931-32 



COUNTY 


Number 
Examined 


Number 
Defective 


Not Defective 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


3,176 


3,191 


2,892 


2,853 


284 


338 


8.9 


10.6 


White 


Cecil 

Montgomery 

St. Mary's 


1,895 
79 

1.028 
17 
103 


1,785 
83 

1,103 
25 
142 


1,724 
75 
925 
16 
100 


1,542 
81 

1,022 
25 
133 


171 
4 

103 
1 

3 


243 
2 
81 


9 


9.0 
5.1 
10.0 
5.9 
2.9 


13.6 
2.4 
7.3 
0.0 
6.3 


Colored 


Montgomery 


54 


53 


52 


50 


2 


3 


3.7 


5.7 



Most children are not interested in health unless their parents 
stimulate them to acquire health habits, or unless lack of health 
interferes with what the children want to do. Interest in health 
does not naturally come until adolescence. The physical educa- 
tion program stresses physical fitness or readiness for activity. 

Expenditures by P. A. L. for the 23 Counties as a Group 

The administration and direction of school athletics in Mary- 
land counties during the fiscal year October 1, 1931, to September 
30, 1932, required a total expenditure of approximately $23,227. 



TABLE 159 

Expenditures of Playground Athletic League for County Work 
October 1, 1931, to September 30, 1932 

Salaries $ 8,150.42 

Wages 2,452.56 

Printing- 430.96 

Postage _ 204.63 

Telephone „ 253.67 

Auto 718.85 

Supplies 636.59 

Repairs 14.85 

Awards _ 4,441.99 

Travelling 4,024.32 

Miscellaneous 898.25 

$22,227.09 

Research 1,000.35 



$23,227.44 



Physical Exams.; Financing Physical Education in the Counties 209 



Towards this the Playground Athletic League received $15,000, 
from the State through the State Public School Budget and the 
remainder from the Board of State Aid and Charities. In ad- 
dition, certain services were rendered the counties, for which 
the Playground Athletic League received reimbursements to the 
extent of $21,529.24. Furthermore, materials and supplies worth 
$4,292.20 were bought by the counties through the P. A. L. The 
actual service rendered the counties, therefore, necessitated a 
budget of more than $49,000. The Playground Athletic League 
made no charge to the counties for the general administration 
and direction of the P. A. L. program. (See Table 159.) 

The expenditure for salaries pays for the services of field 
leaders who conduct the meets and tournaments, of the physi- 
cians who examine high school boys and girls for physical fitness, 
and of the athletic leaders for boys and girls who act as teachers, 
referees and umpires for 2,321 "school units." A school unit is 
defined as any school to which assistance is given, and the same 
school may be included a number of times in this figure. 

The amount for wages takes care of the cost of recording the 
badges and medals won by different pupils. The system of reg- 
istration prevents unnecessary duplication of awards. The 16,- 
570 badges, 1,300 date bars, 5,317 medallions, 8,682 pendants 
awarded to county pupils, and 1,375 badges for officials were all 
paid for through the State appropriation. These incentives to 
effort in the physical education program bring returns out of all 
proportion to the amount of money spent for this purpose, 
$4,442. (See Table 159.) 

The amount of $4,024 spent on travel includes the expenses of 
the physicians who have been making physical examinations of 
the girls and boys in five counties. This item also covers the 
transportation costs of the leaders who act as officials at the 
many county meets and athletic tournaments that are conducted 
during the year. (See Table 159.) 

The amount of $1,000 spent for research includes the costs of 
a study of color blindness and of left handedness among high 
school boys and girls. It has been found that there is no con- 
nection between these two disabilities, but that 56 per cent of 
twins are left handed. (See Table 159.) 

Physical Education Supplies Purchased for the Counties 

Through the P. A. L. the counties may purchase the supplies 
and materials needed for the physical education program at a 
greatly reduced rate. During the school year 1931-32, the coun- 
ties paid $4,292 for these purchases. The savings possible 
through purchases from the P. A. L. permit more schools to have 
the needed equipment, and thus more children are able to partici- 
pate with pleasure and benefit in these healthful activities. 



210 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Teacher Training for Physical Education 

The schools in general are better prepared now to give a sound 
type of health education than formerly because the Maryland 
normal schools have been strengthening the work in this field. 
Prospective high school teachers are receiving training in physi- 
cal education at Western Maryland College and, to some extent, 
at the University of Maryland. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS IN 1932 

There were 4,672 white pupils who took advantage of the op- 
portunity of attending the 1932 summer school courses available 
for six weeks in 7 schools in Baltimore City. All except 12.4 
per cent of these pupils were taking review work. Of the enroll- 



TABLE 160 
Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1932 









Net Roll at End of Term 


Per Cent of Net 
Roll Promoted 
Taking 




TYPE OF SCHOOL 


No. of Schools 


Total Enrollment 






c 
o 
c 






3hers 




Total 


Taking Re\ 
Work 


Taking A(b 
Work 


Review 
Work 


Advance 
Work 


No. of Tea( 



WHITE 



Secondary 

Junior 


2 
1 

3 
1 


2,393 
1,115 
743 
421 


2,205 
995 
613 
366 


2,087 
961 
613 


118 
34 


86.3 
93.8 
91.3 


96.2 
100.0 


28 
14 
12 
15 




366 


97.7 


Total 






7 


4,672 


4,179 


3,661 


518 






69 








COLORED 


Secondary 

Senior 

Junior 


*1 
*1 
2 
1 


377 
230 
1,422 
206 


326 
183 
1,256 
137 


304 
156 
1,256 
16 


22 
27 


90.6 
81.7 
73.0 


87.1 
92.8 


8 
5 
19 
6 




121 


100.0 


Total 




5 


2,235 


1,902 


1,732 


170 






38 








ALL SCHOOLS 


1932 

1931 

1930 


12 
16 
16 


6,907 
8,487 
7,663 


6,081 
7,192 
6,504 


5,393 
6,354 
5,592 


688 
838 
912 






107 
154 
145 



Baltimore City Summer and Evening Schools 



211 



ment 2,393 were senior high school pupils, 1,115 were in junior 
high school and 1,164 were taking elementary school work. There 
was a staff of 69 teachers. Because of the decreased budget 
there was a decrease in pupils and teachers under the preceding 
year. (See Table 160.) 

The colored pupils in summer schools numbered 2,235, of 
whom all except 9 per cent were taking review work. Of the 
colored pupils, 73 per cent were in elementary school classes. 
There was a decrease in enrollment under that for the preceding 
summer. There were 38 colored teachers employed. (See 
Table 160.) 

The total number of summer school pupils who remained to 
the end of the term was 6,081 or 88 per cent of the enrollment. 
Ninety-seven per cent of the net roll at the end of the term tak- 
ing advance work and 87 per cent of those registered for review 
work were recommended for promotion. 

EVENING SCHOOLS 

In Baltimore City 

The evening school enrollment in Baltimore City for the year 
1931-32 was lower than for the preceding year in Americaniza- 
tion, secondary, commercial, and home economics classes for 
white adults, and in elementary and commercial classes for col- 



TABLE 161 

Baltimore City Evening Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1932 







Net Enrollment 




Number of Nig] 


Type of Work 


White 


Colored 


1932 




1932 


1931 


1932 


1931 


White 


Colore 


Americanization 


1,215 


1,711 






69 




Academic 










Elementary 


583 


415 


1,461 


1,478 


69 


69 


Secondary 


3,181 


3,596 


540 


535 


95 


95 


Commercial 


2,704 


2,738 


350 


396 


79 


79 


Vocational 














Industrial 


2,418 


2,407 


376 


320 


48 


48 


Home Economics .... 


736 


880 


576 


461 


48 


48 


Total 


10,837 


11,747 


3,303 


3 , 190 






Average Net Roll 


7,310 


8,009 


2,815 


2,808 






Average Attendance . . . 


5.920 


6,822 


2,359 


2.256 






Per Cent of Attendance 


80.8 


85.1 


83.4 


80.3 






No. of Teachers 


267.5 


335 


74 


89 






No. of Schools Open at 














Beginning of Session . 


18 


16 


6 


6 






End of Session 


14 


16 


5 


6 







212 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



ored adults. Elementary and industrial evening classes for white 
adults and secondary, industrial, and home economics classes for 
the colored had larger enrollments than in 1930-31. (See 
Table 161.) 

The decreases in enrollment were greater than the increases 
for white adults, but for the colored there was a net increase in 
enrollment and attendance. The per cent of attendance for the 
colored, 83.4, was 3 per cent higher than the year before and 
above that for the white adults. The increase in colored enroll- 
ment was carried with a teaching staff of 74, smaller by 15 than 
that employed the preceding year, and before the end of the 
session the number of colored schools was reduced from 6 to 5. 
The teaching staff for white classes was 267.5, a reduction of 
67.5 under the year before. The number of schools operating 
for white adults at the end of the session was 14, two fewer than 
the number open the year before. (See Table 161.) 

Expenditures in Baltimore City for the evening classes, ex- 
clusive of Americanization, for white adults totalled $79,622. 
The evening Americanization classes cost $11,311, and the col- 
ored evening classes $21,851. These amounts were decreases 
under those for the preceding year of $13,375 for white evening 
classes, exclusive of those for Americanization, of $5,805 for 
Americanization, and of $5,197 for colored classes for adults. 

In the Counties 

In the counties the evening school program was limited to the 
vocational industrial classes at Cumberland which served the 
needs of the various industries, including the class in foreman- 
ship training for the foremen of the Celanese Corporation, the 
mining class in Allegany County, the mining classes carried on 
by the Bureau of Mines of the University of Maryland at five 
centers in Garrett County, the vocational industrial classes at 
Hagerstown, and classes in vocational home economics for adults 
in Cumberland and Frederick. At Frederick the group included 
members of the Parent-Teacher Associations engaged in "Child 
Study." The continuation class in Annapolis for colored cooks 
and waiters employed at the Naval Academy in existence for 
several years was continued. (See Table 162.) 

In addition a training program for twenty-one fire chiefs of 
volunteer fire companies of Prince George's County was organ- 
ized at a series of meetings in Washington, D. C. Purposeful 
content was selected and organized in order to train the chiefs 
to become efficient instructors of their own companies. Mimeo- 
graphed copies of the material presented at the meetings were 
made available. 



Evening Schools; Vocational Eehabilitation 213 
TABLE 162 



Salary Expenditures for Vocational Education in Maryland County Evening Schools, 

Year Ending July 31, 1932 



County 


Expenditures for Salaries of Teachers of 
Vocational Education in Evening Schools 


En- 
roll- 
ment 


County 
Funds and 

"Other" 
State Aid 


State 
Vocational 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Industries 

Alleganv 

GaiTett 


$13,228.00 
*1,920.00 
592.20 
213.08 


$ 192.00 


$t3.420.00 
1,920.00 
658.00 
236.75 


$t6,840.00 
3,840.00 
1,316.00 
473.50 


250 
116 
54 
48 


^ \nne Arundel (Col.) . . . 
Total 


65.80 
23.67 


$ 5,953.28 


$ 281.47 


$ 6,234.75 


$12,469.50 


468 


Home Economics 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Total 


$ 169.20 
67.50 


$ 18.80 
7.50 


$ 188.00 
75.00 


$ 376.00 
150.00 


38 
25 


$ 236.70 


$ 26.30 


$ 263.00 


$ 526.00 


63 


Grand Total 


$ 6,189.98 


$ 307.77 


$ 6,497.75 


$12,995.50 


531 



t Includes $3,000 for mining classes, $1,500 from county and $1,500 from federal funds. 

* Mining classes conducted in Garrett County, paid for through University of Maryland funds. 

° General continuation work. 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 
Service Rendered from July 1, 1931, to June 30, 1932 

The status of the rehabilitation service rendered to 340 physi- 
cally handicapped adults during 1931-32 is shown in Table 163. 
The 41 persons actually rehabilitated included more than twice 
the number for the previous year (18) , and 52 persons were pur- 
suing definite vocational training courses on June 30, 1932, as 
compared with 29 the year before. Of particular significance 
is the fact that the number of persons who completed training 
and did not find immediate employment was less by only one 
than the number of June 30, 1931, in spite of the unemployment 
situation generally existing in industry. (See Table 163.) 

While the number of closures because of ineligibility and other 
reasons increased to 95, of these cases 46 were given service 
prior to their final closure. The aid rendered was in the nature 
of vocational guidance, physical reconstruction, compensation 
adjustment and partial placement; several were given actual 
vocational training. This group represents the ''partial rehabili- 
tations," whose placement in employment was not due entirely 
to the efforts of the rehabilitation service. (See Table 163.) 



214 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 163 



Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland During 
Year Ending June 30, 1932 



COUNTY 


Total 
No. 
of 


Rehabili- 
tated 


Training 

pleted 
Awaiting 
Employ- 


Being 
Prepared 

for 
Employ- 
ment 


Plan 
IV^ade 


Surveyed 
But 
Plan 
Not 
Made 


Not 
Eligible 
or 

Sus- 
ceptible 


Total Counties . 


142 


10 


3 


26 


29 


59 


15 




27 


3 


1 


7 


5 


11 




Anne Arundel . . . 


8 


1 




3 




4 




Baltimore 


7 


1 




1 


3 


2 




Calvert 


1 










1 




Caroline . . ... 


3 






1 




1 


1 


Carroll 


5 






1 


1 


2 


1 


Cecil 


4 


1 






1 


2 




Charles 


4 








1 


3 




Dorchester 


4 






1 


1 


1 


1 




8 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 




18 


1 




1 


4 


5 


7 


Harford 


3 




1 


2 






Howard 


3 






2 




1 




Kent 


1 










1 




Montgomery. . . . 
Prince George's.. 
Queen Anne's . . . 
St. Mary's 


7 


1 




1 


1 


4 




4 










2 


2 


2 








2 






2 






1 


1 








3 




1 


1 


1 




Talbot 


3 






1 


1 


1 


Washington 


16 

6 






4 


1 


9 


2 


Wicomico 


1 






3 


2 




Worcester 


3 










3 




Baltimore City . . 


198 


31 


8 


26 


11 


42 


80 


Total State 


340 


41 


11 


52 


40 


101 


95 



During the past year every county in the State benefited from 
the rehabilitation service. The balance between county and city 
cases was maintained as in previous years, with the exception 
of the increased number of closures in Baltimore City due to the 
reporting of many accident cases not eligible for the service. 
(See Table 163.) 

Rehabilitation and Unemployment Relief 

The successful adjustment of a physically handicapped person 
affects not only his own life but also the lives of those who are 
dependent upon him for their support. It is interesting to note, 
therefore, that the wages earned by the 41 persons who were 
placed in employment by the two rehabilitation workers during 
the year 1931-1932, constituted the maintenance of the J^l them- 
selves and of their 75 dependents, or a total of 116. The re- 
habilitation service is, therefore, playing a definite part in the 
relief of unemployment in Maryland. (See Table 163.) 

Cooperation with Other Agencies 

Effective rehabilitation service requires the cooperation of all 
agencies interested in the education, health and welfare of handi- 
capped individuals. Accordingly, efforts to bring about such a 



Vocational Rehabilitation ; School Finances 



215 



plan of cooperation in Maryland were begun three years ago and 
much progress has been made in this direction throughout the 
State. Both county and city welfare agencies, hospitals, labor 
organizations, health departments, civic clubs, and vocational 
schools have actively participated in the promotion of a unified 
rehabilitation service during the past year. 

Of particular importance has been the splendid cooperation 
rendered by industry. Factory superintendents, shop foremen, 
personnel managers and even executives have appealed to the 
rehabilitation service for advice and assistance in the proper 
placement of workmen injured in their employ; and, in many 
instances, these officials have cooperated by setting up in their 
own factories training plans for disabled persons under the su- 
pervision of the rehabilitation service. 

Cost and Training Objectives 

The per capita cost of rehabilitation service in Maryland from 
State and federal funds for 1931-32 was $136.33. This includes 
the 41 persons rehabilitated and the 63 who received training 
during the year ; it excludes the remaining 141 active cases who 
had not yet been inducted into training. 

The disabled persons who were trained last year were placed in 
42 different job objectives, among which were accountant, bar- 
ber, chemist, electrician, floral designer, lens grinder, litho- 
grapher, locksmith, occupational therapist, painter, physiothera- 
pist, poultryman, printer, radio mechanic, typewriter repairman, 
typist and watch repairman. 

EXPENDITURES FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Total Current Expense Disbursements and Soiurce 
of Funds, Also Capital Outlay 

Expenditures for school current expenses in the Maryland 
counties in 1932 showed an increase of but $40,000 over those 
for 1931, a smaller increase than has appeared in any year since 
1919. Expenditures from State funds, $2,726,000, increased by 
nearly $340,000, while those from county funds, $6,166,000, de- 
creased by $300,000 from 1931 to 1932. Expenditures from 
State funds were 2.2 times those of 1919, while from county 
funds they were nearly 3.2 greater than expenditures in 1919. 
Capital outlay in 1932 in the counties totalled $1,650,000. (See 
Table 164.) 

In Baltimore City, expenditures for school current expenses 
showed a decrease of $275,000 from 1931 to 1932, the first de- 
crease since 1919. Expenditures from State funds, $985,600, 
were nearly $40,000 more than in 1932, while those from city 
funds, $8,556,000, were lower by $315,000 in 1932 than they 
were in 1931. The city figures include the cost of the training 
school for colored teachers, but exclude $843,592 paid to the 



216 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 164 

Expenditures for School Current Expenses From State and Local Funds and Capital 
Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1932-1919 



CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 




Year j 






Capital 
Outlay 


EXDIN-G ' 

July 31 , ^otal 


From State 


From Local 


Funds 


Funds 







Total Counties 


1932 


$ 8,892,181 


36 


-S 2,725,905 


04 


$ 6,166,276 


32 


S 


1,650,064.84 


1931 


8,852.073 


43 


2,386,738 


76 


6,465,334 


67 




2,172,087.55 


1930 


8,456.414 


05 


t2, 348, 530 


19 


6,107,883 


86 




2,450,143.80 


1929 


8,164.657 


18 


°t2.322.643 


82 


5,842,013 


36 




1,773,070.68 


1928 


7,787.298 


09 


°t2,246.541 


47 


5,540,756 


62 




1.532.717.90 


1927 


7,517.728 




2,329.031 


35 


5,188,697 


42 




1,023.362.25 


1926 


7,143,149 


65 


2,248,399 


75 


4,894,749 


90 




2,602.745.09 


1925 


6,743.015 


08 


2,161,571 


04 


4,581,444 


04 




2,527,823.35 


1924 


6,475,802 


93 


2,068,186 


05 


4,407,616 


88 




949,719.78 


1923 


5,964,456 


44 


2,026,315 


58 


3,938,140 


86 




1,475,268.52 


1922 


5.291,124 


43 


1,545,695 


85 


3,745,428 


58 




1,121,553.98 


1921 


5.043.923 


02 


1 , 554 , 693 


60 


3,489,229 


42 




929,024.08 


1920 


3.703.153 


29 


1,186,192 


67 


2,516,960 


62 




485,601.23 


1919 


3,184.351 


22 


1,230.181 


60 


1,954,169 


62 




311.137.08 




Baltimore City* 


1932 


$ *9,o42.0M 


34 


S *985,562 


39 


S *8, 556,491 


95 


s 


2,678.922.51 


1931 


9,817.669 


53 


946,023 


62 


8,871,645 


91 




3,658,181.35 


1930 


9,340.560 


01 


995.063 


18 


8,345,496 


83 




1,508,678.41 


1929 


8,910.245 


11 


tl. 037. 490 


92 


7,872,754 


19 




633,631.71 


1928 


8,503.427 


29 


tl. 016. 993 


13 


7,486,434 


16 




1,897,871.37 




8,040,694 


93 


1.086,496 


95 


6,954,197 


98 




4,200.037.45 


1926 


7,660.787 


84 


1.056.893 


87 


6,603,893 


97 




3,484,766.86 


1925 


7,419.638 


99 


1,042.479 


92 


6,377,159 


07 




3,224,733.82 


1924 


6,963.332 


47 


1.061.111 


63 


5,902,220 


84 




5,336,889.06 


1923 


6,949,793 


45 


1.066.100 


96 


5,883.692 


49 




3,301.086.21 


1922 


6,631.682 


32 


1.026.972 


79 


5.604,709 


53 




1,417.569.15 


1921 


5,394,655 


76 


1.032,541 


55 


4,362,114 


21 




1,267.636.20 


1920 


3.706.641 


51 


713.287 


02 


2,993,354 


49 




60,741.25 


1919 


2,832.543 


59 


671.006 


78 


2,161,536 


81 




38,562.29 




Entire State* 


1932 


8*18,434.235 


70 


S *3, 711. 467 


43 


S*14,722,768 


27 


$ 


4,328,987.35 


1931 


18,669.742 


96 


3,332.762 


38 


15,336,980 


58 




5,830,268.90 


1930 


17,796,974 


06 


t3, 343, 593 


37 


14,453.380 


69 




3,958,822.21 


1929 


17,074,902 


29 


°t3,360,134 


74 


13,714,767 


55 




2,406,702.39 


1928 


16,290.725 


38 


°t3,263,534 


60 


13,027,190 


78 




3,430,589.27 


1927 


15,558,423 


70 


3,415,528 


30 


12,142.895 


40 




5.223,399.70 


1926 


14,803,937 


49 


3,305.293 


62 


11,498,643 


87 




6,087,511.95 


1925 


14,162,654 


07 ■ 


3.204,050 


96 


10,958,603 


11 




5,752,557. 17 


1924 


13,439,135 


40 


3,129.297 


68 


10,309,837 


72 




6,286,608.84 


1923 


12,914,249 


89 ; 


3.092,416 


54 


9,821,833 


35 




4,776,354.73 


1922 


11,922,806 


75 1 


2,572,668 


64 


9,350,138 


11 




2,539,123.13 


1021 


10,438,578 


78 


2,587,235 


15 


7,851,3i3 


63 




2,196,660.28 


1920 


7,409.794 


SO 


1.899.479 


69 


5,510,315 


11 




546,342.48 


1919 


6,016,894 


81 


1,901,188 


38 


4,115,706 


43 




349,699.37 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school, but ex- 
cludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund which in 1932 amounted to 
$843^592, of which S473,622 was from State funds and §369,970 from City funds. 
lExcludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

° Excludes $6 , 500 to be used by Charles County for school building purpKJses. 



Expenditures for Schools and State Aid 



217 



Baltimore City Retirement System on account of teachers, of 
which the State contributed $473,622. With the exclusion of re- 
tirement funds, Baltimore City's receipts for schools from State 
funds have increased nearly 1.5 times since 1919, while city 
funds are nearly 4 times greater in 1932 than they were in 1919. 
Capital outlay for schools in 1932 for the city totalled $2,679,- 
000. (See Table 164.) 

For the entire State school current expenses aggregated $18,- 
434,000, of which $3,711,000 came from State sources and $14,- 
723,000 from county and city funds. The decrease in expendi- 
tures from 1931 to 1932 was entirely in county and city funds. 
Capital outlay for schools throughout the State was $4,329,000 in 
1932. (See Table 164.) 

The amounts shown for State aid in 1932 include all State and 
federal funds due for the State's fiscal year from October 1, 1931, 
to September 30, 1932, even if they were not received prior to 
July 31, 1932. They exclude $102,694 paid in October, 1931, on 
account of the deficit in the 1929-30 fund distributed on the basis 
of school census and attendance, but include payments made to 
cover the deficit in the equalization fund in 1930-31 and part of 
the deficit in the 1930-31 fund distributed on the basis of school 
census and attendance. No amounts contributed to the Mary- 
land Teachers' Retirement System and to the Baltimore City Re- 
tirement System are included. (See Tables 164 and 165.) 

Per Cent of Aid Received from State 

A distribution of the current expense figures by counties show- 
ing the amount and per cent from State and federal funds and 
from county funds and also the per cent from the equalization 
fund indicates that on the average the counties received 30.7 per 
cent of their school current expenses in 1931-32 from State and 
federal funds. This average, however, represents a spread from 
17 per cent in Montgomery and Baltimore Counties to 70 per 
cent in Somerset. Baltimore City received 10 per cent of its 
current expense disbursements from State and federal funds, 
making the State average 20 per cent. The Retirement funds 
are not included in any of the figures just given. (See Table 
165.) 

The counties are arranged in Table 165 and Chart 32 in ac- 
cordance with the per cent of current expense funds they re- 
ceived from the State in 1931-32. The Equalization Fund rep- 
resented from 2 to 41.6 per cent of the school current expenses 
in the fifteen counties which participated in its distribution. Al- 
though Anne Arundel receives the Equalization Fund while How- 
ard does not, the latter still has a larger per cent of State and 
federal funds than the former, and the same is true of Prince 
George's compared with Talbot and Harford, and of Allegany, 



218 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 33 

PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1932 



County 



County Average 



Received from L 



State and Federal Funds Excluding 
Equalization Fiina 
Equalization Fund 




V////A County Funds end Other Sources 
20 40 60 80 



100 



41 



31 



v///////^//////^ 



V//////////////////////A 



Y/{//////////^////////M 



^^^^^^^^^^ 



^^^^^^^^^ 



^^^^^^ 



Baltimore City 
State 




4^^ 



compared with Cecil and Frederick. In Anne Arundel and Al- 
legany, this may be explained in part by the fact that the support 
of the eighth grade in the elementary school is not included in the 
minimum program on which the Equalization Fund is based, 
which means that these counties must carry a larger per cent 
of their disbursements from local funds than counties having 
but seven grades. (See Tahle 165 and Chart 33.) 



State Aid for School Current Expenses; the Tax Dollar 



219 



TABLE 165 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State 
and Federal Funds for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



County 



Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses* 



Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 



"State and, 
Federal 
Aid 



County and 
Other 
Sources 



Per Cent of Current Expense Dis- 
bvu-sementa Received from 



u 

V 

CO 



-tJ r_ « 03 



3 5 



30CI 

>> « 

so 



Total Counties . 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Charles 

Garrett 

Caroline 

St. Mary's 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's . . 

Carroll 

Kent 

Howard 

Anne Arundel . . 
Talbot 

Harford 

Prince George's 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Washington. . . . 
Montgomery. . . 
Baltimore 

Baltimore City . 

State 



$8,892,181.36 

217,130.72 
102,492.11 
166,603.46 
325,232.49 
219,926.19 

119,643.22 
272,503.27 
232,622.38 
299,497.25 
173,181.59 

446,570.43 
174,839.27 
158,045.75 
550,047.34 
200,644.49 

319,757.62 
631,815.29 
271,805.43 
529,409.36 
922,038.42 

688,779 .30 
646,782.27 
1,222,813.71 

t9, 524, 407. 35 

18,416,588.71 



$2,725,905.04 $6,166,276.32 



152.864.45 
66,393.90 
105,784.90 
205,701.08 
126,539.77 

68,372.59 
140,134.46 

94.834.01 
122,068.74 

68,112.94 

172,347.95 
65,421.09 
46,454.95 

148,414.17 
52,944.36 

I 

80,156.601 
158,255.37 

65,352.971 
118,363.151 
200,482.791 



64,266.27 
36,098.21 
60,818.56 
119,531.41 
93,386.42 

51.270.63 
132.368.81 
137,788.37 
177,428.51 
105,068.65 

274.222.48 
109,418.18 
111,590.80 
401,633.17 
147,700.13 

239.601.02 
473.559.92, 
206.452.461 
411,046.21 
721.555,63 



140.177.02 548.602.28 
113,811.76, 532,970.51 
212,916.02. 1,009,897.69 



1985,562.39 
3,711,467.43 



t8, 538, 844. 96 
14,705.121.28 



30.7 

70.4 
64.8 
63.5 
63.2 
57.5 

57.1 
51.4 
40.8 
40.8 
39.3 

38 

37.4 

29.4 

27.0 

26.4 

25.1 
25.0 
24.0 
22.4 
21.7 

20 

17.6 

17.4 

no. 3 

20.2 



22.6 

28.8 
30.3 
32.3 
23.8 
27.6 

32.0 
27.2 
27.3 
27.3 
27.8 



25.1 
22.8 
24.0 
22.4 
19.7 

20.4 
17.6 
17.4 

no. 3 

16.3 



8.1 

41.6 
34.5 
31.2 
39.4 
29.9 

25.1 
24.2 
13.5 
13.5 
11.5 

15.3 
11.9 



6.8 



2.2 
'2.0 



3.9 



69.3 

29.6 
35.2 
36.5 
36.8 
42.5 

42.9 
48.6 
59.2 
59.2 
60.7 

61.4 
62.6 
70.6 
73.0 
73.6 

74.9 
75.0 
76.0 
77.6 
78.3 

79.6 
82.4 
82.6 

89.7 

79.8 



* Includes all state and federal aid due for the year 1931-32, whether received after July 31 or not. 
Excludes the 1930 census and attendance fund deficit paid in October, 1931, but includes part of pay- 
ments toward 1931 deficits in equalization fund and census and attendance fund paid during the year 
1931-32. 

t Excludes payments of $843,592 toward which the State contributed $473,622. 



USE OF THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR 

Of every dollar spent in the 23 counties for school current ex- 
penses in 1931-32, 69.2 cents was used for teachers' salaries and 
10.2 cents for transportation of pupils. These were the only 
items slightly larger than the year before, all others being the 
same or smaller. Maintenance or repairs exhibited the largest 
decrease, only 2.5 cents of each dollar being available for this 
purpose, books and materials had the next largest decrease bring- 
ing the number of each 100 cents spent to 4.5, while general con- 
trol or administration dropped to 3.2 cents of each 100 cents. 
(See Table 166 and Chart 34.) 



220 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 34 

HOW THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPENT 
IN THE MARYLAND COUNTIES, 1932 




♦ Fixed charges and tuition to adjoining coxinties. 



In practically every case the counties which had a large pro- 
portion of each dollar going to teachers* salaries spent a small 
proportion for auxiliary agencies which includes chiefly trans- 
portation, and vice versa. Prince George's, Harford, and Wash- 
ington are illustrations of the former, while Calvert, St. Mary's, 
Charles, Queen Anne's, Anne Arundel, and Caroline are in- 
stances of the reverse. The proportion of the school current 
expense dollar going to teachers' salaries ranged from 55.3 cents 
in Calvei-t to 75.7 cents in Harford, while that used for auxiliary 
agencies spread between 5 cents in Prince George's and 23.2 
cents of each dollar in Calvert. (See Table 166.) 

For general control or administration the counties having the 
largest public school population, such as Allegany, Washington, 
Frederick, and Baltimore, spent 2.5 cents or less of each dollar. 



How THE School Tax Dollar Was Used 



221 



TABLE 166 

Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 



COUNTY 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and Other Costs 


1 of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


OQ 

'3 
c 

< 
>> 
.2 
'x 

3 


Fixed f'harges and 
Tuition to ad- 
joining Counties 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Outlay 


County Average 


3 


2 


2 1 


69 


2 


4 


5 


6 8 


2 




10.2 


1 =; 

1 . o 


15.7 


Allegan V 


2. 


4 


2.6 


69 


8 


6 


7 


7.1 


2 


1 


7 9 


1.4 


5 6 


Anne Arundel 


3. 


1 


2.3 


62 


3 


5 


8 


6.9 


2 


7 


15^2 


1.7 


52^0 


Baltimore 


2. 


5 


1.4 


73 


5 


4 





8.0 


1 


1 


7.7 


1.8 


17.2 


Calvert 


7 


2 


3.8 


55 


3 


3 


2 


4.2 


2 


4 


23.2 


.7 


.3 


Caroline 


3 


4 


1.9 


65 


8 


3 


3 


6.1 


1 


8 


16.2 


1.5 


1.1 


Carroll 


3 


1 


2.1 


65 


6 


5 


4 


4.8 


2 


3 


13 8 


2.9 


21 9 


Cecil 


3 


2 


3.0 


71 


5 


4 


5 


7.1 


1 


2 


8^7 


.8 


17^1 


Charles 


3 


5 


2.2 


63 


1 


3 


9 


5.7 


2 


8 


18.2 


.6 


12.6 




3 


5 


2.4 


68 





3 


1 


5.6 


2 


9 


13.2 


1.3 


27.6 


Frederick 


2 


4 


2.3 


70 


5 


3 


1 


5.7 


1 


6 


12 .7 


1.7 


7.2 


Garrett 


3 


9 


2.5 


66 


2 


2 


8 


4.5 


2 


2 


15 8 


2.1 


6 




3 


1 


2.0 


75 


7 


3 


6 


6.3 


3 


2 


5^5 


.6 


22.3 




4 


5 


2.2 


72 


4 


2 


7 


5.9 


1 


1 


8.3 


2.9 


.5 


Kent 


4 


6 


2.5 


62 


3 


4 


4 


7.2 


5 


2 


13 


.8 


3 




3 


2 


1.9 


69 


2 


5 


2 


8.4 


3 


5 


Q.7 


1.9 


25"5 




3 


3 


1.6 


71 


4 


4 


9 


7.6 


6 


2 


5.0 




1.5 




5 


6 


2.4 


61 


1 


4 


3 


5.9 


1 


4 


16.1 


3.2 


1.5 


St. Marv's 


6 


2 


3.0 


58 


4 


2 





4.1 


2 


6 


22.7 


1.0 


19.7 




4 


1 

9 


1.7 


70 
66 


8 


4 


1 


5.6 


1 


4 


11.3 


1.0 




Talbot 


4 


2.2 


1 


4 


5 


7.6 


1 


1 


12.6 


1.0 


.5 




2 


4 


1.5 


74 


8 


4 


6 


6.5 


2 


2 


6.4 


1.6 


3.4 




4 





2.2 


67 


7 


4 


7 


8.0 


3 


2 


7.6 


2.6 


1.4 




3 


8 


1.7 


65 


8 


3 


6 


7.6 


3 


2 


13.2 


1.1 


1.6 


Baltimore City 


3 


6 


2.3 


72 


8 


4 


4 


9.2 


3 


6 


3.8 


.3 


22.0 


State 


3 


4 


2.2 


71 


.1 


4 


5 


8.0 


3 





6.9 


.9 


19.0 



On the other hand, those counties like Calvert, St. Mary's, and 
Queen Anne's with the smallest school population had to spend 
from 5.6 to 7.2 cents of each dollar on the necessaiy office ad- 
ministrative and financial duties which must be carried on 
whether a county has few or many children in its public schools. 
The smaller counties could undoubtedly care for a larger school 
population with practically no increase in the cost of general 
control or administration. (See Table 166.) 

Supervision required the setting aside of fewer than 2 cents 
of each dollar in Baltimore, Washington, Somerset, Worcester, 
Caroline, and Montgomery Counties, which either employed 
fewer than the number of supervisors to which they were entitled 
or had one supervisor for a rather large staff of white elementary 
teachers, while in Calvert, Cecil, and St. Mary's between 3 and 
4 cents of each dollar were used for costs of supervision. Every 
county must employ at least one supervisor for the white ele- 



222 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



mentary schools. In Calvert County the number of white ele- 
mentary teachers is very small. (See Table 166.) 

The proportion of each dollar spent for school current ex- 
penses devoted to books and materials of instruction varied from 
2 cents in St. Mary's and 2.7 cents in Howard to between 5 and 
7 cents in Montgomery, Carroll, Anne Arundel, and Allegany 
Counties. (See Table 166.) 

For operation or heating and cleaning buildings, St. Mary*s, 
Calvert, Garrett, and Carroll spent between 4 and 5 cents of 
each dollar as against 8 or more cents used in Baltimore, Wi- 
comico, and Montgomery Counties. Six counties, Baltimore, 
Howard, Talbot, Cecil, Queen Anne's, and Somerset, apportioned 
less than 1.5 cents of each dollar for repair and upkeep of build- 
ings, grounds, and equipment, whereas Kent and Prince 
George's used over 5 cents for this purpose. (See Table 166.) 

Fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties cost over 2 
cents out of each dollar in Queen Anne's, Howard, Carroll, Wi- 
comico, and Garrett, while in Prince George's, Harford, Charles, 
Calvert, and Cecil less than a cent was needed for these purposes. 
(See Table 166.) 

Proportion of Funds Devoted to Capital Outlay 

If capital outlay and current expenses are added together, in 
the 23 counties 15.7 per cent of the combined amount was used 
for capital outlay. Anne Arundel, which spent funds from its 
bond issue of $1,000,000, Dorchester, Montgomery, Harford, and 
Carroll devoted the greatest proportion of funds to capital outlay. 
(See last column of Table 166.) 

COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING FOR SCHOOL 
CURRENT EXPENSE 

The average cost per white and colored day school pupil be- 
longing in county schools, excluding expenditures for tuition to 
adjoining counties and States, was $55.51 in 1932, 93 cents lower 
than in 1931 and close to the expenditure in 1930. In spite of 
the increase in the number of high school pupils, this was 
brought about by the efforts made by the county superintendents 
to retrench wherever possible. New appointments to give in- 
struction in the special subjects and to provide for increased en- 
rollment when the latter could be absorbed by increasing the size 
of classes were not made. (See Table 167.) 

The average cost per pupil in 1932 ranged from less than $50 
per pupil in Somerset, Charles, Wicomico, and Calvert to over 
$65 per pupil in Garrett, Carroll, and Montgomery Counties. 
The proportion of children who were colored or who were in 
small classes in rural schools, or in high schools, and the en- 
richment of the high school program, are factors affecting this 
county cost per pupil. (See Table 167.) 



The School Tax Dollar; Cost per Day School Pupil Belonging 223 



TABLE 167 



Cost Per Day-School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1932, 1931, 1930 and 1929 



County 


tl932 


11931 


tl930 


tl929 


Decrease 

1932 
mider 1931 


Countv Average 


S55 


51 


$56 


44 


S55 


49 


S54 


55 


S 


93 


Garrett 


66 


86 


69 


17 


72 


46 


71 


12 


2 


31 


Carroll 


OD 


71 


uo 


7^ 


uu 


oo 




7Q 


2 


04 


Montgomery 


65 


96 


68 


29 


64 


51 


62 


92 


2 


33 


Queen Anne's 


61 


34 


57 


55 


59 


72 


59 


66 


*3 


79 




61 


13 


61 


15 


58 


23 


57 


45 




02 


Alleganv ^ 


60 


37 


61 


45 


61 


31 


62 


58 


1 


08 


Cecil. . 










yjyj 




yjyj 


t7 J. 


o 


77 


Caroline 


57 


37 


57 


13 


55 


67 


50 


97 




24 


Talbot 


56 


26 


54 


86 


53 


67 


52 


81 


*1 


40 


Baltimore 


55 


98 


58 


05 


56 


71 


57 


19 


2 


07 




54 


25 


56 


02 


56 


23 


54 


52 


1 


77 


Harford 


53 


06 


56 


05 


54 


58 


50 


93 


2 


99 


Anne Arimdel 


52 


87 


53 


72 


53 


37 


52 


59 




.85 


Prince George's 

St. Marv's 


52 


31 


51 


55 


50 


70 


49 


74 




.76 


51 


50 


49 


59 


46 


15 


43 


21 


*1 


.91 


Worcester 


51 


42 


53 


36 


51 


35 


51 


96 


1 


.94 


Dorchester 


51 


20 


54 


21 


51 


64 


50 


96 


3 


.01 


Washington 


51 


01 


51 


31 


50 


71 


49 


.01 




.30 


Frederick 


50 


99 


52 


88 


51 


46 


50 


.56 


1 


.89 


Calvert 


48 


96 


47 


94 


46 


00 


46 


.28 


*1 


.02 




48 


83 


46 


42 


48 


.56 


49 


.64 


*2 


.41 




47 


.80 


47 


.86 


49 


.42 


42 


.60 




.06 


Somerset 


45 


72 


45 


75 


44 


51 


45 


.72 




.03 



* Increase. 

t In making this calculation, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for evening 
schools have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Salisburj- and Bowie Normal Elementary 
Schools have been eliminated. 



Although several counties decreased costs by as much as $3 
per pupil, there were seven counties which increased costs, in 
Queen Anne's the increase amounting to $3.79 per pupil. (See 
Table 167.) 

Cost per Pupil Belonging for General Control 

The average expenditure per pupil belonging for general con- 
trol in 1932 was $1.81, a reduction of 9 cents under the 1931 
amount. Costs ranged between $1.22 in Frederick and S3. 53 in 
Calvert, the counties having a large public school population 
having the low costs and those having a small public school popu- 
lation having the high costs.* Six counties had costs over $2.50 
per pupil, while four had them under $1.50 per pupil. All except 



* For explanation of this, see page 221. 



224 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



6 counties showed lower costs for general control in 1932 than 
in 1931. (See Table 168.) 



TABLE 168 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 





1932 


1931 


1930 


Decrease 
1932 
under 
1931 


County 


1932 


1931 


1930 


Decrease 
1932 
under 
1931 


County Average . . 


$1.81 


$1.90 


$1.92 


$.09 




$1.96 


$1.98 


$1.95 


$.02 












1.94 


1.97 


2.10 


.03 


Calvert 


3.53 


3.53 


3.57 




Somerset 


1.89 


1.88 


1.85 


*.01 
.08 


Queen Anne's .... 


3.44 


3.16 


3.22 


*.28 


Cecil 


1.87 


1.95 


2.06 


St. Mary's 


3.21 


3.23 


3.28 


.02 




1.80 


1.99 


1.78 


.19 


Kent 


2.84 


3.05 


2.88 


.21 




Talbot 


2.77 


2.69 


2.75 


*.08 


Prince George's. . 


1.74 


1.79 


1.82 


.05 














1.68 


1.77 


1.76 


.09 


Garrett 


2.64 


2.77 


3.20 


.13 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1.64 


1.71 


1.58 


.07 




2.48 


2.53 


2.63 


.05 


Harford 


1.63 


1.76 


1.63 


.13 


Montgomery 


2.11 


2.07 


2.25 


*.04 


Allegany 


1.44 


1.56 


1.46 


.12 


Carroll 


2.09 


2.17 


2.18 


.08 




Caroline 


1.97 


2.04 


2.41 


.07 


Baltimore 


1.43 


1.65 


1.66 


.22 






1.23 


1.19 


1.20 


*.04 












Frederick 


1.22 


1.61 


1.61 


.39 



* Increase. 



Comparative Cost per Pupil in County White Elementary and High Schools 

CHART 35 

1932 COST, EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 

PER COUNri POPIL BELONGING 

In rnite In White 

Ilejnent&iy High Schools 

Schools 

$ 94.78 




a. Supervision. 

b. Textbooks and supplies. 



Cost per Pupil for General Control and by Types of Schools 225 



So 
So 

ceo 



8(OOqog 



eiooqog 



siooqos 



IIY 



siooqo>i 



SpOtJDg 



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M X M 



spoqDg 



O 

IS 

H 

'^'^ 

°§ 
Si: 

o 

X 

H 

a: 
O 
O 



spoqog 



spoqog «o 00 « 



00 !Ot^ 



XaB;uaui8i3 ] _ ^^^^^^^ 
IIY ' ^ S6icT)"i.c5 



X r: ■ 
c >- ' 

;c X X ' 



X t> r: « o 



qooqog 
papBJO:, 



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X 



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r; X c 
« >c X « ^^ 



xc^ 



1 O -"J" Tf 

s^ooqog I M loxxnr: 

jaqoBax-anO* ! Tf^ocTf -; 

; ic ic X ic »c L-: 



siooqog 
qSijj ajiq^ 



«MX »c 



SuiSuoiag lidnj jad jsoj 



T« ~: r: r>- 



c<i — M 



- I c 

s 



c = 



^ C 03 CS 03 



— w t O S3 _ 



« O C E 
& - :3 « 



2 X 



- u «- i c - c - = 
COUQfa CSHii:^ CnCxxr- 



226 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



An analysis of the cost per pupil in white elementary schools 
is given on pages 65 to 72, in white high schools on pages 137 to 
147, and in colored schools on pages 185-188. 

In 1932 the average cost, exclusive of general control and fixed 
charges, of instructing a white elementary school pupil was 
$49.27, whereas the corresponding cost for a white high school 
pupil was $94.78. The difference in cost is due to smaller classes 
in high school, and the higher salaries of teachers because of the 
additional years of preparation required. (See Table 169 and 
Chart 35.) 

The expenditure per pupil for salaries of teachers was $35.23 
for county elementary schools, and just twice as much, $70.48, 
for county high schools.* The cost per pupil for auxiliary agen- 
cies — transportation, libraries, and health — was $5.85 in county 
elementary and $9.46 in county high schools. The proportion of 
high school pupils transported and the length of the high school 
routes are greater than for elementary schools. The cost per 
county pupil for supervision of elementary schools was $1.39; 
supervision in the high schools, except in three counties, is car- 
ried on by the staff of the State Department of Education. For 
books, materials, and costs of instruction other than salaries, 
the expenditure per county elementary pupil was $1.91, while 
the corresponding expenditure for each county high school pupil 
was $5.99. The heating, cleaning, and repair of buildings cost 
$4.89 per county elementary pupil, whereas they required $8.85 
per high school pupil. (See Chart 35 and for similar data for 
counties see pages 65 to 72 for white elementary schools, and 
pages 137 to 147 for white high schools.) 

Federal Aid as a Stimulus to Vocational Education 

The allotment to Maryland for 1931-32 from the Federal Gov- 
ernment under the Smith-Hughes and George-Reed Acts was 
$107,587, of which a maximum of $39,967 was allocated to agri- 
culture, $50,828 to industrial education and home economics, and 
$16,792 to teacher training and supervision. The amount of 
federal funds actually available was $99,443, which meant that 
$8,144 was returned to the Federal Treasury. It was not pos- 
sible to use the entire amount because there are definite re- 
quirements for the use of a specified portion of the funds for 
part-time and continuation classes in industry. It has been pos- 
sible to persuade only a limited number of Maryland employers 
to cooperate with the schools in giving this type of training. 

Of the $99,443 actually received from Federal funds, $33,529 
was expended for salaries of teachers of agriculture, $32,204 
for salaries of teachers of trade and industrial subjects, $16,919 



* This includes the cost of county supervision of high schools in three counties. 



Cost per White High and Elementary Pupil; Vocational Aid 227 

for salaries of teachers of home economics, and $16,792 for ad- 
ministration, supervision, and teacher-training in these three 
branches. 

Vocational work was further aided in 1932 by State appro- 
priations amounting to $6,810 toward the salaries of vocational 
teachers in the counties and $9,029 for administration and su- 
pervision of work in agriculture, home economics, and industrial 
arts. In addition, there were expenditures for vocational work 
from county funds and from State funds for high school aid and 
equalization aggregating $62,790, and from the University of 
Maryland totalling $10,374. The total amount spent for the 
vocational program for the Maryland counties in 1932 including 
Federal funds was $177,316. For the vocational salary expendi- 
tures in the various counties, see Table 107, page 142. 

The Vocational Program in Baltimore City 
The 1932 expenditures for salaries for vocational education in 
Baltimore City were over $145,000, nearly $19,000 below the year 
preceding, due partly to the decreases in salary which took effect 
in Baltimore City January 1, 1932, and to the reduction in ex- 
penditures for evening work in home economics. The city sup- 
ported the vocational work to the extent of $134,000, while the 
Federal reimbursement totaled slightly over $11,000. (See 
Table 170.) 



TABLE 170 

Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enroll- 
ment 


Vocational 
Education 
Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Vocational 

Part-time Industrial . . . 
General Continuation . . 

Evening Industrial 

Evening Home 

Economics 

Total 


$111,415.52 
4,908.75 
4,207.75 
9,250.00 

4,207.87 


$485.28 
4,908.75 
4,207.75 

1,529.13 


$111,900.80 
9,817.50 
8,415.50 
9,250.00 

5,737.00 


1,350 
63 
267 
952 

1,085 


$82.89 
155.83 
31.52 
9.72 

5.29 


$133,989.89 


$11,130.91 


$145,120.80 


3.717 


$39.04 



Nearly 80 per cent of the salary expenditures in Baltimore 
City were paid to teachers in the four day vocational schools 
which enrolled 1,350 pupils at a salary cost per pupil of $83. 
These schools have a six-hour school day, three hours being spent 
in the school shop and the remaining three hours being devoted 
to related and unrelated subject matter in the classroom. 



228 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



General continuation classes were provided four clock hours 
a week for 267 junior employees of ages 14 to 18 years in seven 
department stores, the Western Union Telegraph Company, and 
a five and ten cent store at an annual cost of $31.52 per pupil, 
one-half of which was paid by the city and one-half from Fed- 
eral funds. The employers released the employees for the in- 
struction without deduction of pay. (See Table 170.) 

Part-time cooperative work in printing, personal hygiene, tea- 
room service and dressmaking was taken by 63 pupils. In ad- 
dition juniors and seniors taking retail selling at the Eastern and 
Western High Schools for girls were given practical training and 
experience in a number of department stores. 

The evening industrial classes were paid for entirely by Balti- 
more City, but $1,529 was available from George-Reed funds for 
the evening home economics classes. The former salary cost was 
$9.72 per adult while the latter was $5.29. (See Table 170.) 

Administration, Supervision, and Teacher Training in Vocational Education 

Administration, supervision, and teacher training in agricul- 
ture in 1932 required expenditures of $12,090. Toward this total 
the State contributed $2,190, the University of Maryland $3,231, 
and the Federal funds $6,669. Toward $11,787 spent for super- 
vision and teacher training for trade and industries, the State 
appropriated $3,680, the University of Maryland $3,046, and 
the Federal Government $5,061. For home economics, of a total 
expenditure of $10,398, the State made available $3,159, the 
University of Maryland $2,177, and the Federal Government 
$5,062. (See Table 171.) 

TABLE 171 



Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1932 



Subject 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 

Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Home Economics 

Total 


$2,190.23 
3,679.53 
3,159.12 


$3,437.57 
2,015.47 
t2,884.99 


$3,231.05 
3,045.87 
2,176.68 


$3,231.06 
3,045.85 
2, 176.69 


$5,421.28 
6,725.40 
5,335.80 


$6,668.63 
5,061.32 
t5,061.68 


$9,028.88 


$8,338.03 


$8,453.60 


$8,453.60 


$17,482.48 


$16,791.63 



t Inclusive of $1,000 Federal reimbursement from George-Reed funds. 



Financing Vocational Education; Transportation of Pupils 229 

Growth in Transportation of Pupils 

For the school year 1931-32, the 23 Maryland counties spent 
$834,679 from public funds for the transportation of *35,019 
pupils to county public schools. These figures were an increase 
of $90,279 and 6,013 in number of pupils transported over the 
corresponding figures in 1931. (See Table 172.) 

TABLE 172 



County Expenditures for Transportation of Pupils to School, 1932-1910 



Year 


Expenditures 
for 

Transportation 


Number 
of 

Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


Cost per 
Pupil 
Transported 


1932 


$834,679 


23 


35,019 


$23.88 


1931 


744,400 


23 


29,006 


25.71 


1930 


603,148 


23 


22,814 


26.51 


1929 


t512,385 


23 


18,928 


27.12 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 


27.45 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


27.88 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


30.59 


1922 


90,011 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1915 


17,270 
5,210 


10 
4 






1910 













* Excludes $700 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



Of the 35,019 county pupils transported at public expense, 
25,523 were carried to elementary schools and 9,496 to high 
schools. These figures were higher than those for the preceding 
year by 4,452 elementary and 1,561 high school pupils. (See 
Table 173.) 

Public funds paid for all of the costs for transporting county 
elementary school pupils, but in eight counties parents of high 
school pupils transported had to supplement the amounts paid 
by the county. Parents in these counties paid from $1 to $4 per 
month for this purpose. Transportation in the counties cost 
$595,314 for the elementary school pupils and $239,365 for the 
high school pupils. (See Table 173.) 



* Includes 71 pupils from Anne Arundel and Prince George's Counties transported to 
Bowie Normal elementary school at State expense. 



230 1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 173 

Maryland Pupils Transported in 1932 at County Expense 



COUNTY 


Pupils Transported 


Pubhc Expenditures 
for Transportation 


Total 


to Ele- 
mentary 
School 


To 
High 
School 


Total 


To Ele- 
mentary 
School 


To 
High 
School 


Total Counties . . . 


*35,019 


*25,523 


9,496 


$834,679 


$595,314 


$239,365 


Baltimore 


14,202 


13 , 122 


1,080 


t76,866 


155,845 


21,021 


Anne Arundel .... 


*3 , 307 


*2 , 749 


558 


71,779 


57,218 


14,561 




2,752 


2,572 


180 


65 , 990 


59,384 


6,606 


Carroll 


2,707 


2.006 


701 


57,814 


42,782 


15.032 


Allegany 


2,301 


i;883 


418 


57,420 


45,042 


12; 378 


Garrett 


1,315 


747 


568 


50,949 


28 , 680 


22 , 269 


Washington 


1 , 579 


1,083 


496 


38,244 


27 , 794 


10,450 


Montgomery 


1,978 


1,366 


612 


35 , 603 


27 , 047 


8,556 


Dorchester 


1,478 


1,004 


474 


35,327 


23 , 260 


12,067 


Caroline 


1,610 


1,015 


595 


34,750 


22,053 


12,697 


Worcester 


1.288 


876 


412 


29 , 987 


20,092 


9,895 


Charles 


1,197 


838 


359 


29,838 


21,109 


8,729 


Prince George's . . . 
St. Mary's 


*1 QA9 
1 , oDZ 


*i nns 






ZVJ , < OD 




713 


429 


284 


26,501 


14,539 


11,962 


Queen Anne's 


943 


643 


300 


26,142 


19,377 


6,765 




938 


662 


276 


24,715 


17,369 


7,346 


Somerset 


938 


656 


282 


24,421 


14,363 


10,058 


Calvert 


671 


442 


229 


23,606 


14,905 


8,701 


Cecil 


900 


600 


300 


22,794 


15,064 


7,730 


Kent 


653 


318 


335 


21,827 


10,439 


11,388 


Wicomico 


1,067 


622 


445 


21,712 


12,112 


9,600 


Harford 


644 


558 


86 


16,611 


16,248 


363 


Howard 


476 


324 


152 


13.156 


9,826 


3,330 



* Includes 71 pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at State expense, 49 from Anne Arundel 
and 22 from Prince George's county. 

t Includes $109.03 for cost of transporting six colored pupils to Baltimore City schools. 



In Howard County, which transported the smallest number of 
pupils, only 476 pupils were transported at public expense, while 
at the opposite extreme the number transported in Baltimore 
County was 4,202. Expenditures for transportation in the indi- 
vidual counties ranged from $13,156 to $76,866. (See Table 173.) 

The number of pupils transported at public expense and the 
expenditures for transportation increased from 1931 to 1932 in 
every county except Howard. In 1932, Harford changed its 
former policy of not using county funds for transportation of 
high school pupils to payment of an average of $4 per pupil to- 
ward the transportation cost of 86 high school pupils. (See 
Table 173.) 



Pupils Transported and Cost per Pupil Transported 



231 



Cost per Plupil Transported 

The cost per elementary school pupil transported decreased 
from $24.95 in 1931 to $23.39 in 1932. The counties ranged in 
cost for each elementary school pupil transported from $17.89 
in Baltimore County to $38.39 in Garrett. All except 3 counties, 
St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, and Worcester, had lower costs per 
pupil transported in 1932 than in the preceding year. (See 
Table 174.) 



TABLE 174 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School 
at Public Expense in 1932, Compared with 1931 



County 



Cost to Public 
per Pupil Trans- 
ported to Elemen- 
tary School 



1932 



1931 



County 



Cost to Public 

per Pupil 
Transported to 
High School 



1932 


1931 


$25.21 


$27 . 70 


42.12 
39.21 
38.00 
136.70 
35.67 


38.31 
36.36 
41.36 
33.16 
37.76 


34.00 
29.61 
26.62 
26.09 
25.77 


31.40 
34.12 
27.99 
30.83 
32.44 


25.46 
24.31 
24.02 
t22.55 
t22.21 


30.19 
30.12 
23.50 
25.50 
19.55 


121.90 
21.57 
21.44 
21.34 

t21.07 


24.73 
24.23 
26.22 
25.77 
25.85 


tl9.46 
tl3.98 
t 4.22 


23.36 
14.94 





County Average . 



Garrett 

St. Mary's. 

Calvert 

Kent 

Howard . . . 



Queen Anne's . 

Harford 

Talbot 

Washington . . 
Charles 



Cecil 

Allegany. . 
Dorchester. 
Frederick . . 
Worcester . 



Somerset 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Anne Arundel. . 
Prince George's 



Montgomery 
Wicomico . . . 
Baltimore. . . 



$23.39 

38.39 
33.89 
33.72 
32.83 
30.33 

30.14 
29.12 
26.24 
25.66 
25.19 

25.11 
23.92 
23.17 
23.09 
22.94 

21.89 
21.73 
21.33 
21.19 
21.06 

19.80 
19.47 
17.89 



$24.95 

41.17 
28.47 
36.84 
41.23 
32.97 

28.79 
31.67 
27.43 
27.71 
25.96 

29.64 
25.17 
24.50 
23.77 
22.73 

21.97 
22.85 
28.31 
21.34 
27.20 

24.41 
21.09 
17.93 



County Average. 



St. Mary's, 
Garrett. . . 
Calvert. . . 
Frederick. . 
Somerset. . 



Kent 

Allegany 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel . 
Cecil 



Dorchester 

Charles 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's . . . 
Prince George's . 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Washington 



Baltimore. . . 
Montgomery. 
Harford 



t Pupils transported to high school pay a part of the cost of transportation. 



The average cost of transporting a pupil to high school in 
1932 was $25.21, a decrease of $2.49 under the corresponding 



232 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



cost in 1931. Costs among the individual counties varied from 
$4.22 per high school pupil in Harford, where the parents paid 
a large part of the cost, to $42.12 in St. Mary's. Fifteen counties 
had lower costs in 1932 than they had in 1931. All except one 
of eight counties which required high school pupils to pay part 
of their transportation costs appear in the lower half of 
Table 174. 

For further discussion of cost per white elementary pupil 
transported, see pages 69 to 70, and per white high school pupil, 
see pages 143 to 145. 

Since the State is helping to finance transportation costs in 
Equalization Fund counties, a field study of transportation poli- 
cies in effect is under way by a member of the staff of the State 
Department of Education. 

Per Cent of Pupils Transported 

The proportion of pupils transported together with the cost 
per pupil transported are the chief factors in determining the 
amount spent for transportation and the former figure presents 
a picture of the size of the transportation program in relation 



TABLE 175 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School 
at Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



WMte 



Elementary 



Number 



Per Cent 



•High 



Number 



Per Cent 



Colored 



Number 



Per Cent 



Total and Average 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel 

St. Mar\-'8 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Cecil . 

Wicomico 

Howard 

Allegany 

Washington 

Prince George's . . . 
Harford 



24,793 

940 
1,968 
838 
616 
2,700 
346 
356 
872 
1,004 
747 
2,535 
662 
318 
1,310 
2,951 
656 
547 
622 
324 
1,880 
1,074 
986 
541 



23.1 

44.2 
39.5 
56.1 
38.8 
42.5 
34.8 
41.4 
38.6 
32.9 
18.8 
33.2 
35.4 
22.4 
19.5 
18.0 
28.1 
17.0 
17.4 
17.2 
15.5 
9.8 
13.3 
13.1 



9,019 

440 
701 
321 
288 
558 
284 
176 
411 
412 
568 
180 
276 
273 
529 
1,080 
282 
300 
445 
152 
407 
496 
354 



32.0 

54.5 
48.5 
68.9 
56.5 
44.6 
100.0 
85.9 
51.7 
48.4 
60.4 

9.3 
40.2 
51.3 
32.7 
28.4 
40.6 
27.7 
35.0 
33.7 
13.4 
21.0 
18.4 

7.0 



^1,207 

230 
38 
38 
39 

*49 
83 

139 
5 
62 



37 



62 
139 
171 



53 



14 



*4.3 

23.0 
9.8 
2.2 
5.0 

*1.6 
7.4 

11.7 
.3 
4.0 



3.8 



6.3 
7.7 
9.1 



11.5 



4.1 

2.7 
•.7 

2.2 



• Includes 49 pupils from Anne Arundel and 22 pupils from Prince George's transported to the 
Bowie Normal School at state expense. 



Per Cent of Pupils Transported and Schools to Which Transported 233 



to the total enrollment. The counties have been ranked in the 
order of the per cent of their total school population transported 
in Table 175. 

The transportation in 1932 of 23 per cent of county white ele- 
mentary pupils, *32 per cent of county white high school pupils, 
and 4 per cent of county colored pupils indicates increases of 
3.6, 3, and 2 per cent respectively over corresponding 1931 fig- 
ures. The per cent of pupils transported in the counties varies 
considerably, the per cent being high in those counties which 
have advanced far in their consolidation program, and low in 
the counties which still have a number of rural schools. Four 
counties transported a smaller percentage of high school pupils 
in 1931 than in 1930. The greatest changes for elementary 
schools were found in Calvert and Kent and for high schools in 
St. Mary's. (See Table 175.) 

Eighteen counties, an increase of five over 1931, transported 
colored pupils at county expense. Talbot, Somerset, Wicomico, 
and Howard were the only counties in which no colored pupils 
were transported at public expense. (See Table 175 and pp. 
183-4.) 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation is Provided 

There were 430 county schools to which transportation was 
provided at public expense in 1932, an increase of 54 schools 
over 1931. Of these schools 123 had both high and elementary 
grades, 130 were graded elementary schools, 67 were two-teacher 
schools, 52 were one-teacher schools, 21 were high schools, and 
37 were colored schools. (See Table 176.) 

Frederick County provided transportation to 36 schools, Balti- 
more to 34 schools, and Garrett to 33 schools. On the other hand,, 
Charles transported pupils to 8 schools and Somerset and Talbot 
each provided transportation to 9 schools. (See Table 176.) 

Number and Type of Vehicle Used for Transportation 

In the fall of 1932 there were 822 motor vehicles in use for the 
transportation to school of Maryland county public school chil- 
dren at public expense. One of these was a motor boat used in 
Calvert County, and 85 were private cars used to transport small 
groups of children either to school or to meet school busses. In 
addition there were 3 horse drawn vehicles operating in Dorches- 
ter, Montgomery, and Queen Anne's. Of the motor vehicles 52 
busses were owned by Montgomery, Baltimore, Calvert, Garrett, 
and Harford Counties, while 13 bodies were owned by Prince 
George's. The total distance reported as covered one way by 



In eight counties only a part of the transportation costs are paid through public funds. 



234 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 176 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at County Expense, 
Year Ending July 31, 1932 



COUNTY 



Total Counties . 



Alleganj- 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore . . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mar\''s 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington . 
Wicomico. . 
Worcester. . 



Schools with Elementary 
Grades Only 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



52 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



130 

12 
18 
8 
1 
4 

4 
2 
1 
6 
18 

4 

3 



12 



Schools 
Having 
Both 
High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 



123 

olO 
1 

9 
3 
5 

11 

5 
5 
5 
b6 

4 
7 
5 

3 
c9 

9 
1 
1 

2 



Schools 
Having 

High 
School 
Pupils 

Only 



Colored 
Schools 



37 



Total 
Number 
of 

Different 
Schools 



430 

27 
24 
34 
11 
20 

23 
18 
8 
20 
36 

33 
14 
5 
12 
24 

17 
19 
10 



Baltimore . 

Cecil 

Frederick . 
Harford. . . 



*To ElementOTv 
Only 
4 
1 
4 
4 



'■To High 
Only 



Howard 

Prince George's 
Washington. . . 



"To Elementarj- 
Only 
1 



"To High 
Only 

' i' ' " 
1 



a Includes Green St. Junior High School with only grades 7-9 and Bruce High School with no 
grades below the seventh. 

b Includes Bruns\\-ick Senior-Junior High School. 

c Includes Bethesda — Che\->- Chase and Takoma— Silver Spring Senior-Junior High Schools. 
d Includes South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High Schools. 



motor vehicles was 8,990 miles or an average total route of 10.9 
miles per bus. In addition to children carried in busses at public 
expense, the counties paid for the transportation of 101 pupils 
on public busses, 66 on trains, and 159 on electric cars. 

Capital Outlay in 1932 

The capital outlay in the counties in 1932 totalled $1,650,000, 
a decrease of $520,000 under the amount in 1931. Over one-half 
the amount, $916,000, was used for new buildings to take care 
of the increased high school enrollment. For elementary schools 
$616,000 was spent, of which 97 per cent was for graded and 
junior high schools. The capital outlay for county colored 
schools was $118,000. (See Table 177.) 



Transportation of Pupils; Capital Outlay for Schools 



235 



So 



CD lOt^'— 'LOOC5^0rOt^X^>OOdiC>OiCc01>-cOOiO 
O CO 05 (M C<J CO X (M ^ rO 03 O X O rt^ CO CD CO O CO (M O 

CO (N 



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(M »0 C<1 O C5 



-M 



i-H CO iC Oi lO 

X X (M X CO 

X O Tt" iC ^ 05 



X O 05 

O ^ (^J CO 
CO CO Ol 



ox 



CO Tt^ CO X 

Tj' ^ 05 O 

X (N CO 



■ CO ^ CO 


• O 05 • ■ 


• CO (M 




• CO X 


• ^ • . 


• O ^ (M 




• CO 








CO 





OOi-O — OCOXO 
OOt^CiOfMCOO 



X ^ O ^ O LO o 
CO 05 LO O 



(N X X CO CO 

O 1> O rrt y-( 

O LO (M 



LO ro 
CO ^ ^ CO 
CO CO 



CO 

"3 



s 



si 

S2 



CO LOcOt^OiCOcO^O^COCOt^t^; 
O cOCOOacOi-iCOO'— (NLOLOcOiO; 



^HH c^ 



CO cOcO-HfMCO-OicOLO — ^LOCO^; 
(N (N 1— X 1-1 X (M X ^ O O : 

CO COcOto cOt^XOcOCii-i^LO; 



LO O CO CO 



X o c^i 
X O? to 

o Ci oa — 



8: 



X CO LO o 


CO • 






Ttl ^ O 






(M 


• X o CO lo 




■ ■ 2 




^ X CO o 


o • 






CO CO I> o 


c: • 








CO • 


• • CO 


oT 




CO • 


• • CO 





o3 CO 

<M 

cx 



CO(MCO'-H'<^00'*0'*cO(NLO 

oi oico — c;cO'-^o<noxc;loc5 

(M r-ICOXOCOt^XCOXLOLOO(N 

co^xcoXLOcoxcocoiOcoc^i 
O OcOt> CI C: CO 1-1 X X X CO 

CO -rHCOCO CO CO Xi-<iO 

^ Tt< X C CN CO (N 



o 



1-1 (M X O — < <M X ■ 
COXXCOOCOCOCO 

o o X X CO Ci 



> cj O 



X c 
O 

CJ c; 





: ; • 

• • • lO • 


• -0050 

• • O lO (N 


■ lO • 
• X • 


■ • o • 

• • OQ ■ 


• • CO CO 


CO 
X 
(M 


• • • C5 • 


• -xodd 

• • CO o 

• • X C<l 


111 


. . o . 


: • i>' ^' 

■ • l:^ CO 



CO Ci o 
X CO O 

O to LO o 

Tjl LO Oi (N 

CO I> 1-1 



O 


rt< (M CO 

Tt^ X C 


Co' 
Ol 




• CO 


,-( to" 

<M 


• lo'c^Tt-i 

• CO 








• o • 


• X o 


• o 
• 


• X 

• CO 


■ CO o 
• X ^ 


• • • o 

• • • o 


• o 

• o 


• • S to 


5,310, 


: 

• CO ■ 

• 05 • 


• to to 

• CO 


• (M 

• (N 


• CO 

• 3 


•Tt^'r-n' 

• CO C5 


: ; ; d 

• • • (N 


• CO 


• • LO 

• • to 



*i -tJ 

o o o 



LOOXOOOCO!MC5 
LOLO-^COOt^i-itO 

OLO'^OcO'-OXt^ 
QXi—O^cOCOtOtO 
lO 1— I ^ to Tt< to 



C5 CO CO 

CO o: i> c: 

rj- X 
CO c ^ c 
to LO C: ^ 

1> Tjl Tt X 
O ^ LO 

C5 C: Ci 



LO O CO O 

LO LO C<J O 

d to X d 
o X X o 
Tt^ to O i-t 



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CO tc X 

LO Tt' 



9. S ^ 



bC c^ ^ 



<: < CQOOOOOQ O W ffi « ^ O*^^ H ^ ^ ^ 



1^ 3^1^ 



236 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Anne Arundel invested nearly $596,000 in school buildings in 
1932, while Baltimore and Montgomery each spent over $200,000. 
(See Table 177.) 

The total capital outlay in Baltimore City in 1932 was $2,679,- 
000. Of this amount $1,908,000 was used to provide buildings 
for pupils in white elementary, junior high, and vocational 
schools, $34,000 was spent for senior high schools for white 
pupils, and $634,000 was invested in elementary, junior high, 
and vocational school buildings for colored pupils. (See 
Table 177.) 

SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING AS OF SEPTEMBER, 1932 



TABLE 178 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, September, 1932 





School 

Bonds 
Outstanding 
September, 
1932 


1932 Assessable Assessable 
Basis Taxable Basis Back 
at the of Each 
Full Rate Dollar 
for County of School 
Piu-poses Indebtedness 


Per Cent that 
Indebtedness 
for School J 
Bonds is of ■ 
Total County 
Basis 


Total Counties . 


*t°$15,604,133 


$924,004,675 


$59 


1.7 




^ , IrrO , UUU 


78,856,198 


37 


9 7 


Anne Arundel . . 


1,314,833 


49,013,898 


37 


2.7 


Baltimore 


4,079,000 


170,163,764 


42 


2.4 


Calvert 


83,000 


5,664,637 


68 


1.5 


Caroline 


81,000 


15,129,547 


187 


.5 


Carroll 




36,198,158 






Cecil 


120,000 


36,818,660 


307 


.'3 


Charles 


105,000 


9,850,734 


94 


1.1 




339,000 


21,943,916 


65 


1.5 


Frederick 


1,181,000 


63,927,961 


54 


1.8 


Garrett 




20,242,286 






Harford 


137,000 


51,778,950 


378 


'.'3 


Howard 


166,000 


18,714,472 


113 


.9 


Kent 


18,000 


16,153,205 


897 


.1 


Montgomery. . . 


*2, 272, 800 


86,154,899 


38 


2.6 


Prince George's. 


t 1,216, 500 


64,331,386 


53 


1.9 


Queen Anne's . . 


55,000 


16,377,770 


298 


.3 


St. Mary's 




8,691,590 






Somerset 


29,500 


11,962,586 


406 


".2 


Talbot 


279,000 


20,509,251 


74 


1.4 


Washington .... 


"1,280,500 


73,569,394 


57 


1.7 


Wicomico 


407,000 


27,019,005 


66 


1.5 


Worcester 


295,000 


20,932,408 


71 


1.4 


Baltimore City. 


26,335,266 


1,307,756,090 


50 


2.0 


Entire State . . . 


$41,939,399 


$2,231,760,765 


$53 


1.9 



* Excludes $411,000, authorized, but not yet issued, 
t Excludes $275,000, authorized, but not yet issued. 
" Excludes $55,000, authorized, but not yet issued. 



Capital Outlay for Schools; School Bonds Outstanding 237 

In September, 1932, school bonds outstanding in 20 of the 23 
counties totalled $15,604,133, a decrease of $209,000 under 1931. 
Except in Dorchester and Frederick, which showed increases, 
and Prince George's, which remained stationary, the school bonds 
outstanding decreased in every county. (See Table 178.) 

The assessable basis back of each dollar of school indebtedness 
was $59 in 1932, an increase of $1 over 1931. In every county, 
except Dorchester, Frederick, and Talbot, the county has a larger 
amount of assessable wealth behind school indebtedness than for 
the preceding year. Allegany, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and 
Baltimore Counties, which have been growing rapidly and have 
had to erect buildings to provide for additional elementary aS; 
well as high school pupils, and at the same time take care of 
their consolidation programs, have the least wealth back of their 
school bonds outstanding. But in these counties the school in- 
debtedness is not over 2.7 per cent of the assessable basis. A 
governmental unit is considered a good credit risk when its total 
bonded indebtedness does not represent over 7 per cent of its 
assessable wealth. (See Table 178.) 

Garrett and Kent Counties had referenda in November, 1932, 
regarding school bond issues of $150,000 and $100,000, respec- 
tively, authorized by the legislature in 1931. Both of these refer- 
enda were unfavorable. The bond issue of $10,000,000 for 
schools for Baltimore City has not thus far been submitted to a 
referendum. Bonds to the amount of $275,000 for schools in 
Prince George's County authorized by the 1931 Legislature have 
not yet been issued. The bonds amounting to $45,000 and $10,- 
000 for Washington County schools authorized by Chapters 135 
and 386 of the laws of 1931, which have been repealed, are pro- 
vided for again by Chapter 9 of the laws of 1933. 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 



TABLE 179 
Value of School Property, 1932-1922 





Value of School Propert}' 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 


Year 


Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Mary- 
land 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


1932... 
1931... 
1930... 
1929... 
1928... 
1927... 
1926... 
1925... 
1924... 
1923... 
1922... 


$64,116,448 
61,141,759 
55,741,316 
52,801,013 
51,765,517 
48,654,045 
38,865,024 
33,622,503 
28.264,507 
22,236,638 
20,453,646 


$24,608,923 
23,830,725 
21,483,720 
19,920,102 
18,994,670 
17,889,796 
16,704,564 
14,946,810 
12,813,396 
11,796,630 
10,014,638 


$39,507,525 
37,311,034 
34,257.596 
32,880,911 
32,770.847 
30,764,249 
22,160,460 
18,675.693 
15.451,111 
10,440,008 
10,439,008 


$222 
217 
201 
193 
191 
182 
148 
129 
110 
87 
82 


$146 
144 
132 
124 
120 
114 
108 
97 
85 
77 
68 


S331 
321 
297 
290 
291 
277 
205 
164 
147 
100 
103 



238 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



The value of property used bv public school pupils in the State 
of Maryland in 1932 totalled $64,116,448, of which $24,608,923 
was the valuation in the counties and $39,507,525 was the total 
for Baltimore City. These amounts represent an average valua- 
tion per pupil enrolled of $222 for the State, the amount for the 
counties being $146, and for Baltimore City $331. These 
amounts are increases of $5, $2, and $10 respectively over cor- 
responding figures for 1931. (See Table 179.) 

The average for the United States is $242 for 1929-30 whereas 
the corresponding value of school property per pupil enrolled in 

TABLE 180 



Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1932 





Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


COUNTY 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties. . 


$23,219,213 


132,382 


$175 


$1,389,710 


26,966 


$52 


Allegany 


3.175,685 


14,797 


215 


61,225 


334 


183 


Anne Arundel. . . 


641 . 000 


7,489 


86 


87,200 


2,853 


31 


Baltimore 


5,321,500 


19J64 


269 


257,100 


1^835 


140 


Calvert 


109.800 


1,028 


107 


31,350 


1,064 


29 


Caroline 


3o9 , OOO 


2,871 


IOC 


4t) , OOO 


9o7 


45 


Carroll 


617,358 


6,306 


98 


19,650 


371 


53 


Cecil 


a508,675 


4,214 


121 


18,300 


460 


40 


Charles 


250.500 


1,901 


132 


68,425 


1,582 


43 


Dorchester 


555,600 


3,814 


146 


39,400 


1,495 


26 


Frederick 


1,364,950 


9,382 


145 


62,250 


947 


66 


Garrett 


6354,895 


4,806 


74 








Harford 


667,100 


5,269 


127 


34,600 


750 


46 


Howard 


310,500 


2,288 


136 


17,500 


571 


31 


Kent 


163,900 


1,900 


86 


18,260 


960 


19 


iVIontgomery . . . 


2,639,000 


8,086 


326 


106,150 


1,720 


62 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . . 


cl. 609, 600 


9.175 


175 


168,200 


2,904 


58 


238.050 


2.053 


116 


20,350 


740 


28 


St. Marv's 


122,250 


1,235 


99 


23,950 


1,088 


22 


Somerset 


311.650 


2.935 


106 


39,850 


1,807 


22 


Talbot 


428,000 


2,478 


173 


49,100 


1,077 


46 


Washington .... 


2,102,750 


13,065 


161 


46,400 


330 


141 


Wicomico 


903 , 100 


4,552 


198 


134,600 


1,581 


85 


^^'o^cester 


463,850 


2.974 


156 


42,350 


1.540 


28 


Baltimore City. . 


^34,336,980 


90.308 


380 


5,170,546 


23.792 


217 


Total State 


57,556,193 


222,690 


258 


6,560,256 


50,758 


129 



a Excludes $700 for a buildinp; closed during the year. 
h Excludes $2, .350 for five buildings closed during the year, 
c Excludes $1,500 for a building closed during the year. 
d Excludes $678,474, value of the administration building. 



Value of Public School Property 



239 



Maryland was $201 the same year. In 1931 in Maryland it was 
$217, and in 1932 it was $222, $25 and $20 respectively below 
the average for the country in 1930. (See Table 179.) 

In the counties the average value of property used by white 
public school pupils during 1931-32 was $23,219,213 or $175 per 
pupil belonging, an increase of $732,196 or $1 per pupil belong- 
ing over corresponding figures for the preceding year. The 
value of school buildings used by county colored pupils increased 



CHART 36 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY EI USE 
PER ymiTE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 1950 
Co. Average $161 

Montgomery 349 
Baltimore 
Allegany 
Wicomico 




Balto. City 548 
Total State 25 



240 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



$46,000 to Sl,389,710 in 1932. The average value per county 
colored pupil belonging was S52, an increase of 81 over 1931. 
(See Table 180.) 

The counties varied in value of school property per white 
public school pupil belonging from S74 to 8326 and for colored 
pupils belonging from 819 to 8183. (See Table 180 and Chart 
36 and Chart 29, page 189.) 



COUNTY LEVIES FOR 1932-33 



County Levy for All Purposes and for Schools 

The levies for countv purposes for 1932-33 or for the calendar 
year 1933 totalled 814,669,262, with 85,920,401 of this total 
levied for school current expenses, and 81,178,427 for school debt 
service and capital outlay. The pa\Tnents on school bonds by 
county commissioners as well as by county boards of education 
are included under school debt service. The total for all school 
purposes was therefore 87,098,828. The levy for roads, bridges, 

TABLE 182 

County Tax Budgets, 1932-33 



COUXTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR 



COUNTY 



Total 
County 
Lev\- 



SCHOOLS 



Roads 
Bridges 



other 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Ser\-ice 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total [ 


and 
Ferries 


t.ounty 
Purposes 


$1,084 


347 


$94,080 


$7,098 


828 


$3,070,196 $4,500,238 


1164 


438 




862 


439 


73,707 


364.791 


93 


250 


750 


467 


383 


275.472 


438,116 


293 


361 


5,000 


1.171 


509 


825.. 390 


903,412 




415 




45 


286 


27.085 


42,5.38 


ti2 


652 




111 


652 


.43.260 


131.970 


3 


578 


46,309 


310 


558 


111,355 


224.438 


tio 


250 


9.000 


229 


560 


122.350 


115.574 


t8 


755 




67 


308 


15.000 


40.842 


tl5 


825 




162 


324 


85.313 


152.102 


t77 


400 


200 


465 


742 


142.955 


228.657 


1 


266 


2.160 


139 


020 


57 . 965 


135.461 


18 


750 


11,000 


269 


950 


187.. 300 


145.323 


tio 


470 




120 


314 


92 . 567 


86.312 


t3 


450 




111 


694 


68.662 


85.S58 


tl28 


710 




613 


014 


287.354 


587.694 


t87 


877 


9.000 


580 


657 


184.446 


144.402 


t7 


550 




116 


803 


43 . 550 


62.305 








57 


965 


35.000 


35 . 432 


t2.975 


9.000 


89 


188 


35.373 


80,866 


tl3 


590 


561 


153 


800 


60.612 


76.715 


87 


664 




596 


615 


131.9.30 


186.900 


t20 . 990 


1.100 


202 


106 


106.065 


138.662 


+14 


131 




153 


941 


57.485 


91.868 



Total Counties . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel*. 
Baltimore*. . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll. . . . 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford* . . . . 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington. 
Wicomico . . . 
Worcester. . 



1.. 300. 937 
1.180,971 
2,900.311 
114,909 
286.882 

646.351 
467.484 
123,150 
.399,7.39 
837.354 

332,446 
602 , 573 
299 , 193 
266,214 
1,488,062 

909,505 
222,658 
128.397 
205,427 
291.127 

i 915.445 
I 446.833 
303.294 



698.001 
373.38:3 
873 . 148 
37.871 
99.000 

260.671 
210.310 
58 . 553 
146 . 499 
388 . 142 

135 . 594 
240.200 
109.844 
108.244 
484.. 304 

483,780 
109.253 
57 . 965 
77.213 
139.649 

508.951 
180.016 
139.810 



• 1933 calendar year. 

t Paid by the county commissioners directly. 



County Levy for Schools, Roads and Other Purposes 



241 



and ferries, including debt service, was $3,070,196, leaving $4,- 
500,238 available for all other county purposes. (See Table 182.): 

The total levy was a decrease of $958,000 under the preceding 
year, the school levy being reduced by $601,000, school current 
expenses being lower by $440,000, school capital outlay by $128,- 
000, and school debt service by $33,000. The levy for all road 
purposes was reduced by $470,000, while the amount available 
for "other county purposes'' increased by $113,000. 

Every county, except Montgomery, showed a decrease in the 
total county levy. The school current expense levy was reduced 
for 1932-33 under 1931-32 in all counties, except Cecil, Prince 
George's, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's, in which counties it was 
practically the same amount as for the year preceding. The 
levy for school debt service was lower in all counties except Cal- 
vert, Charles, Frederick, and Wicomico. A big reduction was 
made in school capital outlay financed from the levy. In twelve 
counties nothing was levied for school capital outlay and in all 
other counties, except Carroll, the school capital outlay from the 
levy did not exceed $11,000. Cecil, Harford, St. Mary's, and 
Somerset exhibit the greatest reductions in the levy for school 
capital outlay. (See Table 182.) 

County Levy for Roads and "Other County Purposes" 

Except in Carroll, Dorchester, Harford, Montgomery, Prince 
George's, and St. Mary's, the county levy for road current ex- 
pense, debt service, and capital outlay combined was lower in 
1932-33 than in 1931-32. (See Table 182.) 

For county purposes other than schools and roads less was 
levied in 1932-33 than the year before in all counties except Al- 
legany, Carroll, Frederick, Harford, Montgomery, Somerset, 
Talbot, and Worcester. These increases were not in excess of 
$25,000, except in Montgomery County. (See Table 182.) 

Levy for Incorporated Towns and Districts and Per Cent for Schools 

In a number of the counties the levy for the county is not the 
only amount levied, because the incorporated towns and cities, 
districts, and other areas in the county raise taxes to carry on 
various functions of government. Baltimore County is the only 
one in which there are no incorporated towns for which addi- 
tional levies are required. If the amounts levied for the towns 
and districts are combined with the county levy, it is possible to 
divide the school levy by this grand total to find out the per cent 
of the total levy for governmental activities within the county 
limits devoted to school current expense and all school purposes. 
These percentages are shown in columns 6 to 8 in Table 183 and 
the rank of the counties in per cent of levy used for school pur- 
poses is given in columns 9 and 10. (See Table 183.) 



242 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Per Cent Levied for Schools; Assessable Basis 



243 



The per cent of all levies used for school current expense aver- 
aged 35.2, with a range from 28.9 per cent in Montgomery to 
46.5 per cent in Prince George's. For all school purposes includ- 
ing current expenses, debt service and capital outlay, the average 
of the grand total of all levies used was 42.2. Dorchester used 
the smallest percentage, 34.4 for all school purposes, just over 
one-third, while Prince George's devoted 55.8 per cent of its total 
levies to school purposes. (See Table 183.) 

With the exception of Dorchester, Montgomery, and Queen 
Anne's, the percentage of the levies for county, plus incorporated 
towns and cities, and districts devoted to school current expense 
changed very little, i. e., the schools received reductions similar 
to those given other functions of government. There was con- 
siderable change in the proportion of the grand total levied used 
for all school purposes due chiefly to the elimination of capital 
outlay from the levy for 1932-33, in Harford, St. Mary's, and 
Somerset. The reduction in Montgomery was perhaps due to 
the use of an incomplete figure for the total levy in 1931-32, and 
the increase in Queen Anne's is explained by the reduction in the 
grand total levied in 1932-33 under 1931-32. (See Table 183.) 

CHANGE IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses, $923,203,000, showed an increase of only $800,000 from 
1931 to 1932, a much smaller increase than was found for any 
year previously reported. This increase was a net figure re- 
sulting from increases in 12 and decreases in 11 of the coun- 
ties. Increases exceeded one million dollars in only Baltimore, 
Montgomery, and Prince George's Counties, while decreases ex- 
ceeded this amount in Allegany, Talbot, and Washington Coun- 
ties. In Baltimore Citv the increase in taxable basis totalled 
$17,624,000, bringing the total basis in 1932 to $1,346,403,000. 
The total for the State was $2,269,606,000 in 1932. (See Table 
184.) 

Analysis of the 1932 basis indicates for the 23 counties an 
increase of $5,400,000 in the total assessment of real estate and 
tangible personal property by the county commissioners, but de- 
creases of $622,000 or 7 per cent in railroad rolling stock, of $2,- 
451,000 or over 10 per cent in ordinary business corporations, of 
$1,307,000 or over 6 per cent in domestic share corporations, 
and of $197,000 or 79 per cent in personal property of non-stock 
corporations and distilled spirits assessed by the State Tax Com- 
mission. The assessment of real estate and tangible personal 
property comprised 95 per cent of the total basis assessable at 
the full rate for countv purposes in the 23 counties. (See 
Table 185.) 



244 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 184 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 

Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 
Total Counties 


*1923 
S661,724 


1925 
$726,064 


1927 
$781,971 


*1928 
$883,508 


1930 
$917,677 


1931 
$923,203 


1932 
$924,005 


Allegany 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 


69,886 
30,692 
104,232 
4,427 
14,027 


75,718 
36,956 
124,971 
4,623 
14,616 


78,837 
44,565 
139,232 
4,935 
14,761 


80,715 
47,544 
157,654 
5,305 
15,283 


81,911 
48,106 
164,308 
5,546 
15,170 


80,971 
48,553 
167,242 
5,560 
15,156 


78,856 
49,014 
170,164 
5,665 
15,130 


Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 


33,382 
23,189 
8,394 
18,987 
51,248 


34,183 
24,700 
8,854 
19,628 
54,941 


35,636 
25,628 
9,315 
20,439 
57,655 


39,875 
30,408 
9,938 
21,918 
65,234 


36,537 
35,916 
10,162 
22,495 
65,244 


36,265 
36,392 
10,103 
22,188 
64,670 


36,198 
36,819 
9,851 
21,944 
63,928 


Garrett 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery 


16,303 
28,580 
15,670 
14,519 
45,503 


19,556 
29,487 
15,682 
14,777 
50,676 


18,903 
29,561 
16,539 
14,956 
60,239 


21,653 
39,763 
18,063 
16,162 
77,889 


21,526 
50,846 
17,956 
16,108 
82,615 


20,838 
51.149 
18.666 
16,138 
84,580 


20,242 
51,779 
18,714 
16,153 
86,155 


Prince George's . . . , 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 


33,651 
14,793 
7,162 
10,609 
16,927 


37,776 
15,024 
7,825 
11,307 
17,524 


42,878 
14,803 
7,809 
11,972 
18,048 


59,312 
16,692 
8,289 
12,392 
20,478 


62,757 
16,536 
8,371 
12,150 
20,486 


63,301 
16,247 
8,590 
12,055 
21,534 


64.331 
16,378 
8,692 
11,963 
20,509 


Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 


62,570 
20,394 
16,579 


68,281 
21,379 
17,5801 


72,867 
5)24,109 
■ 18,284 


72,908 
25,092 
20,941 


75,316 
26,250 
21,365 


75,322 
26,487 
21,196 


73,569 
27,019 
20,932 


Baltimore City. . . . 


902,208 


1,083,959 


1.230,198 


1,255,978 


1,328,779 


1,351,403 


1,307,756 



State $1,563,932 $1,810,023 $2,012,169 $2,139,486 $2,246,456 $2,274,606 $2,231,761 



* Includes reassessment figures. 

For individual counties the 1932 assessment of real estate and 
tangible personal property for county purposes exceeded that for 
1931 in all counties except Allegany, Charles, Dorchester, Gar- 
rett, Somerset, Washington, and Worcester. In Baltimore City 
there was a decrease of nearly $25,000,000 in the assessment for 
this purpose. (See Table 185.) 

Railroad rolling stock was assessed approximately 7 per cent 
less in 1932 than in 1931. Every unit in the State except How- 
ard, Montgomery, and St. Mary's, which are not given an as- 
sessment for this purpose, and Calvert, which showed a small 
increase, had a lower assessment for rolling stock in 1932 than 
in 1931. (See Table 185.) 

The assessment of ordinary business corporations was lower 
in all units of the State, except Calvert, Cecil, Montgomery, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's in 1932 than in 1931. In Balti- 
more City the reduction totalled $15,000,000, so that the reduc- 
tion for the entire State was $17,400,000. (See Table 185.) 

The assessment against individual counties for ownership of 
shares in domestic public utility corporations was larger in all 



Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County 245 



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246 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



except 10 of the counties in 1931 than in 1932. The greatest 
changes occurred in Talbot, which decreased by over one million 
dollars, while Wicomico increased by $672,000. (See Table 185.) 

The assessment for distilled spirits was lower by nearly $200,- 
000 in Baltimore County in 1932 than in 1931, while the Balti- 
more City amount increased by $377,000. (See Table 185.) 

TAX RATES FOR 1932-33 

The county tax rates for school current expenses, obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1932-33 by the 1932 assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes, indicate that the 
average rate for school current expense is $.641 compared with 
$.689 a year ago. For school debt service a rate of $.117 is only 
very slightly lower than for the year preceding. The rate for 
school capital outlay $.01 is less than one-half the amount in 
1931-32— $.024. (See Table 186.) 

The tax rates for school current expenses ranged from $.464 
to $.885 in Allegany. In Caroline and Somerset Counties, the 
levy is 1.6 and 2.4 cents below the 67 cents required if a county 
is to meet the requirements for receipt of the Equalization Fund, 
and in six other counties the school current expense tax rate was 
from .2 to .4 cents below the 67 cent requirement. All of these 
counties have been notified and the county commissioners in most 
of the counties have agreed to make available the necessary 
funds. The last payment of the Equalization Fund is withheld 
until this requirement is met. (See Table 186.) 

The tax rate for school debt service ranged between nothing 
in St. Mary's and 21 cents in Allegany. These rates include not 
only interest and amortization expenditures made by the county 
commissioners, but also those made directly by county commis- 
sioners on account of school bond issues or school debts. The 
tax rates for school capital outlay in nine of eleven counties 
which had a levy for this purpose was less than 2.5 cents. In 
Somerset it was 7.5 cents and in Carroll 12.8 cents. (See Tablr 
186.) 

The countv tax rate for all school purposes ranged between 
$.521 in Harford and $1,094 in Allegany. (See Table 186.) 

County tax rates for all county purposes varied from $1.20 in 
Washington, Frederick, Cecil and Harford Counties to $2.00 in 
Calvert and $2.32 in Anne Arundel. Beside the county tax rates, 
the incorporated towns and many districts pay additional tax 
rates levied for the governmental functions which these units 
perform. These tax rates in addition to the county rate range 
between 5 cents and $1.25. (See Table 186.) 



County Tax Rates for Schools; Parent-Teacher Assns. 247 
TABLE 186 



County 



§1932-33 County School Tax Rate for 
School 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Total 



Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1932-33 



County Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel f. 
Prince George's . 

Carroll 

Washington .... 

Talbot 

Kent 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Carohne 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Charles 

Howard 

Cecil 

Montgomery ... 

Baltimore t 

Harford t 



$ .641 

.885 
.762 
.752 
.720 
.692 

.681 
.670 
.670 
°.668 
°.668 

°.668 
°.667 
°.667 
°.666 
°.654 

°.646 
.607 

t594 
.587 
.571 

.562 
.513 
.464 



S .117 

*.209 
.190 

*.137 
.010 
.119 

*.066 
*.022 
.006 
*.131 
*.072 

*.067 
*.046 



010 



002 
014 
128 



.003 



Oil 



*.078 
*.084 

*.025 
*.121 
*.089 
*.056 
*.028 

*.149 
.173 
.036 



.004 



075 
001 



024 



.003 
.021 



$ .768 

1.094 
.954 
.903 
.858 
.811 

.750 
.692 
.687 
.799 
.740 

.735 
.713 
.667 
.748 
.738 

.746 
.729 
.683 
.643 
.623 

.711 
.689 
.521 



$1.59 



1.35 
1.47 
1.60 
2.00 
1.70 

1.45 
1.37 
1.49 
1.45 
1.30 

1.60 
1.20 
1.25 
1 . 49-1 . 52 
1.20 

1.33-1.72 
1.50 
1.20 



poses 



§ Obtained by dividing amount in levy by assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county pur- 

3. 

t Calendar year 1933. 
* Debt service figures include amounts paid directly by the County Commissioners. 
t Excludes receipts from Federal Government for Indian Head. 
° Notified of the requirement that 67 cents be levied. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 
Active parent-teacher associations functioned in 571 county 
white schools in 1932. This number includes 56.2 per cent of 
all white schools, an increase of 1.5 over the corresponding per 
cent in 1931. These cooperative associations of parents and 
teachers prove of inestimable value in giving the schools the 
interest and support of the home which add so materially to the 
school's efficiency. (See Table 187.) 

The white one-teacher schools had parent-teacher associations 
in 31.1 per cent of these schools, the two-teacher schools in 67.4 
per cent, and the graded schools in 86.9 per cent. (See Table 
188.) 



248 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 187 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1932 to 1924 



Parent-Teacher Associations 



Year 
1932. 
1931. 
1930. 
1929. 
1928. 
1927. 
1926. 
1925. 
1924. 



in White 


Schools 


Number 


Per Cent 


571 


56.2 


613 


54.7 


576 


47.7 


588 


45.8 


617 


45.4 


649 


45.1 


638 


42.8 


623 


40.6 


490 


30.8 



TABLE 188 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 
School Year 1931-32 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
White Schools Having Number Per Cent 

One Teacher 152 31.1 

Two Teachers 130 67 . 4 

Three or More Teachers 273 86 . 9 

All Elementary 555 55 . 7 



The number of P. T. A.'s in white schools ranged from 2 in 
St. Mary's to 80, which included every school in Baltimore 
County. The per cent of schools having associations varied from 
8 per cent to 100 per cent, 5 counties having P. T. A.'s in more 
than 90 per cent of the white schools. (See Chart 37.) 

All except 9 counties made gains over 1931 in the per cent of 
active organizations in 1932. (See Chart 37.) 

The Playground Athletic League is in a position to help the 
parent-teacher associations with their meetings. A member of 
the staff is prepared to take charge of an evening in which the 
parents and teachers can do a number of things together. 

It has been suggested that the county parent-teacher associa- 
tions be used more extensively than has hitherto been the case 
in entertaining the visiting teams from other towns or counties. 
Daughters of the cooperating families thus receive training as 
hostesses. The associations of eighteen Baltimore City schools 
entertained boys from the counties last year and this practice 
resulted in something of definite social value. 



Parent-Teacher Associations for White Schools 249 
CHART 37 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY miTE SCHOOLS, 1951 and 1932 



Cotmty Nvunber 

1931 1952 

Total and 
Co. Average 613 



Per Cent 
1931 1932 




RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
COUNTY FUNDS 

In the seven counties which sent in reports on school funds 
received from other than State and county sources, the gross 
receipts totalled $196,292. Expenses of the activities amounted 
to $79,955, leaving the total net receipts $116,337. (See Table 
189.) 



250 



1932 



Report of State Department of Education 



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Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds 251 



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252 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Receipts from cafeterias and school lunches furnished 35.7 
per cent of the gross receipts, the balance on hand at the begin- 
ning of the year accounted for 16 per cent, and the remaining 
receipts were accounted for through miscellaneous sources shown 
in Table 189. 

Of the total net receipts, $91,665 was used for school purposes 
and $24,672 was carried over as a balance at the end of the 
year. Improvement of buildings and grounds took 16.5 per cent 
of the total expenditures, physical education 14.8 per cent, and 
school lunches 11 per cent. The various other items for which 
the expenditures were used are given in detail in Table 190. 

These figures indicate the interest that individuals in the 
community take in helping finance school activities which can- 
not be supported from the funds available from the county levy. 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 
County Superintendents and Their Salaries 

The salary of the Maryland county superintendent as fixed 
by the State minimum salary schedule is based upon size of 
teaching staff and years of experience. Nine counties had fewer 
than 150 teachers, five had more than 150 and fewer than 200 
teachers, and in the remaining nine counties there were 200 or 
more teachers. Several counties which would have had more 
than 200 teachers had they not carried forward a policy for 
school consolidation and transportation, have replaced the prob- 
lems involved in having a large teaching staff with new prob- 
lems connected with the transportation program. A num'ber of 
counties pay the superintendents salaries in excess of the mini- 
mum schedule in which the State shares. The salaries paid in 
1931-32 ranged from $2,500 to $8,000. County superintendents 
in 1934 and 1935 will share in the reductions from 13 to 15 
per cent in the minimum State schedule provided for in the 
budget and Chapter 224 of the Laws of 1933. (See Table XXV, 
page 303.) 

Several changes in the staff of county superintendents oc- 
curred in May, 1932, as the result of the death of Superintendent 
Palmer in August, 1931. Mr. E. W. Pruitt, Superintendent in 
Talbot, became superintendent of Frederick County. Mr. Thomas 
G. Pullen, Principal of the Catonsville High School in Balti- 
more County, was appointed to the superintendency in Talbot 
County. As a result of the withdrawal of Mr. T. G. Bennett 
from Queen Anne's County, Mr. Franklin D. Day, superintendent 
in Calvert County, was appointed to the vacancy. Mr. Day's 
place in Calvert was filled by the appointment of Mr. Harry 
Hughes, Principal of the Solomon's High School in Calvert 
County. 



County School Administration; Superintendents' Conferences 253 



Superintendents' Conferences 

Conferences of the county superintendents were held on No- 
vember 20, 1931, and March 18, 1932. At the fall conference 
Dr. Burdick discussed the physical education program in Mary- 
land and its implications. Mr. Cook brought up the State appro- 
priations for the 1932 and 1933 budgets and plans for the mak- 
ing of the 1934 and 1935 budgets. The evolution of high school 
supervision in Maryland was discussed by the superintendents 
and State high school supervisors. 

At the afternoon session the recommendations of the certifi- 
cation committee with one exception were adopted. These recom- 
mendations were included in the annual report for the year 
1930-31. 

The difficulties of elementary school graduates who cannot at- 
tend high school except as boarding students were presented by 
Mr. Fitzgerald and Mr. Unger. 

A tentative new basis for allowing State aid to high schools 
was discussed. Suggestions regarding counting commercial 
teachers as academic teachers and for eliminating all distinction 
between academic and special teachers were discussed, but no 
decision was reached. 

Mr. Cook, in talking briefly of ways of celebrating the Wash- 
ington bicentennial in the public schools, expressed his oppo- 
sition to the essay contest as a method of celebration, but left 
the county superintendents free to make any decision they 
wished in the matter. Miss Simpson suggested dramatization of 
different episodes in the life of Washington to be presented at 
one central place. The State Board of Education refused to 
sponsor the collection of ten cents from each school child to 
restore the Senate Chamber at Annapolis. Instead, it was their 
thought that the State itself could well afford to do this. 

The occasional but not general practice by which a few indi- 
viduals as school board members let contracts to themselves as 
individuals, especially in connection with insurance, has occurred 
frequently enough to cause severe local condemnation of some 
school boards and to greatly lessen public confidence in their 
school systems. The probable need for legislation to strengthen 
the position taken by the Attorney General in this matter similar 
to that presented to the 1931 legislature and reported unfavorably 
was conceded. (This matter culminated in the enactment of 
Chapter 151 of the laws of 1933, which makes such practices 
illegal.) 

Mr. Seidel reported on problems for study in connection with 
transportation. 



254 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

At the conference in March, 1932, Miss Simpson discussed the 
educational objectives which should be set up for Maryland's 
next decade of progress in view of the achievement of the finan- 
cial and professional implications of the 1922 State program. 
It was decided that each county superintendent should cooperate 
with his supervisor (s) in setting up the goals for the next few 
years in the light of the present status of the county's achieve- 
ments. (See page 84.) 

The program for retrenchment set up as a result of Governor 
Ritchie's request that each department save five per cent of its 
budget was presented by Mr. Cook and the tentative savings 
which it was proposed to make in the 1932 and 1933 budgets 
were outlined. Each county superintendent reported on the bud- 
getary situation in his own county. 

The recommendations of the certification committee are re- 
ported as additional new certificate regulations on pages 256 to 
257. 

Canference of County Attendance Officers 

At the conference of county attendance officers held March 18, 
1932, the report of a committee on the issuing of employment 
certificates was presented and discussed. This was followed by 
a brief presentation of the point of view and various topics 
considered in the course on social case work offered at the 
Johns Hopkins University in the summer of 1931, which was 
taken by eleven of the attendance officers. Those who took the 
course presented the material for the benefit of those who had 
not. One of the attendance officers compiled a list of books of 
interest to attendance officers and the names of counties owning 
the books listed. The question of the responsibility of the at- 
tendance officer for attendance of high school pupils was raised 
and discussed. Mr. Foster, who was to give a course at the 
University of Maryland in the summer of 1932, which would be 
of special interest to attendance officers, was introduced to the 
group. 

In the afternoon meeting Miss Lavinia Engle of the League 
of Women Voters gave a brief history of school attendance and 
child labor legislation in Maryland. Judge Waxter of the Balti- 
more City Juvenile Court, showed the need of getting back to 
the causes of unsocial behavior on the part of problem children 
and compared the results of foster home care of neglected de- 
pendent children in well-supervised homes with institutional care. 
Miss Anita Faatz, State Supervisor of Social Welfare, outlined 
the types of service which a social welfare program may bring 
to a county as a result of her survey of Howard County. Mr. 
E. W. Broome, Superintendent of Montgomery County, presented 
the plan being worked out in his county to take care of the well- 
being of the whole child. 



Conferences of Supts. and Attendance Officers; Certification 255 



THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM IN THE COUNTIES* 

Number of Certificates Issued 

The number of certificates of the various kinds which have 
been issued during the period from December 1 to November 
30 in the years 1931-32, 1930-31 and 1921-22 are shown in 
Table 191. 

TABLE 191 



Grade of Certificate 


Number of Certificates Issued 
December 1 to November 30 

1931-32 1930-31 1921-22 


AQniimstration. and kMiper vision 

Administration and Supervision 








2 





4 


Elementarv Supervision 


4 


2 


9 


Helping Teacher 





2 


10 


Attendance Officer 





2 





High School 








Principal 


4 


19 






102 


196 


157 


Special 


45 


77 


30 


Vocational 


23 


30 


24 


Non-Public 


78 


66 





Elementary 








Principal 


37 


30 


43 


Advanced First Grade 


76 






First 

Second 

Third 


345 
1 


469 
6 


370 
325 
214 


Non-Pubhc First 


2 











The figures for 1931 and 1932 reflect the smaller turnover in 
the public schools and the policy of refraining, whenever possi- 
ble, from replacing teachers who have resigned. The Advanced 
First Grade Certificates, which were issued in the fall of 1932 
for the first time, are now held by seventy-seven of the county 
elementary school teachers. These certificates represent the 
equivalent of three years of standard normal school work. There 
has been a slight increase in the number of non-public secondary 
teachers' certificates issued, and there were issued also tw^o non- 
pubUc first grade teachers' certificates, which were available in 
1931-32 for the first time. 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional or emergency certificates issued 
during each of the last ten years, including 1932-33 up to Jan- 
uary 1, is given in Table 192. There has been an almost steady 
decrease in these figures except during certain years when a more 
complete check of the certification than had previously been made 
took place, with a resultant rise in the number of provisional 



* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman. Credential Secretary. 



256 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



certificates issued to teachers who had formerly taught without 
certificates. The slight increase in the number of provisional 
certificates issued in the high school field (1927-30) has been 
due to the very large increases in the high school enrollment. 
The January 1 figures, 3 and 46, show an improvement over the 
corresponding figures for last year, which were 5 and 78. (See 
Table 192.) 

TABLE 192 



Provisional or Emergency Certificates 
Issued for 



YEAR 


Elementary 


High School 




School Teaching! 


Teaching t 


1932-33 


*3 


*46 


1931-32 


15 


82 


1930-31 


25 


92 


1929-30 


35 


112 


1928-29 


72 


110 


1927-28 


268 


108 


1926-27 


214 


104 


1925-26 


175 


132 


1924r-25 


316 


184 


1923-24 


276 


225 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to January 1, 1933. 



Medical Examinations 

Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone medical examinations conducted by phy- 
sicians especially appointed for this puiiDOse. For the numbers 
examined, accepted and rejected during the four years the regu- 
lation has been in force, see Table 193. 

TABLE 193 

Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical Examinations 



Year Number Accepted Number Rejected Total 

1929- 30 910 7 917 

1930- 31 872 13 885 

1931- 32 754 18 772 

1932- 33* 495 8 503 



* Up to March, 1933. 

Additional New Certificate Reg;ulations 

Upon recommendation of the Certificate Committee, the fol- 
lowing new regulations were passed at the Superintendents' meet- 
ing held on March 18, 1932, and those which needed action of 
the State Board were endorsed at the Board meeting which was 
held on October 21, 1932. 



Certification ; New Certificate Regulations 



257 



Helping Teachers' Certificates 

No helping teachers' certificates shall be issued after June, 
1933. 

Attendance Officers' Certificates 

After June, 1933, the completion of a standard three-year 
normal school course or equivalent credit shall be required for 
the attendance officers' certificate. 

Elementary Principals' Certificates 

For appHcants previous to June, 1933, and for colored appli- 
cants until further change in standards, the requirement for the 
elementary school principal's certificate shall be the completion 
of a two-year course in a standard normal school, or equivalent 
credit, and a full half year of work (or two six- week summer 
terms) at a recognized college in elementary school methods, 
supervision and administration. 

For white applicants, after the school year 1932-33, the re- 
quirement shall be the completion of a two-year course in a 
standard normal school and the number of six-week summer 
terms (or the equivalent) indicated below, including twelve 
semester hours in elementary school methods, supervision and 
administration. 



Number of Six- Week Summer Terms Beyond Two- Year Normal School Course 
Required for White Applicants for the Elementary Principal's Certificate 









1936 and 


1933-1934 


1934-1935 


1935-1936 


thereafter 


3 


4 


5 


6 



The certificates issued on from three to five summer terms 
beyond the completion of a two-year normal school course will 
be valid for only two years and will be renewable for two-year 
periods until the 1936 requirement is met. 

Three years of successful teaching experience also shall be 
necessary for the elementary school principal's certificate issued 
on any of the bases described above. 

Content of Summer School Course 

Two semester hours of the summer school credit presented 
for the renewal of a full first grade, advanced first grade, ele- 
mentary school principal's, high school teacher's, or high school 
principal's certificate, must relate to the applicant's work. These 
credits may be in education or in an academic subject which 
the applicant is teaching. The other course or courses taken 
in summer school may be free electives. 



258 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Correspondence Courses 

A maximum of six semester hours for a correspondence course 
or courses completed under the auspices of a standard college 
during any one school year previous to June, 1933, may be ac- 
cepted toward the requirement for a certificate. Correspond- 
ence course credits earned after that date will not be accepted. 

THE MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR WHITE STUDENTS 
The Number of Graduates 

There were 224 county and 106 city students graduated in 
1932 from the State Normal Schools at Towson, Frostburg, and 
Salisbury. The number of 1932 graduates from the counties 
and Baltimore City were fewer than for 1931 by 5 city and 28 
county graduates at Towson, 43 at Frostburg, and 4 at Salis- 
bury. (See Table 194.) 



TABLE 194 

White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1932 to 1920 



YEAR 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury- 


Total 
CountieB 


Total 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


1932 


215 
248 
262 
268 
286 
353 
428 
527 
239 
240 
114 
50 
37 


106 
111 

133 
115 
97 
139 
214 
234 


109 
137 
129 
153 
189 
214 
214 
293 
239 
240 
114 
50 
37 


41 
84 
72 
81 
82 
91 
84 
59 
71 
58 
28 
29 
13 


74 
78 
70 
82 
75 
72 
27 


224 
299 
271 
316 
346 
377 
325 
352 
310 
298 
142 
79 
50 


1931 


1930 


1929 


1928 


1927 


1926 


1925 


1924 










1922 






1921 






1920 






Total, 1920-1932 






3,267 


1,149 


2.118 


793 


478 


3,389 





These figures bring the total number of county graduates 
since 1920 to 3,389 and the number of Baltimore City graduates 
from 1925 through 1932 to 1,149. (See Table 194.) 

Types of Positions Secured by Normal School Graduates 

Of the 1932 county graduates, 76 or one-third received teach- 
ing positions for the following school year. For Towson county 
graduates the per cent receiving positions was 46, for Frostburg 
16, and for Salisbury 22 per cent. On the whole this was prob- 
ably typical of conditions in most institutions of higher learning 
in the country. 

Of the 53 Towson graduates who were placed in the counties 
for the school year 1932-33, 8 took positions in Baltimore, 7 in 
Montgomery, and 6 in Harford. Towson graduates took posi- 



Normal School Graduates and Their Placement 259 



TABLE 195 



Distribution of 1932 Normal School Graduates by County Placement 
and Type of School 



COUNTY 


TOWSON 


FROSTBURG 


SALISBURY 


GRAND 
TOTAL 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher j 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


1 Total 


Total Counties: 


8 


9 


36 


53 
57 


3 




4 


7 
37 


4 


5 


7 


16 

58 


15 


14 


47 


76 
152 


































1 
1 


4 
7 

2 


5 
8 
2 














3 


3 




1 
1 


7 
7 
2 
2 

4 


8 
8 
2 
4 

6 


















Calvert 






































2 


2 


4 




2 
1 


Carroll 




1 


3 


4 






1 


1 




Cecil 
























2 
1 

2 


2 
1 

3 






















2 
1 

1 
4 
1 


2 

3 
q 
o 

2 
6 
4 


















2 




2 


1 

1 
1 

2 


2 

"l 
1 




1 
















1 




1 


2 










Harford 


1 
1 


1 
1 


4 
1 


6 
3 










Howard 










1 






1 


Kent 
















1 
1 


1 


5 
3 


7 
4 


















1 

1 
1 
1 


1 

"i 

2 


5 
4 


7 

5 
2 
3 


Prince George's 














1 


1 

2 












1 


1 


St. Mary's 


1 


2 




3 




























Talbot 


2 






2 
3 










2 




1 


3 


4 

2 


1 


1 
4 


5 
7 




1 


2 


2 




2 


4 






















































1 


1 

2 

105 

56 
162 






















1 


1 

2 
106 

79 
257 


Baltimore City: 

Teaching 
























































Entire State: 

Teaching 














7 
37 








16 

58 





























































tions in every county, except seven on the Eastern Shore and 
the two westernmost counties. The 7 Frostburg graduates who 
received appointments were placed in Washington, Garrett, and 
Carroll counties. The 16 Salisbury graduates were given posi- 
tions in 4 Eastern Shore counties and in Anne Arundel, Howard, 
and Prince George's. (See Table 195.) 

Of the 76 graduates for 1932 who were placed in the counties, 
15 took positions in one-teacher schools, 14 in two-teacher 
schools, and 47 in larger schools. Of the Towson graduates 68 
per cent went into the larger schools, from Frostburg 57 per 
cent, and from Salisbury 44 per cent. (See Table 195.) 



260 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Graduates Teaching in Home County; Normal School Enrollment 261 

Of the 222 graduates from the counties, 65 or 29.3 per cent 
returned to teach in their home counties, and 11 or 14.5 per cent 
were teaching in counties other than their home counties. Of 
the Towson graduates, 42 per cent took positions in their home 
counties; of the Frostburg graduates, 14 per cent, and of the 
Salisbury graduates, 20 per cent returned to teach in their home 
counties. (See Table 196.) 

Of the 1932 county graduates, 152 were not placed, many more 
than for any preceding year. The number of Towson graduates 
who did not secure positions totalled 57, wiiile those unplaced 
from Frostburg and Salisbury included 37 and 58, respectively. 
In addition, there were 105 Baltimore City graduates from Tow- 
son who failed to secure teaching positions. (See Table 196.) 

Enrollment at the Normal Schools Fall of 1932 

The lengthening of the normal school course to three years, 
the financial depression, and the failure of recent graduates to 
secure positions had their effect in decreasing the normal school 
enrollment at Towson by 59 city and 49 county students, and 
Salisbury by 26 students in the fall of 1932. Frostburg, how- 
ever, had an increase of 25 in its total enrollment. The total 
county enrollment of 494 was lower than it has been at any time 
since the fall of 1920, but the ei^rollment has been decreasing 
graduallv since the fall of 1926, when it reached its peak with a 
total of 834 students. (See Table 197.) 



TABLE 197 



Enrollment at State Normal Schools 



Fall 


Towson 


Frostburg 


SaKsburj' 




Total 


of 


City 


County 




County 


State 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


107 


817 


1,228 


1924 


518 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 



The distribution of the normal school enrollment by classes is 
given in Table 198. 



262 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 198 

Distribution of Normal School Enrollment by Classes Fall of 1932 



Total 

Class Towson Frostburg Salisbury County 

City County \ 

Freshmen _ 114 119 78 37 234 

Juniors _ „ 147 112 41 42 195 

Seniors _ 28 26 17 22 65 



Total _ 289 257 136 101 494 

Elementary School _ 265 212 106 583 



Since there will probably be few vacant positions for the year 
1933-34, it is fortunate that the senior class which will graduate 
in June, 1933, is very small. It includes those students who at 
the beginning of their second year in September, 1931, chose to 
complete two more years of work instead of graduating in 1932. 
Unless those who enroll in the fall of 1933 are deterred by the 
tuition fees which are to be charged and the increase in the 
dormitory cost, the enrollment in each of the three classes will 
probably be nearly the same. In this case there is likely to be 
some increase in the total normal school enrollment next year. 

According to Chapter 225 of the laws of 1933, Section 157 of 
Article 77, the State School Law now reads as follows : 



After June 1, 1933, white students regularly admitted to or en- 
rolled in any class at the State normal schools from the City of 
Baltimore and the several counties, who shall obligate themselves 
to teach in the State of Maryland, shall pay such uniform fees and 
tuition charges as may be fDced by the State Board of Education. 
Other students who possess the prescribed qualifications may be 
admitted to these schools, in the discretion of the board of trustees, 
on payment of an additional fee as determined by the board of 
trustees. 

The distribution of the normal school enrollment at each school 
by classes and by counties is given in Chart 38 and Table 199. 
From the chart it is very evident that each normal school draws 
its largest enrollment from the county in which it is located and 
those counties in close proximity. Also see Chart 18, page 95, 
for per cent of girl high school graduates of 1932 from each 
county who entered normal schools in September, 1932. 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Normal Schools Fall of 1932 

The per cent of freshmen admitted to Towson in the fall of 
1932 who had taken the academic or college preparatory course 
was slightly lower for city and higher for county students than 
the year before. These percentages were 88 for city and 91 for 
county freshmen. For both city and county freshmen the per 
cent who had taken the general course was lower and the per 
cent who had taken the commercial course was higher. (See 
Table 200.) 



Normal School Enrollment by Classes 



263 



^ ^ — CO CO :vi r- 



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ffl a 



264 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 




Normal School Enrollment; Status of Freshmen 265 



TABLE 200 
1932 Normal School Entrants 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper Middle 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep.. 
General 


87.8 
2.6 
9.6 


90.8 
4.2 
5.0 


70.5 
19.2 
6.4 


81.1 
10.8 
5.4 
2.7 


Upper 

Middle 


76.3 
22.8 
.9 


68.0 
26.9 
5.1 


42.3 
35.9 
17.9 
3.9 


48.6 
40.6 
8.1 
2.7 


Commercial 










3.9 


Total 
Number 






Total 
Number 








114 


119 


78 


37 


114 


119 


78 


37 



At Frostburg only 71 per cent of the freshmen had taken the 
academic course, 19 per cent the general course, 6 per cent the 
commercial course, while 4 per cent were unclassified. (See 
Table 200.) 

At Salisbury 81 per cent of the freshmen had elected the aca- 
demic course in high school, 11 per cent the general, and the re- 
mainder the commercial and vocational home economics course. 
(See Table 200.) 

At Towson over three-fourths of the city freshmen and over 
two-thirds of the county freshmen were in the upper third of 
their high school class. These percentages were very much 
higher than those reported for any previous year. The per 
cent from the middle and lower third of the high school were 
correspondingly low. For the city freshmen less than 1 per 
cent were from the lower third of their high school class, while 
for the county freshmen this was the case for 5 per cent. Cor- 
responding figures a year ago were 8 and 10 per cent, re- 
spectively. ( See Table 200. ) 

Frostburg had 42 per cent of its freshmen who entered in Sep- 
tember, 1932, from the upper third of the class, a gain of 5 per 
cent over the preceding year, but the per cent from the lower 
third, 18, was over four times the corresponding percentage a 
year ago. (See Table 200.) 

Salisbury with nearly 49 per cent from the upper third of the 
class showed a decrease of 6 per cent from the figure for the 
preceding year. The group from the middle third of the high 
school class made a corresponding gain. (See Table 200.) 

Withdrawal of Freshmen Who Entered in September, 1931 

Towson lost by withdrawal over 31 per cent of the freshman 
county enrollment which entered in September, 1931. The cor- 
responding per cent for city freshmen was 23 per cent. Of 
these withdrawals 21 per cent of the county freshmen and 18 per 
cent of the city freshmen left at the request of the school. At 



266 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Frostburg and Salisbury the total per cent of freshmen who 
withdrew before the beginning of the junior year was 14.6 per 
cent. Of these only 2 per cent at Frostburg and 10 per cent at 
Salisbury withdrew at the request of the school. (See Table 
201.) 

TABLE 201 



Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Normal Schools in September, 1931, 
Who Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily 
Before September, 1932 





Towson 




Frost- 


SaHs- 




County 


City 


burg 


bury 


Freshman Enrollment, September, 1931 


164 


190 


48 


48 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer or . 










Death 


7 


6 


... . 




Withdrawals by Request 


33 


33 




'5' ' 


Voluntary Withdrawals 


16 


10 


6 


2 


Per Cent Withdrawn bv Request 


21.0 


17.9 


2.1 


10.4 


Per Cent of Voluntary Withdraw^als . . . 


10.2 


5.4 


12.5 


4.2 


Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 


31.2 


23.3 


14.6 


14.6 



Faculty at the Normal Schools 

There were few changes in the size of the faculty in the State 
normal schools in September, 1932, except for an increase of one 
in the Towson campus elementary school, an increase of two in 
the Towson county and city training centers, a decrease of 1 and 
10 in the county training centers at Frostburg and Salisbury, 
respectively, and a decrease of 5 in the combined number at 
Salisbury who gave instruction in the normal school proper, the 

TABLE 202 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1932 



Position 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


Principal 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Instructors 


31 


8 


a5 


44 


Library 


5 


2 


62 


9 


Campus Elementary School 


10 


6 


c3 


19 


Training Centers 












21 


1 




22 




24 








Office Staff 


8 


2 


2 


12 


Dormitory Staff 


5 


c2 


dl 


8 



a Includes a part-time music instructor. 

b Includes a librarian who teaches English part-time and an assistant librarian, but excludes two 
part-time alumnae, who work in the library as well as carry the third year of the normal school course. 
c Includes two teachers who give instruction in the normal school department. 
d The social director is also the school nurse, and teaches home economics part-time. 
e The social director teaches education. 



Withdrawal of September, 1931, Freshmen; Faculty 267 



library, and the campus elementary school. This latter decrease 
at Salisbury excludes two part-time alumnae who worked in the 
library in addition to carrying the third year of the normal 
school course. The campus elementary school at Salisbury is 
being taught by members of the regular normal school faculty. 
(See Table 202.) 

An additional teacher in Baltimore County and one in Har- 
ford County are acting as critic teachers, bringing the number 
in these counties cooperating with the Towson Normal School to 
15 and 2, respectively. The number of critic teachers in Bal- 
timore City increased to 24. Only one Allegany County school 
is needed for training purposes for the small number of seniors 
at the Frostburg Normal School. At Salisbury no training cen- 
ters are in use in Wicomico and Somerset Counties. (See Table 
203.) 

TABLE 203 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1932 



Normal School at County Co-operating 

Towson Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Total Counties . . . 

Baltimore City 

Campus School 

Frostburg Allegany 

Campus School 

SaHsbury Campus School 



Number of 


Number of 


Schools 


Teachers 


7 


15 


1 


4 


1 


2 


9 


21 


11 


24 


1 


9 


1 


1 


1 


6 


1 


3 



Total and Student Costs at the Normal Schools 

Because of the decreased receipts from student fees resulting 
from fewer students and also because of the request made by 
Governor Ritchie in December, 1931, that all State departments 
and institutions save at least 5 per cent of the amount appro- 
priated to them for 1931-32, all of the normal schools operated 
on smaller appropriations in 1931-32 than they had the preced- 
ing year. The savings were made chiefly in food and in opera- 
tion and maintenance costs. (See Table 204.) 

At Towson the costs for instruction, $191,204, were $13,500 
less than for the year preceding, although the number of normal 
school students given instruction, 582, was slightly greater. In 
addition there were 265 pupils in the elementary school. There 
were 248 resident students on the average during 1931-32. 



268 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Receipts and Expenditures and per Normal School Student Costs 269 



Dormitory expenditures, $86,438, were lower by ?20,450 than for 
1930-31. Of this latter amount $4,700 was due to the decrease 
in receipts from students' fees because of the decrease in resi- 
dent students and the remainder was a saving in State appro- 
priation. The decrease in resident students was due in part to 
the increase in the number of county students living at a dis- 
tance who were transported to the school daily. Towson, there- 
fore, returned to the State Treasury approximately $30,000 of 
its 1932 appropriation of $250,806, or about 12 per cent. (See 
Table 204.) 

At Frostburg the average enrollment of 113 normal school 
students for instruction and 56 in residence in 1931-32 were a 
decrease of 41 and 23, respectively, under the preceding year. 
These figures do not include 188 pupils in the elementary train- 
ing school. Because of the decrease in normal school students, 
there was of course a decrease of nearly $4,500 in receipts from 
students' fees. Instead of using the entire State appropriation 
of $74,565, only $65,766 was expended, making it possible to re- 
turn approximately $8,600 or 11.5 per cent to the State Treas- 
ury. (See Table 204..) 

At Salisbury the average enrollment of 124 students for in- 
struction and 105 for residence were lower by 36 and 40, re- 
spectively, than corresponding figures the year before. These 
figures exclude 98 pupils in the elementary training school. The 
decrease in normal school enrollment reduced the fees by over 
$7,600. The expenditures of $67,722 from the State appropria- 
tion made it possible to return $4,493 or 6.2 per cent of the ap- 
propriation of $72,215 to the State Treasury. (See Table 204.) 

Total expenditures per student and cost per student* to the 
State were lower at Towson and for the dormitory at Frostburg 
than for the preceding year. For instruction at Frostburg and 
Salisbury and for the dormitory at Salisbury they were higher. 
The total instruction cost per student* was $327 at Towson, $457 
at Salisbury, and $529 at Frostburg. Deducting fees received 
from students for registration, library, health, etc., the instruc- 
tion cost per student* to the State was $306 at Towson, $442 at 
SaHsbury and $510 at Frostburg. (See Table 204.) 

For the dormitory the total expenditure per resident student 
was $345 at Towson, $299 at Salisbury, and $290 at Frostburg. 
Deducting payments by students for board the cost to the State 
for the dormitory per resident student was $170 at Towson, 
$155 at Frostburg, and $123 at Salisbury. (See Table 204.) 

The total instruction and dormitory cost to the State per resi- 
dent student was $664 at Frostburg, $565 at Salisbury, and $476 
at Towson. (See Table 204.) 



* In calculating cost per normal school student no recognition is given to the elementary 
training school pupils who are instructed at the expense of the school. 



270 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



Instruction costs to the State per student were lowest at Tow- 
son and highest at Frostburg. Dormitory costs to the State per 
resident student were highest at Towson and lowest at Salis- 
bury. The combined cost of instruction and dormitory per resi- 
dent student were highest at Frostburg and lowest at Towson. 
(See Table 204.) 



Inventories of the Normal Schools 

The inventories of Towson and Salisbury show increases over 
the figures reported a year ago because of the expenditure of 
funds provided from the bond issues for the erection of an ele- 
mentary school building at Towson and the completion of the 
building at Salisbury. (See Table 205.) 



TABLE 205 

Inventories of the Normal Schools 

Towson Frostburg Salisbury- 
Land and Improvements $ 101,654 $ 25,000 $ 16,266 

Buildings 1,153,874 354,718 816,762 

Equipment 185,412 21,220 42,672 

Livestock 1 , 174 

Total $1,442,114 $400,938 $875,700 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The value and importance of the Teachers' Retirement Sys- 
tem to the school children of Maryland in making it possible to 
retire teachers too old and sick to give the type of efficient serv- 
ice demanded is inestimable. The satisfactory attitude in the 
classroom which is found when teachers are not harassed and 
worried about their future security certainly makes for an en- 
vironment in which children can benefit from the instruction 
offered. 

Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its fifth year 
of operation received contributions from county teachers to the 
amount of $280,530, an increase of $4,883 over the amount con- 
tributed during 1930-31. In October, 1932, 4,823 county teach- 
ers, 95 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were active members 
of the system. For the preceding October, only 94 per cent of 
the teachers were contributing members. (See Table 206.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
86.1 per cent in Wicomico, to 97.6 per cent in Allegany. Twelve 



Normal School Inventories; Teachers' Retirement System 271 



TABLE 206 

Contributions by County Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers* 
Retirement System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ending July 31, 1932, 
Number and Per Cent of October, 1932, County Teaching Staff Who are Members 

in Active Service 







Members 




Amount Contrib- 


in Activ 


e Ser\-ice 


COUNTY OR INSTITUTION 


uted Year Ending 


October. 1932 




July 31, 1932 


Number 


Per Cent 


County : 






Allegany 


c? of\ ooo Ar\ 


456 


97.6 




io,uzo.o-± 


284 


90.7 




1 o mo TO 


548 


96.1 


L^alvert 


1 , 6 Jo . 42 


57 


93.4 


Caroline 


a. /I A 1 on 
D,4yi.oU 


129 


95.6 


Carroll 


lo,l/o.U4 


233 


97.1 




y , U»4 . oo 


154 


97.5 


„ _i 


A TAI OO 
4, ^Ul . OO 


108 


95*5 




b , lo4 . 1 t 


176 


93.6 


Frederick 


17.497.57 


308 


96.3 


Garrett 


9.329.55 


160 


92.5 


TT C 1 

Jtlariora 


lU.o/l .4o 


195 


93.8 


Howard 


O.yjli .Ul 


97 


92.4 


Kent 


n A OA o o 
, 4bU . OO 


100 


97 1 




OA 1 « 0'3 
Z\J , oiD . Zo 


331 


96.2 




OA AC^ AO 
1\J . ybO . U8 


376 


97.4 


Queen Anne's 


5 . 273 . 60 


92 


93.9 


St. Mary's 


3,226.26 


78 


95.1 


Somerset 


7 , 560 . 89 


153 


96.8 


Talbot 


5.732.67 


112 


91 1 


ashington 


01 P.P.I A1 

zv , do/ . yi 


372 


89^9 


Wicomico 


O CAA OA 

o , 699 . o9 


167 


86.1 


Worcester 


6,785.04 


137 


91.9 


Total Counties 


S280,o30.31 


4,823 




94.5 


Normal School: 












51 




Frostburg 


1 , 707 . 59 


12 




0_ 1,"„T 

oausDury 


2 , 280 . 30 


15 






846.65 


13 




Total 


$12,031.81 


91 




Department: 












25 




Md. Public Library Advisory Commission. . 


\ 4,939.56 


4 




]Md. Teachers' Retirement System 




3 




Total 




32 




Other Schools: 








Md. Training School for Boys 


1,931.18 


21 




Montrose School 


694.10 


6 




Md. School for the Deaf 


1.996.38 


25 




Rosewood 


995.71 


10 




Total 


S 5,617.37 


62 




Grand Total 


$303,119.05 


5,008 





272 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

counties had over 95 per cent of their teachers enrolled in the 
Retirement System. Contributions from 185 members in the 
State Department of Education, the Normal schools, and the 
four State schools for handicapped and delinquent children 
brought the total contributions for 1931-32 to $303,119. (See 
Table 206.) 

During 1931-32, in addition to annuity payments of $3,066 
from their own contributions, $99,326 was paid in the form of 
pensions from State funds to members retired with credit for 
service rendered prior to August 1, 1927. On July 31, 1932, 
there were 192 members receiving this form of allowance, of 
whom 159 had been retired because they were at least 60 years 
of age, and 33 had been retired on account of disability. Fur- 
ther payments of $86,733 were made to teachers retired in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Chapter 447 of the Laws of 1920 
on an annual pension of $400. At the end of the year 1931-32 
there were 205 teachers receiving the $400 pension. 

The Retirement System during 1931-32 paid $8,433 for ordi- 
nary death benefits upon the deaths of members in active serv- 
ice, and returned to the beneficiaries or estates of deceased mem- 
bers accumulated contributions amounting to $3,816. Teachers 
w^ho resigned from active service and terminated their member- 
ship in the system withdrew $47,367, which amount covered their 
contributions with accrued interest thereon. 

During the year 1931-1932, the Board of Trustees purchased 
$405,000 par value of bonds for the Retirement System. The 
total holdings in securities on July 31, 1932, had a par value of 
$1,773,000. On November 5, 1932, an appraisal of the securi- 
ties of the Teachers' Retirement System made by Theodore Gould 
showed that the bonds held on July 31, 1932, had a market value 
of $1,688,865. The book value of these holdings was $1,785,560. 
The Board of Trustees considers the soundness of the invest- 
ments indicated by this appraisal exceedingly gratifying. 

State Appropriations 

The State appropriation of $494,342 for 1932 covered the nor- 
mal contribution and the accrued liability contribution of the 
State of Maryland on account of the county members of the 
Maryland State Teachers' Retirement System. The law pro- 
vides that the State shall contribute to the City of Baltimore an 
amount equal to what would be required if the teachers of Bal- 
timore City were members of the Maryland Teachers' Retire- 
ment System instead of belonging to the Retirement System 
available to all employees of the City of Baltimore. This amount 



FlN*2VNCING THE TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 



273 



was $473,622 for 1932. In addition, an appropriation of $10,000 
was made to meet the expenses of administration of the State 
Retirement System. 

The total State appropriation for the Teachers' Retirement 
System for 1933 is $1,026,362. This amount includes $519,059 
for the Retirement System for the county teachers, $10,000 for 
the administration of the system, and $497,303 as the State's 
share towards the Baltimore City Retirement System. 

As shown in Table 2, page 10, the amount provided for the 
Retirement System in 1934 is $1,012,149 and for 1935 is $1,021,- 
711. Of these amounts $592,149 in 1934 and $641,711 in 1935 
are provided from the appropriations in the public school budget 
according to Chapter 597 of the laws of 1933. In addition, there 
is provided $800,000 from bond issues, $420,000 to be made 
available in April, 1934, and $380,000 to be available in April, 
1935, to fund the accrued liability of the State, according to the 
provisions of Section 6 of Chapter 311 of the laws of 1933. 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the normal 
schools give a thorough physical examination to all graduates 
who are planning to take positions in the Maryland counties. 
All entrants in the service who have not had such examinations 
are required to visit the physician in each county appointed to 
examine such teachers. The State Department of Education 
bears the expense of such examination. Reports of these ex- 
aminations are forwarded to the Medical Board of the Teach- 
ers' Retirement System. Certificates are issued only to those 
teachers, reports of whose physical examination are approved 
by the Medical Board. The number examined, accepted and re- 
jected during the three years the regulation has been in force 
are shown in Table 193, page 256. 



274 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



LIST OF FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES 



No. SUBJECT OF TABLE Page 

Financial Statements _ _ 275-277 

I. Number of Schools _ 278 

II. Total Enrollment - 279 

III. Non-Public School Enrollment „ 280 

IV. Non-Catholic Private Schools _ „.„ _ 281 

V. Catholic Parochial and Private Schools _ - 282-283 

VI. Average Number of Pupils Belonging 284 

VII. Average Daily Attendance; Per Cent of Attendance 285 

VIII. Average Days in Session; Aggregate Days of Attendance... 286 
IX. Non-Promotions by Grade and Sex — County White Ele- 
mentary Schools 287 

X. Number of Teaching Positions „ „ „ 288 

XI. Certificates of County White Elementary Teachers, Oc- 
tober, 1932 _ „ _ 289 

XII. Certificates of County Teachers in White One- and Two- 
Teacher Schools, October, 1932 „ 290 

XIII. Certificates of Teachers in White County Regular and 

Senior, Senior-Junior and Junior High Schools, October, 

1932 _ - _ „ 291 

XIV. Certificates of County Colored Teachers, October, 1932. 292 

XV. Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher, 1931-32... 293 

XVI. Average Salary Per Teacher, 1931-32 294 

XVII. Badge Tests— White Schools _ 295 

XVIII. Teams and Entrants— White Schools _ 296 

XIX. White Girls' Relay Teams and Entrants _ 297 

XX. Badge Tests— Colored Schools _ 298 

XXI. Teams and Entrants— Colored Schools 299 

XXII. Receipts from State, 1931-32 _ - 300 

XXIII. Receipts from All Sources, 1931-32 _ _ 301 

XXIV. Total Disbursements, 1931-32 _ _ 302 

XXV. Disbursements for General Control 303 

XXVI. Disbursements for Instruction and Operation _ „ 304 

XXVII. Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and 

Fixed Charges _ _ 305 

XXVIII. Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay. 306 

XXIX. Disbursements for White Elementary Schools „ 307 

XXX. Disbursements for County White One-Teacher Schools 308 

XXXI. Disbursements for County White Two-Teacher Schools 309 

XXXII. Disbursements for Junior High Schools „ _ 310 

XXXIII. Disbursements for White High Schools „...._ _ 311 

XXXIV. Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools _ 312 

XXXV. Disbursements for Colored High Schools _ 313 

XXXVI. Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Normal School 



Entrants, Courses in Individual County High Schools 314-319 

XXXVII. Enrollment by Subject in Individual County High Schools 320-325 



List of Tables; Financial Statements 



275 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1932 



Account 



State 
Appropriation 



Receipts 
from Fees, 
Federal 
Aid and 
by Budget 
Amendment 



Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to 

Treasury 



Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 



Maryland State Normal 

School, Towson 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Sahsbury 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Frostburg 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Bowie 

State Department of 

Education 

Maryland Public Library 

Advisory Commission . . . 
Bureau of Educational 

Measurements 

Bureau of Publications 

and Printing 

Physical and Health 

Education 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation . 
Extension Courses for 

Teachers 

State Board of Education . 

Consultant Architect 

Examination and Certifi- 
cation of Teachers 

State Aid to Approved 

High Schools 

Part Payment of Certain 

Salaries 

State Add to Colored 

Industrial Schools 

Free Textbooks 

Materials of Instruction . . . 
Census and Attendance . . . 

Equalization Fund 

State Aid for Handicapped 

Children 

Deficit — Census and 

Attendance Fund 

Deficit — Equalization Fund 

Totals 

Teachers' Retirement 

System : 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers 
Expense Fund 

Totals 



$250,806 

72,215 

74,565 

41,680, 

76,650, 

17,976. 

12,000, 

7,500. 

15,000. 
25,000. 
10,000. 

3,000. 
1,000. 
1,500. 

3,500. 

561,632. 

190,000. 

30,750. 
200,000. 

50,000. 
1,800,000. 
824,960. 



$62,173.30 


$30,364.85 


20,474.60 


4,492.73 


10,336.68 


8,601.58 


13,566.86 


7,489.52 


101.80 


5,819.00 


884.02 


505.86 




2,695.13 




41.20 



10,000.00 



102,694 
23,926 



7,700.52 
6,395.48 



622.00 
1,000.00 

1,543.20 
506.75 



1,354.04 
*36,304.75 
8,093.00 
2,250.00 



*23,063.97 



59,368.72 



$4,406,354.00 



494.342.00 
473,622.00 
10,000.00 



$181,001.98 



$134,747.58 



$5,384,318.00 



$181,001.98 



$134,747.58 



$282,614.45 

88,196.87 

76,300.10 

47,757.34 

70,932.80 

18,354.16 

9,304.87 

7,458.80 

15,000.00 
32,078.52 
15,395.48 

1,456.80 
493.25 
1,500.00 

2,145.96 

525,327.25 

181,907.00 

28,500.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 
1,800,000.00 
801,896.03 

10,000.00 

162,062.72 
23,926.00 



$4,452,608.40 



494,342.00 
473,622.00 
10,000.00 



$5,430,572.40 



* Transferred by budget amendment to take care of deficit in Census and Attendance Fund; all other 
amounts in this column returned to State Treasury. 



276 



1932 



Report of State Department of Education 



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Financial Statements; Construction Accounts 277 
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 



Receipts 



Purpose 


State 
Appropriation 


Other 
Receipts 


Budget 
Amendment 


Total 
Receipts 


Vocational Education 


$25,000.00 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 

3,500.00 
10,000.00 
250.00 


a$7,700.52 




$32,700.52 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 

3,500.00 
16,395.48 
5,072.88 
6,022.50 


Physical and Health Education . . 
Educational Measurements 








Publications and Printing 
























Examination and Certification of 








a6,395.48 
64,822.88 
c6,022.50 




Supervision of Colored Schools. . . 













EXPENDITTJKES 



Purpose 


Salaries 


Traveling 
Expenses 


County 
Subsidies 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amend- 
ment 


Total Dis- 
bursements 


Vocational Education 


$15,150.00 
15,000.00 
6,983.26 


$3,781.91 


$6,816.06 


(i$6,330.65 


$622.00 


$32,700.52 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 

3,500.00 
16,395.48 
5,072.88 
6,022.50 


Physical and Health Education . . 


21.61 




2,300.00 
7,458.80 
1,456.80 


2,695.13 
41.20 
1,543.20 
















1,500. 66 








493.25 






606.75 

1,354.04 
1,000.00 


Examination and Certification of 






2,145.96 
6,333.44 




8,349.95 
4,000.00 


712.09 
1,072.88 




Supervision of Colored Schools . . . 






66,022.50 















a From Federal Government. 

b From General Education Board. 

c From Julius Rosenwald Fund. 

d Includes $5,000.00 transferred to the Baltimore Industrial and Commercial Classification Survey. 
e For buildings, libraries, and transportation. 



Construction Accounts 



Receipts 

Normal School at 

Towson Frostburg Salisbury 

Balance, Oct. 1, 1931 $26,244.64 

Receipts from Bond Issues $130 , 700 .00 32 , 000 . 00 $200 , 000 . 00 



Total Receipts $130,700.00 $58,244.64 $200,000.00 

Disbursements 

Construction $ 7,731.00 $18,212.79 $ 99,342.32 

Equipment • ; . 5 , 803 . 18 

Architects' Fees 4,105.04 1,841.95 6,175.04 



Total Disbursements $11,836.04 $25,857.92 $105,517.36 

Balance, Sept. 30, 1932 $118,863.96 $32,386.72 $ 94,482.64 



278 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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280 1932 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE m 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1932 



County 


WHITE 


COLORED 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enrollment 


No. 

of 

Teachers 


Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mercial 
and 
Secondary 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. 
of 

Teachers 


t Catholic Parish and PBrv'ATE Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1931 




9 
1 

16 
1 
2 
2 
8 
1 
1 
3 
2 
5 

10 
1 


2,235 
344 
2,869 
28 
207 
292 
619 
71 
98 
291 
131 
731 
1,063 
330 


512 


75 
8 
100 
7 
9 
13 
52 
4 
4 
10 
18 
30 
39 
10 










1 


71 


2 




135 
14 
53 
68 

244 


Caroline 








Carroll 










1 

2 


117 

29 


2 
2 




Garrett 




4 
8 
96 
93 
136 
64 










1 


30 


1 






1 

3 


88 
a323 


2 
16 


St. Mary's 


Washington 










62 
69 


9,309 
29,957 


1,427 
3,598 


379 
811 


9 
8 


a658 
61,234 


25 
45 


Baltimore City 


Total State 


131 


39,266 


5,025 


1,190 


17 


a61,892 


70 




* Non-Catholic Private Schools 




5 
8 
7 
1 
2 
1 
5 
2 
1 
3 


78 
383 
403 
14 
22 
23 
260 
36 
18 
20 


279 
652 
286 


25 
151 
55 
1 
11 
3 

40.3 

4 

1 
16 
















Cecil 








Garrett 








Howard 


42 
4 

166 








Kent 








Montgomery 









Prince George's 








Queen Anne's 










St. Mary's 


158 








Somerset 


1 


c25 


12 




2 
1 


30 
50 


67 


12 
5 




1 


28 


1 


Total Counties 






38 
15 


1,337 
1,817 


1,654 
834 


324.3 
232.8 


2 
1 


c53 
60 


13 
2 


Baltimore City 


Total State 


53 


3,154 


2,488 


557.1 


3 


cll3 


15 





Schools for Exceptional Children 

Frederick School for the Deaf 271 101 21 

Md. Training School for Boys 178 9 5 

Montrose School for Girls J13I {30 

t Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools and by Mrs. V. D. Pickard, Superintendent of Seventh 
Day Adventist Parochial Schools. 
X Figures for 1930-31. 
a Includes 75 high school pupils. 
b Includes 18 high school pupils. 
« Includes 25 high school pupils. 



Non-Public School Enrollment; Non-Catholic Private Schools 281 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non- Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1932 



Enrollment 
Ele- Sec- 
County and men- ond- 
School tary ary 

White Schools 

Anne Arundel 

Severn 127 

Cochran-Bryan. ... 102 

HoUaday 62 

U. S. Naval Acad., 

Prep 60 

The Thomas School 16 

Total 78 279 

Baltimore 

McDonogh 302 247 

Greenwood 37 68 

Hannah More 16 67 

St. Timothy's 83 

Robert's Beach 8 63 

Oldfield's 69 

Marston 4 39 

Garrison Forest ... *16 *16 

Total 383 652 

Cecil 

Tome Town 218 112 

Tome Institute 9 124 

Parish 105 

West Nottingham . 2 43 

Blythedale Church 33 2 

Reynold's 22 

Seventh-Day 

Adventist 14 5 

Total 403 286 

Garrett 

Zion Lutheran .... 14 



Number of 
Teachers 
Full Part 

Time Time 



Enrollment Number of 



Howard 

Donaldson 14 

The Howard 

School 8 

Total 22 

Kent 

Seventh-Day 

Adventist 23 

Montgomery 
Washington 

Missionary Col. . 129 
Bradford Home ... tSS 
Chevy Chase 

Country 43 

National Park 

Seminary 

Chevy Chase 

Total 260 



Prince George's 
Avondale Country. 
Seventh-Day 

Adventist 



Total . 



22 
+14 



36 



42 



42 



112 



30 
t24 



166 



133 18 



18 4 

tl5 12 

3 . . 

6 1 

2 . . 

1 1 



10 



tl.3 
13.3 





Ele- 


Sec- 


Teachers 


Countv and 


men- 


ond- 


Full 


Part 


School 


tary 


ary 


Time Time 


Queen Anne's 










Seventh-Day 












18 




1 




St. Mary's 










Charlotte Hall 


6 


104 


8 




St. Marj-'s 














54 


7 




Mrs. Townshend's. 


i4 




1 




Total 


20 


158 


16 




Washington 












15 


64 


4 


7 


Seventh-Day 










Adventist 


15 


3 


1 




Total 


30 


67 


5 


7 


Wicomico 










Mrs. Herold's 


50 






6 


CoLOHED Schools 






Somerset 










Princess Anne 










Academy 




25 


12 




Wicomico 










St. Marie Institute 


28 




1 




Baltimore City White Schools 




279 


153 


26 


7.8 




271 


100 


33 


4 


Roland Park Country] 


224 


113 


27 


12 


Oilman Country .... 


164 


160 


7 




Calvert 


270 




17 


2 


Park 


161 


89 


22 


13 


Immanuel Lutheran . 


122 




3 






34 


83 


10 


4 




53 


62 


11 


2 


Mt. Washington 










Country 


94 




8 


4 




35 


40 


4 




Seventh-Day 










Adventist 


43 


9 


3 




St. Paul's for Boys . . 


122 


t25 


5 




Miss Crater's Country 








School 


23 




3 


1 


Little School in 










Guilford 


22 




2 


2 


Total 


1,817 


834 


181 


51.8 


Colored School 






Seventh-Day 










Adventist 


60 




2 




Total State 










White Schools .... 


3,154 2,488 


451 


106.1 


Colored Schools . . . 


88 


25 


15 





* Estimated. 

t Figures as of 1930-31. 

t Figures as of 1930-31; School discontinued 1932-33. 



282 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions Fall of 1931 



County and School 



Alleganv 

SS. Peter and Paul's, 

Cumberland 

St. Patrick's, Cumberland 
St. Mary's, Cumberland. . 
St. Peter's, Westernport. . 
La Salle Institute, 

Cumberland 

St. Michael's, Frostburg. . 
St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage . 
St. Joseph's, ^Midland. . . . 
St. Michael's, Eckhardt. . 



Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis. 
St. Mary's (Colored) 
AnnapoUs 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary com- era 
mercial 



Baltimore 

St. Mark's, Catonsville. . . 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 

St. Michael's, Overlea 

School of the Immaculate, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, FuUerton. . . 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn. . . . 
St. Charles', Pikesville . . . 
Ascension, Halethorpe . . . 
St. Clement's, Lansdowne 
St. Stephen's, Bradshaw. . 
St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 

Little Flower, Woodstock 
Sacred Heart, Glyndon. . . 

Total 



502 


86 


13 


431 


69 


12 


339 


58 


11 


261 


86 


10 


84 


182 


10 


232 




7 


168 


'si 


5 


148 




5 


70 




2 


2,235 


512 


75 


344 




8 


71 




2 


378 




9 


333 




6 


318 




6 


240 


71 


10 


239 




5 


206 




6 


202 




5 


188 




6 


174 




4 


174 




5 


146 


'is 


4 


97 




7 


76 




3 


20 


46 


19 


60 




3 


18 




2 


2,869 


135 


100 



County and School 



CaroUne 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary com- ers 
mercial 



Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster. 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown. 

Total 



Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata. . . 
St. Mary's, Bryantown. . . 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 
Bryantown 

Frederick 

St. John's, Frederick 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Joseph's College High, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, 

Emmitsburg 

Mt. St. Mary's Prep., 

Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick 

St. Francis', Brunswick... 
St. Peter's, Libertytown. . 

Total 

St. Peter's (Colored), 

Libertytown 

St. Euphemia's (Colored), 

Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. . . 



28 


14 


7 


179 


53 


7 


28 




2 


207 


53 


9 


180 


31 


6 


112 


37 


7 


292 


68 


13 


117 




2 



175 
165 



102 

93 
37 
25 
22 

619 

18 

11 



71 



98 



4 

4 4 



132 

46 
' 2 
244 



Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Institutions 



283 



TABLE V— Continued 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fall of 1931 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 

tary com- ers 
mercial 

Howard 

St. Paul's, EUicott Citv . . 127 ... 4 

St. Augustine's, ELkridge . 109 ... 3 

St. Louis', ClarksviUe 55 8 3 

Total 291 8 10 

St. Augustine's (Colored), 

Ellicott City 30 ... 1 

Montgomery 

St. Martin's, Gaithersburg 131 ... 3 
Georgetown Prep., 

Garrett Park 96 15 

Total 131 96 18 

Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier. . 359 ... 8 

St. Mildred's, Laurel 130 21 6 

Holy Redeemer, Berwjn . 130 ... 5 
St. Mary's, 

Upper Marlboro 112 3 4 

La Salle Hall, 

Ammendale 69 7 

Total 731 93 30 

St. Mary's (Colored), 

Upper Marlboro 88 ... 2 

St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 130 50 7 

Little Flower, Great Mills 175 ... 4 

Holy Angels', AbeU 148 9 4 

St. John's, Hollywood. ... 146 ... 4 

St. Joseph's, Morganza. . . 145 ... 4 

St. Michael's, Ridge 94 37 4 

Sacred Heart, Bushwood . 80 ... 3 

Our Lady, Medley's Neck 72 ... 2 
Leonard Hall, 

Leonardtown 28 40 5 

St. David's, 

St. Mary's City 45 ... 2 

Total 1,063 136 39 



County and School 



St. Mary's — Cont. 
St. Peter Clavers, 

(Colored), Ridge. . . 
Cardinal Gibbons 

Institute (Colored) . 
St. Joseph's (Colored), 

Morganza 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary com- ers 
mercial 



Washington 

St. Mary's, Hagerstown. 



126 
35 



87 



330 



75 



10 



Total County White 

Catholic Schools 9,309 1,427 379 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools .... 583 75 25 

Baltimore City 

Seton High School 1,055 37 

Institute of Notre Dame . 317 332 18 

Mt. St. Joseph's 42 406 25 

Calyert HaU 24 411 14 

Loyola 390 18 

Notre Dame of Marjdand 150 199 17 

Mt. St. Agnes' 198 145 23 

Visitation 10 5 7 

Private Schools for 

White Children 741 2,943 159 

White Parish Schools. .. .28,307 570 602 
Institutions for White 

Children 909 85 50 

Grand Total 29 , 957 3 , 598 811 

St. Francis' Academy 

(Colored) 44 18 5 

Colored Parish Schools ... 983 ... 19 
Institutions for Colored 

Children 189 ... 21 

Grand Total 1,216 18 45 

Total State 

White 39,266 5,025 1,190 

Colored 1,799 93 70 



284 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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No. OF Teaching Positions; Certification in White El. Schools 289 



TABLE XI 

White Elementary Teachersf Holding Various Grades of Certificates, October, 1932 



COUNTY 



WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS HOLDING 
CERTIFICATES OF THE FOLLOWING GRADES 



Total 



Number 



Per Cent 



Elementary 
Principal , Second j Third 
and First i 



I Elementary 
Principal 
and First 



Second 



Total 


2,784 


Alleganv 


265 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


164 


Baltimore 


366 


Calvert 


20 




59 


Carroll 


137 


Cecil 


90 


Charles 


40 


Dorchester 


90 


Frederick 


193 


Garrett 


126 


Harford 


123 


Howard 


58 


Kent 


45 


Montgomery 


185 


Prince George's. . . 


199 


Queen Anne's .... 


46 


St. Mary's 


34 


Somerset 


68 


Talbot 


50 


Washington 


273 


Wicomico 


92 


Worcester 


61 



J2 J04 

*****261 
*161 
****.366 
20 
59 

130 
***81 

38 
*86 
189 

126 
117 

56 
45 
181 

*198 
46 
32 
60 
49 

***9,59 



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100.0 
100.0 

94.9 
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95.0 
*95.6 
97.9 

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95.1 
96.6 

100.0 
97.8 

*99.5 
100.0 
94.1 
88.2 
98.0 

***94.9 
96.7 
90.2 



+ Excludes teachers in grade 7, and grades 7 and 8 of junior or senior-junior high schools. 
* Each asterisk (*) represents a teacher holding a high school certificate. 
t Includes 18 teachers holding high school certificates. 



290 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Ceirtification in One- & Two-Teacher Schools & in High Schools 291 



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Certification in Col. Schools; Average No. Belonging per Teacher 293 



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176 
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Harford 

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Kent 

Montgomery 

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St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



296 



1932 Report of State Department of Education 



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Teams and Entrants for Games and Girls' Relays, White Schools 297 



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VOLLEY 




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507 

279 
295 
321 

110 
168 
533 
481 

306 
285 
185 
214 

446 
741 

252 
377 

439 
369 
363 
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5,841.40 
2,225.50 
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Disbursements for White One- and Two-Teacher Schools 



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Costs, Teachers, Pupils and Courses ix Individual High Schools 315 















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INDEX 



A 

Absence : 

Causes of long, 28 
Colored schools, 152-154. 167, 285 
White elementary schools, 21-24, 28, 29, 
285 

White high schools, 87-89. 285 
Academic course, high schools, 167, 262, 

265, 314-319 
Administration and supervision : 
Administration, 252-254. 302-303 
Attendance officers. 254, 303 
Colored schools, 195, 198 
General control costs, 219-221, 224-225, 

302-303 
Higrh schools, 147, 149 
Superintendents, 3. 202, 252-254, 303 
Supervision, 83-85, 147, 149, 195. 198, 

220-222, 224, 228, 252-254. 304, 307. 

312 

Agriculture : 

Cost. 133, 141-142 

Enrollment in, 101-103, 107, 141-142, 169, 
320-325 

Failures in, and withdrawals, 111-113 
Salaries of teachers of, 133 
Schools having, 101-102, 114. 169, 320-325 
Teachers of, 114, 133 
Aid, State, Federal, and other. 7-12, 213- 

219, 275-277, 300-301 
Books and materials, 66-67, 137, 139, 141. 

224, 226, 300, 304 
Colored schools, 9-10, 183, 184, 187-188, 

275, 300, 314-319 
Equalization Fund, 7-8, 10-12, 66, 217- 

219, 246, 275. 300 
Extension courses, 10, 50-51, 275, 277, 300 
Federal, 141-142, 213. 226-228, 277, 300, 

314-319 

High schools, 9-10, 275. 300, 314-3i9 
Medical examinations, 10-11, 273 
Normal schools, 9-11, 200, 267-269. 275, 
277 

Part-payment of salaries, 8-10, 252. 275, 
300 

Retirement System, 8-10, 271-273, 275. 
305 

Rosenwald Fund, 183. 184, 187-188. 277, 
301 

State, 7-12. 141-142. 213-219. 226-228. 275. 

277, 300-301. 314-319 
Vocational education, 9-10, 141-142. 213. 

226-228. 275, 277, 300 
Vocational rehabilitation, 8, 10, 213, 275, 

277. 300 
Appropriations : 

County, 213-219, 240-243, 301 



A — (Continued) 

Appropriations — ( Cont'd) 

State, 7-12. 213-219, 226-228, 275, 277. 
300-301, 314-319 
Public school budget, 7-12 
Approved high schools, 127-128, 163-164, 
314-325 

Art, enrollment taking, 101, 104, 320-325 
Assessable basis : 

County. 243-246 

State, 7 
Athletics : 

Colored schools, 192-194, 298-299 

Expenditures for, 208-209 

White schools, 201-210, 295-297 
Attendance : 

Aggregate days of, 286 

By months, 23-24, 88, 153 

Cause for failure, 40-42 

Colored schools, 152-154, 164, 167, 285- 
286, 312-313. 314-319 

Elementary schools, white. 21-24, 28-30, 
285-286, 307-309 

High schools, white, 87-88, 285-286, 311, 
314-319 

Index of, 29-30 

Junior high schools, 285-286, 310 
Number in, 87-88, 154, 285. 307-313. 314- 
319 

Officers, 257, 270 

Per cent of, 21-23. 29, 88. 152-153, 167, 

285, 314-319 
Summary of, 285-286 
Summer school : 

Colored teachers, 171-172 
Elementary and high school pupils, 210- 
211 

White elementary teachers, 49-50 
White high school teachers, 115-117 
Auxiliary agencies, expenditures, and cost 
per pupil, 67-72, 139, 143-145, 146- 
147. 183-185, 220-221. 224. 226, 229- 
232. 307-309, 311-313 
Colored, 183-185. 312-313 
White elementary, 67-72, 224, 226, 229- 

232, 307-309 
White high, 139, 143-145. 146-147. 224. 
226. 311 

B 

Badge tests, entrants and winners : 

Colored, 192-193, 298 

White, 202-205, 295 
Baltimore City schools: 

Capital outlay, 78-79, 147, 148, 216. 221, 
235-236, 302, 306. 307. 310-313 

Colored, 169-170. 200, 210-212, 312-313 



Index 



327 



B — (Continued) 

Baltimore City Schools — (Cont'd) 

Enrollment, 19-20, 169-170. 279, 280-282 

Evening, 211-212. 305 

Expenditures, 215-219. 302-307. 310-313 

Special classes. 45-46 

Summer, 210-211, 305, 307, 311-313 

Vocational program, 214, 227-228 

Belonging, average number: 
By months, 23-24, 88, 153 
Colored schools, 153, 164, 166. 284. 312- 

313. 314-319 
Elementary schools, white, 23-24, 284, 

307-309 

High schools, white, 284, 311, 314-319 
Per teacher, 293 

Colored. 178-179. 293. 313 
White elementary. 57-59, 293 
White high, 131-132, 293 
Proportion in high school, 88-90. 166 
Board of Education, State, 2 
Bond issues, school, 236-237 
Bonds outstanding. 236-237 
Books and materials of instruction, ex- 
penditures, and cost per pupil, 219- 
220, 224, 226, 300, 304 
Colored. 312-313 

White elementary, 66-67, 224, 226. 307-309 
White high, 137-139, 141, 224, 226, 311 

Boys to girls : 

Graduates, 33-36, 91-94, 159-160, 168, 314- 
319 

In each grade, 31, 33, 157 
Non-promotions, 36-40, 109-113, 160-163, 
287 

Ratio in high schools, 90-91 

Budgets : 

County. 240-243, 301 
School. 7-12, 215-222 
State public school. 7-12 
Tax. 240-243 
Buildings : 
Cost. 234-236 

Colored schools. 185-188. 189-190. 234- 

236. 312-313 
White elementary, 67. 78-79. 234-236, 
307-309 

White high, 139, 147. 148. 234-236. 311 
Number of. 294 
Sanitary inspection of. 77 
Value of. 189-190, 237-240 

C 

Capital outlay, expenditures, and cost per 

pupil, 78-79. 216. 221-222, 234-236, 
302, 306 



C— (Continued) 

Capital Outlay— (Cont'd) 

Colored schools, 185-188. 234-236. 312-313 
White elementary schools. 67, 78-79, 234- 

236, 307-309 
White high schools, 139, 147, 148, 234- 

236, 311 

Causes of : 
Absence, 28 

Late entrance, 25-26, 154-155 

Non-promotions. 40-42. 161 

Resignations of teachers, 51-52, 117-118, 

120-121, 172-173 
Teacher turnover, 51-52, 118-119, 121-123, 

173- 175 

Withdrawals, 27-28, 156-157 
Census and Attendance Fund, 10, 275, 300 
Census, Federal, 1930, 13-18 
Certificates, 289-292 

Attendance officers, 257 
Elementary principals, 257 
Helping teachers. 257 
Medical examinations for. 256. 273 
Number issued. 255-258 
Provisional, 115, 255-256. 289-292 
Substitutes. 289-291 
Teachers in : 

Colored schools, 170-171, 292 

Non-public schools, 255 

White elementary schools, 47-49, 265- 

256, 289-290 
White high schools, 115, 133, 265-256, 
291 

Certification of teachers, 6, 255-258, 289- 
292 

Colored, 170-171, 292 

In non-public schools, 255 

Provisional, 115, 255-256, 289-292 

White elementary, 47-49. 255-256, 289-290 

White high, 115, 133, 255-256. 291 

Classes : 

Evening school. 211-212 
Size of. 293 

Colored. 178-179. 313 

White elementary, 57-59 

White high. 131-132 
Special. 43-46 

Clerks. 115. 303. 311 

Colleges : 

Attended for summer courses. 49-50. 116- 
117. 171-172 

Per cent of high school graduates enter- 
ing, 96-100, 169 

Maryland colleges, 97, 99, 100 

Training Maryland teachers, 99, 123-124. 

174- 175 



328 



Index 



C— (Continued) 

Colored schools, 150-200. 292. 298-299. 312- 
313 

Aid. 9-10. 183. 184. 187-188. 275. 277. 300 
Attendance, 152-154. 164. 167 
Baltimore City, 169-170, 200, 210-212 
Capital outlay. 185-188. 234-236. 312-313 
Cost per pupil in, 182-183 
Graduates of, 159-160 
Libraries, 184-185 
Men teachers in, 177, 288 
Neatness and cleanliness contests. ISS- 
189 

Non-promotions in, 160-163 
Normal school, 168. 198-200. 314-319 
Number enrolled, 150, 157-159, 284. 314- 
325 

Number of, 163, 190, 191, 192 
Parent-Teacher Associations. 194-195 
Physical education, 192-194, 298-299 
Rosenwald Fund, 183. 184, 187-188, 277, 
301 

Session, 151-152, 286 

Size of class, 178-179, 293, 313 

Size of, 190-192 

Supervision, 195, 198, 312 

Teachers, 170-171, 288, 312-313. 314-319 
Certification, 170-171, 292 
Experience, 175-177 
Resignations, 172-173 
Salaries, 179-181, 294. 312-313 
Summer school attendance. 171-172 
Turnover, 173-175 

Transportation of pupils, 183-184, 232-233 

Value of school property. 189-190, 237-240 
Commercial subjects : 

Enrollment taking, 101, 102, 103. 107-108. 
320-325 

Failures and withdrawals, 111-113 

Schools having, 114, 320-325 

Teachers of, 114 
Conferences, programs of 

Attendance officers, 254 

High school principals, 149 

Superintendents, 253-254 

Supervisors, 84, 149, 198 
Consolidation : 

Decrease in number of one-teacher 
schools, 80-82, 190-191 

Schools closed, 278 

Transportation of school children, 68-70, 
143-145. 183-184. 229-234 
Correspondence courses. 258 
Cost per pupil, 222-226 
Auxiliary agencies: 

White elementary, 67-72, 224. 226 
White high, 139, 143-145, 146-147, 224. 
226 



C — (Continued) 

Cost per Pupil— (Cont'd) 

Books and materials of instruction : 
White elementary, 66-67, 224, 226 
White high, 137. 139, 141, 224, 226 
By type of white elementary school, 77- 
78, 225 

Capital outlay: 

White elementary, 78 
White high, 139, 147-148 
Colored schools, 185-188, 225 
Current expenses, 65-72. 77-78. 137-141. 
143-147. 182-183. 222-226 
Elementary schools, white, 65-72, 

77-78, 222-226 
General control, 224-226 
Health activities : 

White elementary, 68, 71-72 
White high, 143, 146-147 
High schools, white, 137-141, 143-147. 

224. 226. 314-319 
Instruction : 

White elementary. 66-67. 224. 226 
White high, 138-141, 224, 226 
Libraries, 68. 70. 143. 145. 184-185 
Maintenance: 

White elementary. 66-68, 224. 226 
White high, 139, 141, 224, 226 
Normal schools : 
Colored, 200 
White, 267-269 
Operation and maintenance: 

White elementary. 66-67. 224. 226 
White high, 139. 141, 224. 226 
Salaries : 

White elementary, 66-67, 224. 226 
White high. 138-141. 224. 226 
Excluding Federal vocational aid, 
140-141 
Supervision, 66-67 
Transported, 229-232 
Colored, .183-184 
White elementai-y. 68-70 
White high. 143-145 
Costs (See also expenditures) : 

Buildings. 67. 78-79. 139. 147-148. 185-188. 

189-190. 234-236. 302. 306-313 
Colored schools, 182-183. 225. 275. 277. 
312-313 

Elementary schools, white. 65-72. 307-309 
Evening schools. 212-213. 305 
General control. 224-226. 302-303 
High schools, white, 137-147. 275, 311 
Junior high schools, 310 
Normal schools, 200. 267-269, 275-277 
Summer schools. 305. 307, 311-313 
Supervision, 220-222, 304, 307, 312 



Index 



329 



E — (Continued) 



C — (Continued) 



Costs (See also expenditures) — (Cont'd) 

Total current expenses, 215-226, 302-305. 
307-313 

Transportation, 68-70, 143-145, 183-184, 

229-232, 305 

Vocational education, 140-142, 226-228, 

275, 277 

County : 

Assessments, 236, 243-246 
Budgets. 240-243 
Tax rates, 246-247 
Courses : 

Extension, 50-51 

In high school, 101-110, 167. 314-319 
Current expenses, expenditures, and cost 

per pupil. 215-226. 302 
Colored schools, 182-183, 312-313 
White elementary schools. 65-72. 224-226. 

307-309 

White high schools. 137-147, 224-226. 311 



Dates, opening and closing of schools : 

Colored, 151 

White. 20 
Days in session. 286 

Colored schools, 151-152 

White schools. 20-21 
Debt service. 240-243. 246-247. 302. 306 
Dental clinics. 76-77 
Disbursements. 275-277. 302-313 
Distribution of expenditures. 219-222. 275- 
277. 302-313 

Colored schools. 312-313 

White schools. 307-311 
Division of school dollar, 219-222 



Elementary schools : 
Colored : 

Attendance, 152-154. 164. 167. 285-286. 
312 

Consolidation. 191-192 
Cost per pupil. 182-183. 225 
Enrollment. 150, 157-159. 279 
Expenditures. 312 
Graduates, 159-160 
Late entrants, 154-155 
Non-promotions, 161-163 
Number belonging, 150, 157-159, 284. 
312 

Number of teachers, 170-171, 288, 312 
Session in, 151-152, 286 
Size of class, 178-179, 293 
Teachers' certification. 170-171. 292 



Elementary schools : 
Colored — (Cont'd) 

Teachers' salaries. 179-181, 294. 312 

Withdrawals. 156-157 
White : 

Attendance, 21-24, 28-29, 285-286. 307- 
309 

Books and materials. 66-67. 224, 226 

Certification of teachers, 47-49. 289-290 

Consolidation. 80-82 

Cost per pupil. 65-72. 77-78, 224-226 

Enrollment. 19-20. 30-33. 279 

Expenditures. 68. 307-309 

Failures. 36-42. 287 

Graduates. 33-36 

Health program. 68, 71-77 

Late entrants. 25-26. 29 

Libraries. 68. 70-71. 226 

Men teachers. 64, 288 

Non-promotions, 36-42, 287 

Number belonging, 284, 307-309 

Number of. 80, 278 

Over-ageness, 36 

Pupil-teacher ratio, 57-59, 293 

Sessions, length of, 20-21 

Size of, 80-81 

Size of class in, 57-59. 293 

Special classes. 43-46 

Standard tests. 42-43 

Supervision, 66-67. 83-85, 307 

Teachers : 

Certification, 47-49, 255. 289-290 

Experience, 55-57 

Number of, 80-82. 288 

Resignations. 51-52 

Salaries. 59-64. 294. 307-309 

Summer school attendance. 49-50 

Turnover. 51-55 
Tests, 42-43 

Transportation, 68-70, 226, 229-234 
Withdrawals, 27-28, 29 

English : 

Enrollment taking, 101, 103. 109-110. 167. 
320-325 

Failures and withdrawals. 110-112 
Schools having. 101. 114. 320-325 
Teachers of. 113-114 
Enrollment, 19, 279 

By course, 167, 314-319 
By subject. 101-110. 167-169. 320-325 
By type of elementary school, 31, 33 
Colored, 150, 157-159. 164-166, 167-169. 

279. 314-325 
Elementary, white, 19-20, 30-33, 279 
Grade, 30-33, 157-159, 314-319 
High school, white, 30-32, 86-87, 101-110. 
136-137, 279 
Courses. 314-319 



330 



Index 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment — ( Cont'd ) 

High school white — (Cont'd) 

Subjects, 101-110, 320-325 

Years. 30-32, 109-110. 314-319 
Non-public schools, 19-20, 87, 150. 280-283 
Normal schools, 198, 200, 261-265 
Private and parochial schools, 19-20, 87, 

150. 280-283 
Public schools, 279 
Sximmer schools : 

Pupils, 170, 210-211 

Teachers, 49-50, 115-117. 171-172 
Total, 279 
Entrants : 

Athletic events : 

Colored, 192-194, 298-299 

White, 201-207. 295-297 
Colored : 

Late. 154-155 

Normal school. 168-169, 314-319 
White : 

College and normal school, 94-100 
Late. 25-26. 29 

Normal schools, 94-96, 314-319 
Equalization Fund, 5. 7-8. 10-12, 66, 141, 

217-219, 246. 275, 800 
Evening schools and courses, 211-213, 305 
Expenditures, 315-329 

Auxiliary agencies. 68-72. 143-147. 302. 

305. 307-313 
Capital outlay. 78-79. 147-148. 185-188. 

189-190, 234-236, 302, 306-313 
Colored schools, 312-313 
Current expenses. 215-219. 302-305, 307- 
313 

Debt service. 240-243. 246-247. 302, 306 
Distribution of, 219-222, 302-313 
Elementary schools, white, 65-79, 307-309 
Evening schools. 212-213. 305 
Extra-curricular activities, 195-197, 251- 
252 

Fixed charges, 302, 305 
General control, 302-303 
Health, 68. 71-72, 143, 146-147, 305 
High schools, white, 311 
Instruction and operation, 302, 304, 307- 
313 

Junior high schools, 310 
Libraries, 68, 70-71, 143, 145-146. 305 
Maintenance. 302. 305. 307-313 
Normal schools, 200. 267-269. 275-277 
Operation, 302, 304, 307-313 
Salaries, 59-64, 132-137, 303, 304, 307-313 
State Department of Education, 275-277 
Summer schools, 305, 307, 311-313 
Supervision, 304, 307, 311-313 
Transportation, 68-70, 143-145, 183-184, 
229-232, 305 



E — (Continued) 

Expenditures — (Cont'd ) 

Tuition to adjoining counties, 302, 306 
Vocational work, 140-142, 226-228. 275, 
277 

Experience of teachers. 55-57. 125-126. 175- 
177 

Extension courses, 50-51, 276 
Extra-curricular activities, 195-197, 249-252 

F 

Failures : 

By grade, 38, 40. 161-163, 287 

Causes, 40-42 

Colored schools. 160-163 

In high school subjects. 110-113 

White elementary schools 36-42 

Federal census 1930 : 

Families owning homes, 14 
Families reporting radio sets. 13 
Monthly rental for non-farm homes. 16- 
17 

Size of families, 17-18 

Value of owned non-farm homes, li^lS ' 

Financial statements : 
County. 300-313 
State, 275-277 

Financing extra-curricular activities, 195- 

197, 249-252 
Fixed charges, 302, 305 
French : 

Enrollment taking, 101-104, 106-107, 168. 
320-325 

Failures and withdrawals. 110-113 
Teachers of, 113-114 

G 

General control, 219-221. 223-226. 302-308 
General course, high school, 167. 314-319 

Grade or year : 
Number enrolled : 

Colored schools. 157-159, 814-325 

White schools, 30-33, 109-110, 814-326 
Promotions in. 

Colored schools, 161-163 

White elementary schools, 38, 40. 287 

Graduates : 
Colored : 

Elementary school, 159-161 
Entering nonnal school, 168-169, 314- 
319 

High school, 164, 168-169. 314-819 
Normal school, 198-199 
Occupations, 168, 169 



Index 



331 



G— (Continued) 

Graduates — (Cont'd) 
White: 

Elementary school, 33-36 
Entering normal school, 94-96, 261-265, 
314-319 

High school. 90-101, 314-319 ' 
Normal school. 258-261 
Occupations of high school, 96-101, 169 
Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries, 86-87, 136-137, 164-166 

H 

Handicapped children, aid for, 8, 10, 43, 
275 

Special education' for, 43-46 
Health : 

Colored schools. 188-189 
Cost: 

White elementary schools. 68, 71-72, 
307 

White high schools. 143, 146-147, 311 
State Department of. 72-77, 188 

Helping teacher certificates, 257 

High schools : 

Approved, 127-129, 163-164, 275, 314-325 
Colored : 

Attendance, 164, 167, 285-286, 313, 314- 
319 

Cost per pupil, 182-183. 313. 314-319 
Enrollment. 164-166, 167-169, 279. 314- 
325 

Expenditures. 165 

Graduates. 164. 167. 168. 169. 314-319 
Number belonging, 164. 284. 314-319 
Number of. 129. 163-164. 278, 314-319 
Ratio of high to total enrollment, 166 
Size of class, 178-179, 293. 313 
State aid. 9-10. 314-319 
Statistics of individual schools, 314-325 
Subjects taught. 167-169. 320-325 
Teachers' certification. 171, 292 
Teachers' salaries, 164-166. 179-181. 294, 
313 

Teachers in. 164-166, 190-192, 288. 313. 
314-319 

Junior. 115, 116, 117-119. 125-126. 310 
Junior-senior. 115, 116. 117-119. 125-126 

State aid to. 9-10 
White: 

Attendance, 87-89, 285-286, 311, 314-319 
Books and materials. 137. 141. 224-226 
Classes, size of. 131-132. 293 
Clerks. 115 

Cost per pupil. 137-141. 143-147, 224- 

226. 314-319 
Courses. 101-109. 314-319 
Distribution of. 127-129 



H — (Continued) 

High schools — (Cont'd) 
White: 

Enrollment. 30-32. 86-87. 101-110. 136- 
137. 279, 314-325 

Entering normal school, 94-96 

Expenditures, 311 

Failures, 110-113 

Graduates. 90-92, 314-319 

Growth in enrollment, teachers, sal- 
aries. 86-87, 136-137 

Libraries, 143, 145-146, 226 

Location, 127-129 

Men teaching in, 126-127, 288 

Number belonging, 284, 311, 314-319 

Number in each group, 127-129 

Number of, 127-129. 278 

Number offering subjects. 101. 114, 
320-325 

Occupations of graduates. 96-101 
Persistence to graduation. 92-94 
Promotions. 110-113 
Proportion of enrollment in. 88-90 
Ratio of boys to girls. 90-91 
Requirements for each group. 127 
Resignations of teachers. 117-118, 120- 
121 

Session, length of. 20, 286 
Size of classes. 131-132. 293 
Size of enrollment, 130-131 
Size of teaching staff. 128. 130 
Special subjects. 101-103, 107-109. 320- 
325 

State aid, 9-10, 141-142, 314-319 
Statistics, individual schools, 314-326 
Subjects available. 101-110. 320-326 
Supervision, 147. 149 
Teaching load. 131-132. 293 
Teachers, 113-115. 136-137, 288, 311, 
314-319 

Attending summer school, 115-117 

Certification, 115, 255-256. 291 

Experience. 125-126 

For each subject. 113-115 

Salaries. 132-137. 294, 311 

Turnover, 117-123 
Transportation, 143-145. 229-234 
Vocational work in. 101-104. 107. 140- 

142 

Withdrawals by subject. 110-113 

Holding power of schools. 30-33, 92-94, 
157-160, 314-319 

Home Economics : 
Cost, 140, 142 

Enrollment in. 101-103. 107, 142. 168- 

169. 320-325 
Schools having. 101-102. 114. 320-325 
Teachers of, 114 



332 



INDEJX 



I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 241-243 
Index of school attendance. 29-30 
Industrial courses, 101-103, 107, 114, 142, 

168-169. 320-325 
Instruction, expenditures, and cost per 
pupil, 219-222, 302, 304 
Colored schools, 312-313 
Normal schools, 200, 267-269 
White elementary schools, 66-67, 224, 226, 
307-309 

White high schools, 137-142, 224, 226, 311 
J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools : 
Expenditures in junior high schools, 310 
Teachers : 

Certification, 115, 292 

Experience, 125-126 

Resignations, 117-118 

Salaries, 133, 135, 310 

Turnover, 117-119 

K 

Kindergartens, enrollment in, 30-33 
L 

Languages in high school : 

Enrollment in, 101-104, 106-107, 168, 320- 
325 

Failures in, 110-113 

Teachers of, 113-114 
Late entrance, 25-26, 29, 154-155 
Latin : 

Enrollment taking, 101-104, 106-107, 168, 
320-325 

Failures and withdrawals, 110-113 

Teachers of, 113-114 
Legislation : 

County board members, 253 

Eaualization Fund, 5, 11 

Normal school charges, 9-11, 262 

Reduction of tax levies, 5, 12 

Retirement System, 8-10, 273 

Salaries. 8-9, 59-60. 134-135. 181. 252 

Supervisors, 8-10, 84 

Tax rates required, 5, 11-12 

Transportation, 11 
Length of session, 20-21, 151-152. 286 
Libraries, 305 

Colored schools, 184-185 

White elementary schools. 68, 70-71 

White high schools, 143, 145-146, 226 
Library Advisory Commission, 70-71, 146- 
146. 184-185 



M 

Maintenance, expenditures and cost per 

pupil, 219-222, 305 
Colored schools, 312-313 
White elementary schools, 66-68, 224-226, 

307-309 

White high schools, 139, 141. 224, 226. 
311 

Manual Training — See Industrial Arts 
Materials of instruction and books, ex- 
penditures and cost per pupil, 219- 
222, 224, 226, 304 
Colored, 312-313 

White elementary, 66-67, 224, 226, 307- 
309 

White high, 139. 141. 224, 226, 311 
Mathematics : 

Enrollment taking, 101, 103-105, 167-163. 
320-325 

Failures and withdrawals, 110-112 

Teachers of, 113-114 
Medical examinations : 

Pupils. 73-77, 207-208 

Teachers, 10-11, 256, 273 
Meetings — See conferences 
Membership — See number belonging 
Men teachers, 64, 126-127, 177. 288 
Monthly attendance, 23-24, 88, 153 
Music : 

Enrollment taking, 101-104, 107. 109. 169. 

320-825 
Teachers of, 114 

N 

Neatness and cleanliness contests in col- 
ored schools, 188-189 
New high schools, establishment of, 127- 

129, 163-164 
New positions, number of, 52-55. 118-119. 

121-123, 173-175 
Night schools, 211-213, 305 
Non-promotions : 

By grade. 38. 40, 161-163. 287 

Causes of, 40-42 

Colored schools, 160-163 

White elementary schools, 36-42. 287 

White high schools. 110-113 
Normal schools. 198-200 

Budget. 9-10 

Colored. 198-200 

Financial statement, 198-200. 267-269. 

275-276 
White. 258-270 

Costs, 267-269 

Course on oral hygiene, 77 

Enrollment, 261-266 

Entrants, 94-96. 262. 265-266, 314-819 



Index 



333 



N; — (Continued ) 

Normal schools — (Cont'd) 
White: 

Faculty. 266-267 
Graduates, 258-261 
Inventories, 270 
Physical education, 210 
Training centers, 267 
Withdrawals of juniors, 265-266 

Number belonging, 284 

Colored schools, 153, 164, 284, 312-313 
Elementary schools, white, 23-24, 284, 
807-309 

High schools, white, 284, 311, 314-319 
Per teacher, 57-59, 131-132, 178-179, 293, 
313 

Proportion in high school, 88-90, 166 

Number of: 

High schools, 127-129, 163-164, 278 
Schools by size, 80-82, 128, 130. 190-192, 

278. 314-319 
Schools having transportation. 233-234 
Supervisors, 83. 85, 149, 195, 197, 288 
Teachers in schools of each type, 288 
Colored, 164, 190-192 
White elementary, 80-82 
White high, 113-115, 128, 130, 136-137, 
314-319 

Nurses, county health, 72-74 

Nursing, occupation of graduates, 96-98, 

100, 168 

O 

Occupations of high school graduates, 94- 

101, 168-169 
One-teacher schools : 

Attendance, 21-28, 284, 285, 308 

Cost per pupil, 77-78 

Decrease in, 81-82, 190-191 

Enrollment, 31-33 

Expenditures, 308 

Graduates, 34 

Non-promotions, 38-40, 42 

Number of, 81-82, 190-191. 278 

Salaries, 60-63, 294, 308 

Size of class in, 57-59, 29, 293 

Teachers. 48, 55, 56-57, 289. 308 
Opening date of schools. 20, 151 
Operation expenditures and cost per pupil, 
219-222, 224. 226, 302, 304 

Colored schools, 312-313 

White elementary. 66-67. 224. 226, 307- 
309 

White high, 139, 141, 224, 226, 311 
Over-age pupils, reduction in, 36 



P 

Parent-teacher associations, 75, 194-195, 
247-249 

Parochial and private schools. 19-20, 87, 

150, 280-283 
Part-payment of salaries. 8, 10, 300 
Patrons' organizations — See parent-teacher 

associations 
Persistence to high school graduation, 92-94 
Physical Education. 10. 192-194, 201-210, 

295-299 

Activities. 192-194, 201-210, 295-299 
Badge tests, 192-193, 202-205. 295, 298 
Enrollment taking, 101-103, 107, 169, 320- 
325 

Playground Athletic League, 192-194, 
201-210, 295-299 

Teachers of, 114-115, 210 
Physical examinations : 

Pupils, 72-77, 207-208 

Teachers, 10-11, 256, 273 
Playground Athletic League: 

Activities, 192-194, 201-210, 295-299 

Administration, 208-210 

Appropriation, 10 

Expenditures, 208-210 
Preparation of teachers. 255-257. 289-292 

Colored, 170-171, 292 

White elementary schools, 47-49, 255-256, 
289-290 

White high schools. 115. 123-124. 255-256, 
291 

Principals of normal schools, 2, 266 
Private and parochial schools, 19-20, 87, 

150, 280-283 
Programs and conferences, 84, 149. 198, 

253-254 
Promotions : 

Colored schools, 160-163 

White elementary schools, 36-42, 287 

White high schools, 110-113 
Property : 

Valuation of county, 243-246 

Valuation of school, 189-190, 237-240 
Provisional certificates, 115, 171, 255-266, 

289-292 
Pupils: 

In non-public schools, 280-283 

In one-teacher schools. 81-82, 190-191, 

279, 284 
In public schools, 279, 284 
Per teacher, 293 

Colored, 178-179. 313 

White elementary, 57-59 

White high. 131-132 
Transported. 245-246 

Colored. 183-184 

White elementary. 69-70 

White high, 143-145 



334 



Index 



R 

Ratio of boys to girls in high school, 90-91 
Ratio of high school to total attendance 

and enrollment, 88-90, 166 
Receipts from : 
All sources, 301 

Extra-curricular activities, 195-197, 249- 
250. 252 

Federal Government. 140-142. 213, 226-228 
Rosenwald Fund, 183. 184. 187-188. 277. 
301 

State. 7-12. 213-219. 226-228. 300, 314-319 

State sources, 7-12 
Rehabilitation, vocational. 8. 10, 213-215 
Required length of session, 20-21. 151-152 
Resignations of teachers. 51-52. 117-118, 
120-121, 172-173 

Retardation : 

By grade, 38, 40, 160-163, 287 

Causes, 40-42, 161-162 

Colored schools, 160-163 

White elementary schools, 36-42, 287 

White high schools, 110-113 
Retirement System, Teachers', 2. 8, 10, 
270-273 

Rosenwald Fund, 183, 184, 187-188, 277. 301 
Rural schools, decrease in. 81-82. 190-191 

6 

Salaries : 

Legislation re. 8-9. 59-60, 134-135. 181. 
252 

Superintendents, 252, 303 
Teachers, 219-222, 294, 304 
Colored, 179-181, 312-313 
White elementary, 59-64. 307-309 
White high. 132-136. 311 
SalaiT cost per white pupil, 66-67, 138-141. 
224, 226 

Sanitary inspection of buildings, 77 
School bonds, 236-237 
School budgets, 7-12, 215-222, 240-243 
School or college attended by teachers new 

to the counties. 123-124. 174-175 
School tax dollar, 219-222 
School year, length of, 20-21, 151-152, 286 

Schools : 

Closed, 80-82, 190-191, 278 

Evening, 211-213, 305 

Having certain number of teachers : 
Colored, 190-192, 278 
White elementary, 80-82, 278 
White high, 128-130, 278, 314-319 

Normal, 198-200, 258-270 



S — (Continued) 

Schools— (Cont'd) 
Number of, 278 

Colored. 163. 190-192 
One-teacher, 80-82, 190-192 
White elementary, 80-82 
White high, 127-129 
Offering certain subjects, 101-110, 114. 

167-168, 320-325 
Open less than legal requirement, 20-21, 
151-152 

Parochial and private, 19-20, 87, 150, 
280-283 

Property, valuation of, 189-190, 287-240 
Size of, 80-82, 130-131, 190-192 
Summer : 

For pupils, 210-211 

For teachers, 49-50, 94-96, 171-172 
Transportation provided to, 233-2S4 
Science : 

Enrollment taking, 101, 103-106. 167-168. 
320-325 

Failures and withdrawals, 110-118 
Teachers of, 113-114 
Session, length of, 20-21, 151-152, 236 
Sex of teachers, 64, 126-127. 177. 288 
Size of: 

Classes, 293 

Colored. 178-179, 313 
White elementary, 57-59 
White high, 131-132 
Schools: 

Colored, 190-192 
White elementary, 80-82 
White high, 130-131, 314-319 
Smith-Hughes Act, 226 
Social Studies : 

Enrollment taking, 101, 103-104, 106, 

167-168, 320-325 
Failures and withdrawals, 110-113 
Teachers of, 114 
Special classes for handicapped, 8, 10, 43- 
46 

Special high school teachers, 114. 314-319 
Special subjects in high school, 101-104, 

107-109, 168-169, 320-325 
Standardized tests, 34, 42-43, 45 
State-aid, 7-12, 50-51, 66, 141-142, 213-219, 

246, 252, 267-269, 275-277. 300-301, 

314-319 

State Board of Education, 2, 275 
State Department of Education, 2. 10-11. 
275, 277 

State Department of Health, 72-77, 188-189 
State Public School Budget, 5, 7-12, 275. 
277 



Index 



335 



S — (Continued) 

Statistical tables, 278-325 

Index to. 274 
Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping: 

Enrollment taking, 101-103, 107-108, 320- 
325 

Failures and withdrawals, 110-113 
Teachers of, 114 

Subjects studied in high schools, 101-110, 
168-169. 320-325 

Summer school : 
Attendance : 

Colored teachers, 171-172 
Elementary and high school pupils, 
210-211 

White elementary teachers. 49-50 
White high school teachers, 115-117 
Cost. 305. 307. 311-313 
Course for certification. 257 
Pupils in. 210-211 
Summer schools attended by teachers, 49- 

50. 116-117. 171-172 
Superintendents. 3, 202. 252-254. 303 

Supervision : 

Colored, 195-198, 312-313 
Cost of, 66-67, 219-221. 224. 304. 307. 311- 
313 

White elementary. 66-67. 83-85. 257, 307 
White high. 147. 149. 311 

Supervisors, 3, 257. 288 
Activities, 83-85. 147. 149 
Colored, 195, 198. 288 
Conferences, 84, 147, 149. 198. 253-254 
Elementary school, white. 3. 66-67. 83-85, 

257. 288 
High school, 147, 149 
Quota, 83-84. 288 
Salaries. 305. 307. 311-313 

T 

Tables of statistics. 274. 278-325 

Taxable basis : 

For county purposes, 243-246 

For State purposes, 7 
Tax budgets, 240-243 
Tax rates, 7. 246-247 

Reduction of. 5 
Teacher-pupil ratio, 293 

Colored, 178-179, 313 

White elementai-y. 57-59 

White high, 131-132 

Teacher (s) : 

Attending summer school, 49-50. 115-117, 
171-172 



T — (Continued) 

Teacher(s I — ( Cont'd i 
Certification : 

Colored, 170-171, 292 

White elementary, 47-49. 255-256, 289- 
290 

White high. 115. 133, 255-256. 291 
White junior and junior-senior high, 
115, 292 

Changing type of position in county. 55 
Experience, 55-57. 125-126. 175-176 
Men, proportion of. 64. 126-127, 177, 288 
Number, 288 

For each high school subject, 113-115. 
314-319 

In schools of each type, 288 

Colored. 170-171. 190-192. 292. 312- 
313 

White elementary, 80-82. 289-290. 
307-309 

White high. 128, 130. 133-137. 311. 
314-319 
Total, 288 

Of certain high school subjects. 113-115 
Pupils per, 293 

Colored. 178-179, 313 

White elementary, 57-59 

White high, 131-132 
Resignation of, 51-52, 117-118, 120-121. 
172-173 

Retirement of, 51-52, 117-118. 120-121. 

172-173. 272 
Salaries. 294 

Colored, 179-181. 312-313 

White elementary, 59-64. 307-809 

White high. 132-136. 311 

White junior and junior-senior high. 
133, 135, 310 
Sex of, 64. 126-127, 177. 288 
Special, 114, 314-319 
Teaching load, 293 

Colored, 178-179, 313 

White elementary, 57-59 

White high, 131-132 
Training of. 289-292 

Colored, 170-171, 198-200. 292 

White elementary. 47-49. 255-270. 289- 
290 

White high. 115, 123-124, 255-258, 291 
Turnover of, 51-55. 118-119. 121-123, 173- 
175 

Teachers' Retirement System. 2. 8, 10 270- 
273 

Tests : 

Athletic badge : 

Colored. 192-193, 29S 

White, 202-205, 295 
Elementary school, 34, 42-43 
For handicapped children, 45 



336 



Index 



T — (Continued) 

Trade and industry, courses in, 101-103, 
107, 114. 142, 168-169, 320-325 

Training centers for normal schools, 199, 
267 

Training of teachers : 

At pai-ticular colleges, 123-124, 174-175 
Colored, 170-171, 198-200, 292 
White elementary, 47-49, 258-270, 289-290 
White high, 115, 123-124, 210, 255-258, 
291 

Transfer of teachers from county to county, 
52-55. 118, 119, 120, 122, 172-174 

Transportation of pupils, 229-234 
Aid for, 11 

Colored, 183-184, 232-233 

Cost, 68-70, 143-145. 183-184. 229-232. 305 

Per cent transported. 69-70. 144-145, 184, 

232-233 
White elementary, 68-70 
White high, 143-145 

Tuition to adjoining counties, 302, 306 

Turnover in teaching staff : 
Colored, 173-175 
White elementary, 51-55 
White high school, 118-119, 121-128 



V 

Value of : 

County assessable property, 243-246 
Property, 14-16 

School property, 189-190, 237-240 
Vocational rehabilitation, 8, 10, 213-215 
Vocational work : 

Agriculture, 101, 102, 103, 104. 107. 140- 

141. 142, 169, 320-325 
Cost of, 8, 140-142, 226-228, 275. 277 
Home economics. 101. 102, 103, 107, 140- 

141, 142, 169, 320-325 
Industrial courses, 101, 102, 103, 107, 140- 
141, 142, 320-325 
Vocations chosen by high school graduates, 
96-101. 169 

W 

White schools — See elementary schools. 

white, and see high schools, white 
Withdrawals of pupils : 
Colored, 156-157 

Normal school freshmen, 265-266 
White elementary, 27-28, 29 
White high, 109-113 

Y 

Year, length of, 20-21, 151-152, 286 

Years of experience, 55-57, 125-126, 175-176 



HOT COTUTE 




AUG 21 



a3 1 ^ 300 266 1 S20Sb 



OMIV. OF MO. COLLEGE PARK 




DO NOT CIRCULATE 



/ 

S9 lOTCiPr'^"''"